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  • Ma Chujie
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 31-41.

    The military-civilian government system was a key strategy employed by the central government to manage the ethnic frontiers during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. The system was particularly prevalent in the southwest, where it was implemented for over half a millennium. The Ming Dynasty saw the system mature and adapt to the realities of the border areas, building on the foundation laid by the Yuan Dynasty. During the mid to late period of Ming Dynasty, six new military-civilian governments named Yongchang, Liping, Zunyi, Pingyue, Guiyang, and Anshun were established. These governments disrupted the tradition that local officials manage the local people and transformed the relationship between the government and the frontier guards. The evolution of the military-civilian government system in Ming Dynasty was shaped by various stakeholders, including the frontier guards, the Bingbei Dao (regional military command), and the chieftain. These factors contributed to the maintenance of military and political order in southwestern China and ultimately contributed to the creation of a new politico-geographical pattern.

  • Gong Shengsheng, Xiao Kemei
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 8-30.

    The tiers of prefectures and counties are important indicators that reflect their political status, population and economic importance. By using historical quantitative analysis and GIS analysis methods, this paper unpacks the spatiotemporal changes of 339 prefectures and 1 607 counties in Tang Dynasty. The results show that: (1) The number of prefecture tier Fu (府), Fu (辅), Xiong (雄) and county tier Chi (赤), Ji (畿), Ci-Chi (次赤) and Ci-Ji (次畿) was relatively stable in Tang Dynasty, while the number of Shang (上), Zhong (中), Xia (下) prefectures and counties changed drastically. In the late Tang Dynasty, the number of upgraded prefectures and counties was more than that of degraded prefectures and counties, with the most significant hierarchical change took place from Kaiyuan (713-741) to Yuanhe (806-820). (2) The spatio-temporal changes of prefectures and counties in Tang Dynasty was “high in the north and low in the south”. Guanzhong Plain was the highest area in the prefecture and county level. The temporal change was “falling in the north and rising in the south”. The Plain of Hubei and Hunan, Poyang Lake Plain and Taihu Plain in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River rose most significantly. (3) The tiers of prefectures and counties in the vicinity of the capital of the Tang Dynasty were most affected by political factors, while the tiers of the frontier fortresses and traffic throats were most affected by military factors. Other prefectures’ and counties’ tiers were mainly affected by economic factors, especially population size. (4) The spatio-temporal changes of the tiers of prefectures and counties in Tang Dynasty reflected the eastward and southward movement of the national political, demographic, urban and economic centers after the An-Shi Rebellion in the middle of the Tang Dynasty.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 1-7.
  • Zhang Pengbo, Wang Miaofa
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 99-114.

    Analysis on the spatio-temporal changes and types of 229 Paleolithic sites in Northeast China shows that, the early sites were distributed sparsely in the foothills of Qianshan Mountain and the eastern Songnen Plain, with about 57.1% of them located at less than 200 meters above the sea level. The ruins type was predominatly mountain and hillock platform type. In the middle period, the sites were mainly distributed on both banks of rivers and streams in the eastern mountains. About 58.8% of the sites were in the area between 200-400 meters above the sea level, and the type of the sites was mainly river valley terrace type. The distribution of the late sites basically extended to as far as half of the Northeast, especially in the middle and lower reaches of Nenjiang River, the lower reaches of Liaohe River, the foothills of Qianshan Mountain,the lower reaches of Mudan River, the upper reaches of Muling River, Buerhatong River basin, Suifenhe River basin and other regions. About 49.4% of ruins were located in the area between 200-400 meters above the sea level, and the type of ruins was mainly valley terrace type. A few were hillock platform type or mountain hilly type. The spatial distribution of the ruins gradually expanded from the southeast to the northwest and from low altitude to high altitude. This change may be the result of diversified strategies such as improving stone tools technology, maintaining high mobility, changing hunting methods, and strengthening resource utilization so as to adapt to climate and environmental changes.

  • Xie Changlong
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 53-71.

