Table of Content

    20 August 2023, Volume 43 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
    Spatio-temporal Changes of the Prefecture and County Tiers in Tang Dynasty and Their Geographical Significances
    Gong Shengsheng, Xiao Kemei
    2023, 43 (3):  8-30. 
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    The tiers of prefectures and counties are important indicators that reflect their political status, population and economic importance. By using historical quantitative analysis and GIS analysis methods, this paper unpacks the spatiotemporal changes of 339 prefectures and 1 607 counties in Tang Dynasty. The results show that: (1) The number of prefecture tier Fu (府), Fu (辅), Xiong (雄) and county tier Chi (赤), Ji (畿), Ci-Chi (次赤) and Ci-Ji (次畿) was relatively stable in Tang Dynasty, while the number of Shang (上), Zhong (中), Xia (下) prefectures and counties changed drastically. In the late Tang Dynasty, the number of upgraded prefectures and counties was more than that of degraded prefectures and counties, with the most significant hierarchical change took place from Kaiyuan (713-741) to Yuanhe (806-820). (2) The spatio-temporal changes of prefectures and counties in Tang Dynasty was “high in the north and low in the south”. Guanzhong Plain was the highest area in the prefecture and county level. The temporal change was “falling in the north and rising in the south”. The Plain of Hubei and Hunan, Poyang Lake Plain and Taihu Plain in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River rose most significantly. (3) The tiers of prefectures and counties in the vicinity of the capital of the Tang Dynasty were most affected by political factors, while the tiers of the frontier fortresses and traffic throats were most affected by military factors. Other prefectures’ and counties’ tiers were mainly affected by economic factors, especially population size. (4) The spatio-temporal changes of the tiers of prefectures and counties in Tang Dynasty reflected the eastward and southward movement of the national political, demographic, urban and economic centers after the An-Shi Rebellion in the middle of the Tang Dynasty.

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    Garrison Controlled by Government: Evolution of Military-Civilian Government System in Ming Dynasty
    Ma Chujie
    2023, 43 (3):  31-41. 
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    The military-civilian government system was a key strategy employed by the central government to manage the ethnic frontiers during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. The system was particularly prevalent in the southwest, where it was implemented for over half a millennium. The Ming Dynasty saw the system mature and adapt to the realities of the border areas, building on the foundation laid by the Yuan Dynasty. During the mid to late period of Ming Dynasty, six new military-civilian governments named Yongchang, Liping, Zunyi, Pingyue, Guiyang, and Anshun were established. These governments disrupted the tradition that local officials manage the local people and transformed the relationship between the government and the frontier guards. The evolution of the military-civilian government system in Ming Dynasty was shaped by various stakeholders, including the frontier guards, the Bingbei Dao (regional military command), and the chieftain. These factors contributed to the maintenance of military and political order in southwestern China and ultimately contributed to the creation of a new politico-geographical pattern.

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    Writing of Chieftain in Ming Shi and Tuguan System under Xifan Territory Division in Ming Dynasty
    Zou Libo
    2023, 43 (3):  42-52. 
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    Ming Shi for the first time included biographies of chieftains in the official history, but selectively classified some of Xifan (西番) Tuguan (土官) as chieftains in Ming Dynasty. When compilers such as Wan Sitong (万斯同) and Wang Hongxu (王鸿绪) revised manuscripts in the early Qing Dynasty, they were deeply influenced by the historical records since the middle of the Ming Dynasty on Xifan territorial affiliation. These records were direct reflection of the inheritance and adjustment of administrative region in Yuan Dynasty during the establishment of the Xifan political system in the early Ming Dynasty. Jimi Tuguan were excluded from the ranks of chieftains by the compilers. Due to the differences in local political practices in the early Ming Dynasty, Xifan Tuguan under the jurisdiction of Dusiwei (都司卫) in Shaanxi and Sichuan were included in different military and political management systems, which became the deep-seated reason for defining Xifan chieftains in officially compiled historical books of early Qing Dynasty. By the late Ming, the territorial governance of Xifan gradually broke down. The spatial distribution of chieftains and their territories as recognized by the contemporaries accordingly changed. The generation process of the chieftain conception complements the study of institutional history. Investigation on the use of historical concepts needs to be more attentive on the context of historical documents and the process of local political practice in different regions.

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    The Formation and Composition of Administrative Divisions in the West Part of Jilin Province in Qing Dynasty
    Xie Changlong
    2023, 43 (3):  53-71. 
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    Administrative divisions, namely Fu, Ting, Zhou and Xian, were established in the west part of Jilin mainly after 1906, based on domestic political reformations on the system of eight-banner garrisons. Large amount of newly established administrative divisions within the short time led to the unusual equivalence between Fu-level and Xian-level divisions. As a result, the boundaries between administrative divisions remained the same as margin zones between regions of eight-banners garrisons before 1907, most of which were referring to mountains or rivers. After that, delimitation and alternation moved boundaries away from existing frontiers. As to provincial boundaries in the western part of Jilin, their continuous changes were related to the development of lands near the boundary, and changes of the land ownership afterwards. By the third year of reign of Xuantong, boundaries between administrative divisions in the western part of Jilin were mainly natural boundaries, complemented with a minority group of man-made objects. However, among the boundaries inside Jilin Province, most of the newly settled ones were formed by the border of settlements.

