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Table of Content

    20 February 2020, Volume 40 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Studies and Writings on the History and Geography of Northwest China by Qing Scholars
    Shi Nianhai, Wang Shuanghuai
    2020, 40 (1):  1-17. 
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    After the outbreak of the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression in 1937, borderland issues became increasingly serious. Shi Nianhai and his tutor Gu Jiegang were concerned with the historical material of China's borderland issues, especially those of northwest China. They examined voluminous historical materials to write this article, so as to reveal the process of formation and historical variations of China's frontier, and to bolster the national spirit against Japanese aggression. Shi thought that as early as the period of Qianlong and Jiaqing of the Qing dynasty, scholars had studied the history and geography of northwest China. After that period, instability of the northeast borderland attracted the attention of even more scholars. They collected documents, wrote monographs, and recorded the imperial court's military attainments in the northwest as well as its conducts in frontier affairs with Russia. Their works are still of great value.

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    A Geographic Study of Epidemic Disasters in the Jiangnan Area in China (1912-1949)
    Gong Shengsheng, Shi Guoning, Li Zimo
    2020, 40 (1):  18-30. 
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    Epidemics have always been a great threat to people's health and life security throughout history. To analyze the temporal and spatial variation of epidemic disasters that occurred in the Jiangnan area during 1912-1949, we compiled a list of the epidemic data, and made use of different methods such as historical document review, mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis. The results show that: (1)The incidence rate of epidemics was 100% annually and 94.70% quarterly in the time interval. Autumn, summer and spring were usually epidemic seasons, especially in the autumn and summer time. The affected area enlarged year by year, but the fluctuation curve reflected that there were 6 peaks in 38 years. Considering a longer period, i.e. from the Ming Dynasty to the establishment of the People's Republic of China (582 years in total), the return period of epidemic disasters gradually shortened and the number of affected counties increased. It indicates that the epidemic severity in the study period was the highest in the Jiangnan's history. (2)The affected area of epidemics basically spreaded along the Grand Canal and the Nanjing-Shanghai-Hangzhou railway, and the area to their east. Suzhou-Wuxi area and a section of Shanghai adjacent to Suzhou were the hot spots of epidemic disasters, while the mountainous area of Western Zhejiang Province was rarely affected. (3)The general characteristics of epidemic disaster's distributions during 1912-1949 in the Jiangnan area indicate that the hot spots were usually the regions along transportation lines, with a higher population density, or lately suffered severe floods or droughts. Moreover, epidemics spread in plain areas more often and severe than in mountainous areas.

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    Dialectical Feedbacks of Disaster, Environment, and Charity: Case Study of Rural Social Security System Establishment in Zhili Province During the Reign of Emperor Qianlong
    Wang Daxue
    2020, 40 (1):  31-43. 
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    The reason caused Emperor Qianlong to establish a system of local public welfare granary was the failure of his grain policy. Unsatisfied with the Ever-Normal Granary System or the Community Granary System, he wanted to set up a Public Granary System to attract local storage of grain. The transition from dependence upon official granaries to civil granaries reflected Emperor Qianlong's policy being tightened. His method was to educate people rather than nourish people. Stability of the Zhili (the area surrounding the capital) Province was the priority to Emperor Qianlong and the Public Granary System brought out a good match between relief and regulation for him. Under the broader background of abolishing the Liuyang Zisong policy, the Public Granary System could bring a stable environment because it would reduce the number of refugees staying in the capital city. The setup of Liuyang Ju System meant a compromise and concession to reality for Emperor Qianlong. The distribution of Liuyang Ju was determined by accessibility and physical environment conditions. Overall, the scenario of policy shifts in the 13th year of Qianlong's reign and the establishment of the Public Granary System and the Liuyang Ju System in Zhili Province were the dialectical effects of disaster, environment, and charity taken together.