    Administrative divisions, namely Fu, Ting, Zhou and Xian, were established in the west part of Jilin mainly after 1906, based on domestic political reformations on the system of eight-banner garrisons. Large amount of newly established administrative divisions within the short time led to the unusual equivalence between Fu-level and Xian-level divisions. As a result, the boundaries between administrative divisions remained the same as margin zones between regions of eight-banners garrisons before 1907, most of which were referring to mountains or rivers. After that, delimitation and alternation moved boundaries away from existing frontiers. As to provincial boundaries in the western part of Jilin, their continuous changes were related to the development of lands near the boundary, and changes of the land ownership afterwards. By the third year of reign of Xuantong, boundaries between administrative divisions in the western part of Jilin were mainly natural boundaries, complemented with a minority group of man-made objects. However, among the boundaries inside Jilin Province, most of the newly settled ones were formed by the border of settlements.

  • Lu Xiqi
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 1-19.

    There were two main paths for the exploration and understanding of sea tides in the Han-Tang period. The first was the empirical understanding from observations, mainly about the tide level and tide time. It was recognized that there existed a relationship between tidal changes and the contraction of the moon, based on which people designed the table to estimate the time of ebb and flow of tide. Another path was imagination and deduction: they put forward theories such as the heavenly river entering the sea, the sun entering the sea and generating tides, and the earth’s movement causing tides, etc. The former was empirical knowledge, coastal people with experience of marine life; and mainly came from and used by the latter was conceptual knowledge, mainly came from the intellectual elites. These two kinds of knowledge complemented with each other and together constituted the knowledge system of sea tides in the Han-Tang period.

  • Huo Renlong
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 115-129.

    Throughout the 19th century, the British dispatched surveyors, spies, and frontier officials to conduct large-scale illicit surveying and mapping, with a focus on the river system, in Southeast Tibet. By the end of the century, geographical knowledge of the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and its main tributaries had gradually improved. Information about the primary and secondary relationships, downstream flow direction, course, and source of the Chayu, Dihang, and Subansiri rivers helped to fill many gaps on the world map, and the knowledge of the river system in this area was formed. Simultaneously, the surveying and mapping activities during this period also provided much needed geographical knowledge facilitated the British invasion of the Tibetan territory and served as an important means of colonial territorial expansion.

  • Ma Wei
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 110-124.

    During the confrontation between the Northern Song and the Liao dynasties, the song army attached great importance to the northern border defense system of Hedong Lu. The defense line runs for more than 400 miles, along which a defense system with Daizhou as the center, and Fanshi and Guxian as the East and West wing respectively, has been formed. It mainly consists of citadels and fortresses and the aim is to deter the southward attacks through the Xiagu road of the Liao army. The fortresses are surrounded by defensive facilities such as square fields, protective forests, stone walls, ditches, and beacon towers. Taken together, they form a defense system integrating the functions of monitoring, reconnaissance, counter-attacking, military information transmission and so on. Horizontally, the distances between fortresses in different regions ranged from eight to seventy miles, with the majority at around thirty. Vertically, they rely on hinterland counties and towns, thus forming a three-tier defense system, which played a key role in the border defense system of the Northern Song Dynasty.

  • Jing Miaochun
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 20-33.

    The change of Dianshan Lake during the Song and Yuan dynasties are the result of the changes of hydrological environment in the east of the Taihu Lake. During the mid to late Northern Song Dynasty, Dianshan Lake was expanded due to crustal subsidence in the Dianmao (淀泖)region, the siltation of the Wusong River, and the accumulation of water in the pond, and the main flow of Dianshan Lake was discharged into the Wusong River along the northern ponds, forming a unique overflow hydraulic system between the Wusong River, the ponds along the river and Dianshan Lake. During the Southern Song Dynasty, the drainage pattern of Taihu Lake was southeast and northeast, influenced by the continuous siltation of the Wusong River, and the clear water and tidal water were permanently supported by each other in the northeastern waters of Dianshan Lake, resulting in the spread of siltation and the expansion of polder. The backwater of Dianshan Lake, which has been blocked from flowing northward, gradually develops towards the southeast. During the Yuan Dynasty, the main stem of the Wusong River continued to silt up, the amount of water coming into Dianshan Lake continued to increase. However, with the blockage of the outlet of Dianmao in the northeast pond and the construction of the southeast pond, the water was stagnant in the Mao area, including Dianshan Lake, causing a stagnant catchment area and a second expansion of Dianshan Lake.

  • Fan Rusen, Li Yanyan
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 96-109.