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    Spatial Patterns of Prefectural Land and Labor Tax and State Governance in Qing Dynasty
    Guo Yongqin, Yuan Linxi
    2023, 43 (3):  72-84. 
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    This paper compiles panel data on prefectural land and labor tax for the years 1717, 1748, 1784, and 1820 based on historical data, and uses geographic information system to analyze its spatially divergent patterns. The spatial panel model is used to explore the role of topographic factors on these characteristics. The results show that: (1) The distribution of land and labor tax is significantly limited by altitude, and the high tax distribution is all located below 600 meters above the sea level. (2) There was a significant positive spatial correlation of land and labor tax. The local Moran index showed an uneven development pattern. High-high clustering mainly in eastern China and low-low clustering mostly in western and southwestern China. The gravity model shows that the formation of a spatially positive autocorrelation pattern of taxes is most influenced by the agglomeration effect of the Yangtze River Delta region, as well as some northern provinces. (3) Spatial panel regression results show that population is positively correlated with land and labor tax, and altitude and slope are negatively correlated with it. (4) The influence of topographic factors on tax amount distribution gradually decreased, while the influence of governance factors gradually increased.

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    On Nature Rhythm and the Tide-Watching Custom in Jiangnan
    Zuo Peng
    2023, 43 (3):  85-98. 
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    There used to be the tide watching custom, locally dubbed as the “August 18th tide birthday”, around the estuaries and tributaries of the Yangtze, Qiantang, Wusong, Loujiang and Huangpu River. The rise or fall of this custom was closely related to the unobstructed or blocked of those rivers. The tide watching custom originated in Qujiang in Guangling (now Yangzhou), and the most famous is the Qiantang tide. Tide watching had become an entertaining folk festival in Tang and Song dynasties. The lore of “tide birthday” appeared and spread among the people in the Jiangnan area after the Yuan Dynasty, and there were sacrificing ceremonies as well. However, the adoration of “Tide God” along the Qiantang River was rarely seen in other places, indicating the different impacts of tide on the local society, and the local adaption of man-land relationship in this area.

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    Spatial Distribution, Types and Environmental Background of Paleolithic Sites in Northeast China
    Zhang Pengbo, Wang Miaofa
    2023, 43 (3):  99-114. 
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    Analysis on the spatio-temporal changes and types of 229 Paleolithic sites in Northeast China shows that, the early sites were distributed sparsely in the foothills of Qianshan Mountain and the eastern Songnen Plain, with about 57.1% of them located at less than 200 meters above the sea level. The ruins type was predominatly mountain and hillock platform type. In the middle period, the sites were mainly distributed on both banks of rivers and streams in the eastern mountains. About 58.8% of the sites were in the area between 200-400 meters above the sea level, and the type of the sites was mainly river valley terrace type. The distribution of the late sites basically extended to as far as half of the Northeast, especially in the middle and lower reaches of Nenjiang River, the lower reaches of Liaohe River, the foothills of Qianshan Mountain,the lower reaches of Mudan River, the upper reaches of Muling River, Buerhatong River basin, Suifenhe River basin and other regions. About 49.4% of ruins were located in the area between 200-400 meters above the sea level, and the type of ruins was mainly valley terrace type. A few were hillock platform type or mountain hilly type. The spatial distribution of the ruins gradually expanded from the southeast to the northwest and from low altitude to high altitude. This change may be the result of diversified strategies such as improving stone tools technology, maintaining high mobility, changing hunting methods, and strengthening resource utilization so as to adapt to climate and environmental changes.

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    Illicit Surveying of Southeast Tibet by the British in the 19th Century and Its Implications-Focus on the River System
    Huo Renlong
    2023, 43 (3):  115-129. 
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    Throughout the 19th century, the British dispatched surveyors, spies, and frontier officials to conduct large-scale illicit surveying and mapping, with a focus on the river system, in Southeast Tibet. By the end of the century, geographical knowledge of the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and its main tributaries had gradually improved. Information about the primary and secondary relationships, downstream flow direction, course, and source of the Chayu, Dihang, and Subansiri rivers helped to fill many gaps on the world map, and the knowledge of the river system in this area was formed. Simultaneously, the surveying and mapping activities during this period also provided much needed geographical knowledge facilitated the British invasion of the Tibetan territory and served as an important means of colonial territorial expansion.

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    The Qing-France Negotiations: A Brief Introduction to the Maps and Treaty on the Boundary Between Yunnan Province and Vietnam Collected in the Taipei Palace Museum
    Chen Weixin
    2023, 43 (3):  130-148. 
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    The boundary demarcation between Qing and Vietnam governments had not been conducted until the 11th year of the Guangxu Reign (1885), after the Ten Treaties Between Qing and French Government on Vietnam was signed. In the following decade, the Qing government negotiated with French officials on demarcation issues. After long lasting seesaw debates, they signed memoranda relative to Sino-Vietnamese border survey in Yunnan, accompanied by corresponding border maps. Zhou Derun, Cen yuying dispatched by the Qing court joined their French counterparts Auguste Gérard, Charles Dillon as border survey officials. The treaty, boundary maps and related files collected in the Taipei Palace Museum are important materials for the recovery of the boundary negotiations.

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