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    A Research on the Mountains and Rivers of He-Luo Region in the Chapter Zhongshan Jing of Shan Hai Jing
    Yang Xiaoyang
    2020, 40 (1):  44-62. 
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    The chapter Zhongshan Jing (Classic of the Mountains: Central) of Shan Hai Jing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) presented the mountains and rivers of He-Luo Region in detail, basically from the middle reaches of the Yellow River to the Luo River and the Yi River. The earliest pieces of Shan Hai Jing were thought to have appeared since as early as the pre-Qin period, and many placenames had been lost in Han and Wei dynasties. Generations of scholars consecutively studied the geography and toponomy of these areas, but the results were barely precise or satisfying. Usually, an incorrect location assigned to a mountain or a river would mislead the naming of its surrounding areas. On the basis of previous work and documents, this article presents seven explanations of mountain and river positions in the He-Luo area and discusses the environmental consciousness of people in the time of Shan Hai Jing.

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    On Huairui and Yuzhang: Reconstructing the Geography of the Battle of Wu Conquest of Ying
    Lei Chinhau
    2020, 40 (1):  63-82. 
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    Three contradictory theories have been proposed so far about the geography of the Battle of Wu Conquest of Ying in 506 BC. Combining paleographical sources, transmitted classics, and data collected from field trips, this article argues for a reinvestigation of this issue. Firstly, it probes into Huairei and Yuzhang, two controversial place names recorded in classical texts crucial for locating the war. Based on a precise understanding of place names, it reconstructs the geography of the battle by contextualizing it into the land and water transportation network in Central China. The result is explicit. The Wu State maneuvered its troops through the waterway of the Huai River during advancement and retreat, while land combats took place back and forth in the Suizao Corridor. As opposed to previous theories, this reconstruction of the war is not only textually solid but also topographically interconnected.

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    Research on Whether the Feishui Watershed and the Chaohu Watershed were Connected to Each Other from the Wei to the Southern and Northern Dynasties
    Ren Chaoyi
    2020, 40 (1):  83-95. 
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    Whether there was a water that connects the Feishui watershed with the Chaohu watershed during the period from the Wei to the Southern and Northern dynasties is a contentious question. Shui Jing Zhu recorded that more than one channel existed between the two watersheds, which seemed highly convincing. For centuries people believed in that description without carefully inspecting the source material. After literature reviews and analyses on official histories, geographical classics, ancient maps, and local chronicles, as well as field studies, I refute the idea from Shui Jing Zhu and argue that the Feishui watershed and the Chaohu watershed were totally separated from each other in this period.

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    Multiple Perspectives on Document and Fieldwork: Studies on the Investigation of the Location of Counties in the Middle Ages Using Changzhou and Jingnan as Examples
    Lan Yong
    2020, 40 (1):  96-108. 
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    Taking the change of location of the capital of Changzhou prefecture and administrative area of the Jingnan county in Tang dynasty as examples, this study points out that researchers should make use of historical documents from multiple perspectives in locating counties in the Middle Ages. We find that the position of Jingnan county in Tang dynasty is at the Taihe dam of Zhangjia dam, in Gaosheng town of Dazu county, which was called Jingnan dam and 50 miles west of Dazu county, other than Longshui town or Sanxi town in Dazu counry. The capital of Changzhou prefecture was firstly set in Changyuan county in 758, and then to Rongchang county in 769, and eventually in Jingnan county in 892. We also find that in order to ensure the reliability of research, one must make use of local historical memory, actual geographical situation and cultural relics to correct historical documents, because historical researches are prone to four types of inaccuracies, namely the sensibility of mileage calculation, the rigidity of azimuth coordinates, the fuzziness of azimuth direction and the obvious simplification and derivation in geographical cognition of historical documents.