    During the period of the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, Suiyuan, which was located in the western part of the Northern Agricultural Pastoral Ecotone, underwent diversified changes in its industrial structure in response to changes in the situation at home and abroad. Diversification became a prominent feature of local economic geography. By the 1930s, it was mainly reflected in the non-local primary industries of agriculture, industry, commerce and transportation, which infiltrated, superimposed and transformed with the local native nomadic economy into a modernity and diversified regional economic system. Before that, it could only be called piecemeal changes, rather than full scale changes. Thereafter, Suiyuan had evolved from a nomadic landscape of cattle and sheep throughout the territory in the early Qing Dynasty, to a new pattern of diversified industries in the late Republic of China, which was characterized by pastoral farming, numerous industrial enterprises, prosperous domestic and foreign trade, and interlaced roads and railways. It had become a common home for Mongolian and Han peoples with a prosperous regional economic and harmonious inter-ethnicity relations.

  • Zou Libo
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 42-52.

    Ming Shi for the first time included biographies of chieftains in the official history, but selectively classified some of Xifan (西番) Tuguan (土官) as chieftains in Ming Dynasty. When compilers such as Wan Sitong (万斯同) and Wang Hongxu (王鸿绪) revised manuscripts in the early Qing Dynasty, they were deeply influenced by the historical records since the middle of the Ming Dynasty on Xifan territorial affiliation. These records were direct reflection of the inheritance and adjustment of administrative region in Yuan Dynasty during the establishment of the Xifan political system in the early Ming Dynasty. Jimi Tuguan were excluded from the ranks of chieftains by the compilers. Due to the differences in local political practices in the early Ming Dynasty, Xifan Tuguan under the jurisdiction of Dusiwei (都司卫) in Shaanxi and Sichuan were included in different military and political management systems, which became the deep-seated reason for defining Xifan chieftains in officially compiled historical books of early Qing Dynasty. By the late Ming, the territorial governance of Xifan gradually broke down. The spatial distribution of chieftains and their territories as recognized by the contemporaries accordingly changed. The generation process of the chieftain conception complements the study of institutional history. Investigation on the use of historical concepts needs to be more attentive on the context of historical documents and the process of local political practice in different regions.

  • Zuo Peng
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 85-98.

    There used to be the tide watching custom, locally dubbed as the “August 18th tide birthday”, around the estuaries and tributaries of the Yangtze, Qiantang, Wusong, Loujiang and Huangpu River. The rise or fall of this custom was closely related to the unobstructed or blocked of those rivers. The tide watching custom originated in Qujiang in Guangling (now Yangzhou), and the most famous is the Qiantang tide. Tide watching had become an entertaining folk festival in Tang and Song dynasties. The lore of “tide birthday” appeared and spread among the people in the Jiangnan area after the Yuan Dynasty, and there were sacrificing ceremonies as well. However, the adoration of “Tide God” along the Qiantang River was rarely seen in other places, indicating the different impacts of tide on the local society, and the local adaption of man-land relationship in this area.

  • Guo Yongqin, Yuan Linxi
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 72-84.

    This paper compiles panel data on prefectural land and labor tax for the years 1717, 1748, 1784, and 1820 based on historical data, and uses geographic information system to analyze its spatially divergent patterns. The spatial panel model is used to explore the role of topographic factors on these characteristics. The results show that: (1) The distribution of land and labor tax is significantly limited by altitude, and the high tax distribution is all located below 600 meters above the sea level. (2) There was a significant positive spatial correlation of land and labor tax. The local Moran index showed an uneven development pattern. High-high clustering mainly in eastern China and low-low clustering mostly in western and southwestern China. The gravity model shows that the formation of a spatially positive autocorrelation pattern of taxes is most influenced by the agglomeration effect of the Yangtze River Delta region, as well as some northern provinces. (3) Spatial panel regression results show that population is positively correlated with land and labor tax, and altitude and slope are negatively correlated with it. (4) The influence of topographic factors on tax amount distribution gradually decreased, while the influence of governance factors gradually increased.

  • Yin Lingling, Luo Lijuan
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 1-16. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20230083

    In the Luoyang Basin during the Han, Wei, Sui, and Tang dynasties, the flow patterns of the Yi, Luo, Chan, and Jian rivers were closely related to their geological setting. The orientations of these rivers are predominantly determined by the underlying geological fault lines of the basin. The orientations of the Yi and Luo rivers are mainly determined by east-west and northeast-oriented fault lines, with the flow path of the Luo River primarily influenced by the Matun-Yanshi fault and the Yi River influenced by the Yiyang-Yanshi fault. Jian and Chan Rivers share simultaneous spatial similarities and transient transformation similarities, both following city site migrations, turning from being sectioned eastward during Han and Wei dynasties to falling back to the natural southward flow during Sui and Tang dynasties. Luo River exhibited a trend of continual northward transformation during Han, Wei, Sui, and Tang dynasties, while Yi River constantly extends eastward and southward. Over historical periods, the Yi and Luo rivers gradually separated north and south, with their confluence point shifting eastward. Unequal north-south subsidence and a northward tilt of the sedimentary center caused Luo River to migrate northward, while a central bulge and ‘two cut first base’complex fault depression caused Yi River to extend eastward and southward.

  • Tian Xuezhi, Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 73-86.

    “Refinement” is regarded as a prominent value orientation in the evolution of place names in historical China, but there is still a lack of clear cognition and definition of the connotation and category of “refinement” in the existing research. Based on the analysis of the “indecent” place names narrative in historical periods, this paper draws the following conclusions. The refinement of Chinese place names in historical periods can be generalized into several types which are guided by the Han people’s hierarchy of cultural value orientation, and embodied by the objects, orientation, paths and ways of refining. The objects that are to be refined include place names with negative, ominous or inelegant meanings. The orientations include auspiciousization, confucianization and poeticization of the old place names. The ways of refining include eleven ways under the leading of the two paths of retrieving the old name and establishing a new name. The refinement of place names reflects the ancients’ general cognition over “indecent” and the geographical infiltration and diffusion of the traditional cultural thoughts of the Han people while has its historical limitations. Therefore, the refinement of place names should be adapted to the three main functions of place names which are regional recognition, historical memory and cultural inheritance.

  • Luo Quan
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 133-143.

    The Qing government achived effective governance of the whole of Guizhou province by altering the native chieftain system into governmental appointed officials, establishing garrisons, county-level administrations and pioneering new frontiers, ending up the situation that all were wild beyond the settled line. This also rendered great changes in the patterns of military geography. The Qing government transformed the linear defense military mode of the Ming dynasty into a more ambitious “two-governor” system: one in Anshun to control the hinderland of Guizhou, and the other in Guiyang to manage the soldiers from the newly subdivided land. Both of the governors could mobilize the troops around the province. In addition, a generalship was set up in Zhenyuan to safeguard the eastern courier route and gain special control of the new land of Songtao, Taigong and Qingjiang. Generals of Weining, Guzhou and Anyi were also set up to manage the northwest, southeast and southwest, respectively. The new governance penetrated into countryside and achieved the goal of controlling the province as a whole.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 149-154.
  • Liu Guiqi
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 60-72.

    The Qing government promulgated the Act of Town-country Self-Government in 1909, which established the “town-country system” as the grass-roots autonomous divisions. Since then, with the disintegration of “Quasi-compound administrative districts pattern” which had been formed since the Qin and Han dynasties, the grass-roots divisions have entered the period of a unified and full-functional “Country-town system”. However, the initial practice of“town-country system” was not fully complied with rigid regulations. In Guangdong Province, where the grass-roots militias were prevalent, most of the grass-roots autonomous divisions followed the “County-district” mode rather than “Urban, town and country” system as defined in the act. The division and allocation of “District”actually originated from the local grass-roots military defense divisions “Tuan”. That is to say, the modern grass-roots autonomous divisions derive from the grass-roots militias corps. To a large extent, with the functions of public security defense, administrative management and quasi-autonomy, the grass-roots militia corps not only met the establishment requirements of the grass-roots autonomous divisions, but also the internal needs of Guangdong’s grass-roots social governance at that time.

  • Chen Weixin
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(3): 130-148.

    The boundary demarcation between Qing and Vietnam governments had not been conducted until the 11th year of the Guangxu Reign (1885), after the Ten Treaties Between Qing and French Government on Vietnam was signed. In the following decade, the Qing government negotiated with French officials on demarcation issues. After long lasting seesaw debates, they signed memoranda relative to Sino-Vietnamese border survey in Yunnan, accompanied by corresponding border maps. Zhou Derun, Cen yuying dispatched by the Qing court joined their French counterparts Auguste Gérard, Charles Dillon as border survey officials. The treaty, boundary maps and related files collected in the Taipei Palace Museum are important materials for the recovery of the boundary negotiations.