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    A Study on the Water Management Officials in the Tang and Five Dynasties as Seen in the Dunhuang Manuscripts
    Li Bingcheng
    2020, 40 (1):  109-119. 
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    Many records are preserved in the Dunhuang Manuscripts concerning the hierarchy of officials in local water resources departments and their duties in the Tang and Five Dynasties. The Highest-ranking official was Dushuiling in Early Tang dynasty, whose job was to manage all the irrigation canals in Dunhuang. Shuiguan and Irrigation Supervisory Institutions were set up during the period of Tubo domination. By the time of Guiyi Troop in Late Tang and Five Dynasties, the irrigation organization was established. The senior official was called Duquboshi, who has several subordinates named Shuiguan. On the edges of Dunhuang Oasis and in the irrigation area of Shouchang, many positions were set for Pingshui, and their job was to fairly allocate water resource for the people. There were also Qutou (Ditch officers)appointed for each irrigation canal and Doumenzhang for each sluice gate. Different ranks of officials in this water resources system coordinated and collaborated with each other to guarantee smooth operation of the farmland irrigating work. At the same time, civil organizations such as the Quren Community were formed, which served as a useful supplement to the irrigation management system in Dunhuang. Study on this water management system in the history is enlightening for governing and managing the rivers and lakes today as it provides a reference for today's River Chief System.

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    A Study on Cutting and Merging of administrative Units in Late Qing and Early Republic of China
    Gao Maobing
    2020, 40 (1):  120-136. 
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    In late Qing Dynasty, different levels of judicial bureaus were founded throughout China. To avoid duty conflict and to raise required funds, Jiangsu Province took the lead in cutting and merging administrative units at the level of Zhou (prefecture) and Xian (county). The saved funds and redundant government officers were utilized to set up judicial bureaus elsewhere. There was another administrative level called Fu, which was comparable to Zhou and one level higher than Xian. In most cases, the Xian administration was cancelled and merged with that of the Fu, or merged into another same-level Xian. After the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, the measure continued in the southern provinces, but the methods changed. After Hua Yi Ling was promulgated, the Fu was either downgraded to Xian or cancelled while its subsidiary Xian remained. Measures were also taken to set both Zhou/Fu and Xian governments in a same city. From late Qing Dynasty to early Republic of China, the scale and range of such adjustments for local governments kept expanding and were extended beyond Jiangsu Province to the whole country.

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    A Study on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Trading Network (1884-1939)
    Ma Huan
    2020, 40 (1):  137-144. 
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    During modern period, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a remarkable commodity in the trading pattern of modern Chinese history, played a critical role in the economic interaction between the port foreland and hinterland. The TCM trading network is important for understanding the circulation history, but all-around knowledge of the flow of TCM in the treaty ports has been hindered due to the lack of data for a long period. This paper sees TCM as a unique case to illustrate how the TCM trading network were constructed during the modern China period to meet the mandate of economic systems by looking at various imports and exports data in the List of Chinese Medicines and others'. It shows that the evolution of the inter-port trade pattern of TCM is closely related to the change in the spatial process of opening ports in commercial ports. From the end of the 19th century to the 1920s, the inter-port trade network of the TCM showed a gradually intensifying situation. The TCM trading network was severely destroyed after 1927 due to the civil war. On the other hand, in the international trade of TCM, trading networks extended to Europe and the U.S.A.

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    Corresponding Cities and Place Names with Salt Resources in Tang Dynasty Which Recorded in The Resources of the World (Hudud Al-Alam) as Bughshur
    Wang Changming
    2020, 40 (1):  145-152. 
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    The Middle Persian (pahlavi) geographical book The Regions of the World (Hudud al-alam) records two important salt resources both named Bughshur in Tang dynasty based on regional differentiation. The former lies in the drainage area of the Upper Yangtze River, the latter lies in the drainage area of the Yellow River. We could identify the former as salt well named Fuyi near prefecture Lu in the region of Jiannan Dao, the latter as salt lake near the prefecture Hezhong in the region of Hedong Dao. There is a hall in the city of Hezhong which bears the name “Lü sha” (Persian as “rusa”), and means scarf in English. Based on literature study, we can conclude there was a Persian man Li Jingshen, wore scarf in hall occasionally, who had been a leader of local militia for almost twenty years. With his assistance, Persian merchants came to Hezhong to attend to the state monopoly of Hezhong crystal salt.

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