  • Zhang Sen, Yang Yuda
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 34-47.

    Super typhoons are one of the most severe natural disasters affecting China’s coastal areas. Relying on modern research results of typhoons, this paper uses historical local gazettes, archives, newspapers and other materials to deduct six indicators, including the wind scales, death toll, house damage, crop loss, official and public relief policy, and typhoon impact range, to develop a method for identifying super typhoons in the historical period. It is applied to reconstructing the super typhoon affecting Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai area from 1640-1949, and the results are in turn statistically tested against the records of super typhoons from 1950-2019. This study shows that this method is robust in identifying the super typhoon events in the historical period. The reconstructed sequence shows that an average of 2.3 super typhoons occurs every 10 years, and there are obvious fluctuations in its frequency, which are different from that of general typhoons.

  • Guo Hong, Zeng Shuya
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 48-59.

    The Bingbei Dao was an important military institution in the Ming Dynasty. During the Jiajing reign, in response to the transprovincial maneuvers of the “mineral thieves” in eastern Guangdong and the intrusion of Japanese pirates, the Shenwei Dao was set up in Pingyuan County in Southern Jiangxi. Later, Pingyuan County was transferred to Chaozhou-fu in Guangdong province. Accordingly, Shenwei Dao was transferred from “dual control” under the governors of Southern Jiangxi and Guangdong to exclusively under the Governor of Guangdong. As a result, Shenwei Dao’s seat was also moved from Pingyuan County to Huizhou-fu. After the stability of eastern Guangdong Province, Shenwei Dao was abolished in the period of Wanli. The changes of Shenwei Dao’s command, responsibility, jurisdiction, and residence was a typical case of Bingbei Daos in the middle to the late Ming Dynasty. The abolition and division adjustment of the Shenwei Dao also reflected the changes of the complex military situation in Lingdong region of Guangdong Province in the same period.

  • Hu Qiwei
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 87-95.

    During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the Huaihe River was captured by the Yellow River after the later altered its course. Consequently, a series of measures were taken to control the Yellow River and ensure transportation in the Grand Canal, such as “transport by the Yellow River”, “avoiding the Yellow River”, “sluicing sand with water” and “storing clear water against Yellow River”. But the second last strategy also led to the rise of the Yellow River riverbed. Drastic environmental changes happened in the border area between Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, and Anhui, resulting in the “inversion” of the farming system, namely rice agriculture gave way to dryland agriculture based on wheat and beans.

  • Qi Guang
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 125-132.

    By analyzing ten Mongolian language bylaws regarding large-scale military battue hunt issued by the Mongolian Alasha Qoshot Banner in 1829, this paper provides the historical background, modality, procedures, precautions, origins, and so forth of the military battue hunt and examines the correlations between military battue hunts, cavalry organization, and the geographical environment. The bylaw concerns not only the military battue hunt per se but also how the Qing warfare strategy that evolved as it involves the Mongol cavalry operating system. As the military battue hunt closely resembles the annihilation siege undertaken by the Modern Armored Division, the study is of particular importance to both military history and war studies.

  • Zhang Zhongyin
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(4): 144-146.

    In Jin Dynasty, Taokan(陶侃) served as the cishi of Jingzhou twice. During this period, the Jingzhou perfectual seat was never based in Mianyang(沔阳). By analyzing historical records, it is revealed that the related claims all mistook Mianyang for Dunyang.

  • Zhang Ye
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 17-31. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20230190

    During the Hongzhi Period, Bai Ang (白昂) dug the Kangji River, a new waterway in the east of Gaoyou Lake through farmland, thus an extensive lake field called ‘circle field’ (圈田) was created between the new river and the lake. It acted as a barrier of the canal to circumvent the dangers posed by the lake’s turbulent floods. In the period of Zhengde and Jiajing, changes in land cultivation along the lakeside and alterations in levy methods led to the disruption of canal infrastructure and organization, which resulted in a worse trend of canal siltation and lake water level rise. From Longqing to Wanli era, the canal embankment repeatedly breached, leading to different views among local elites and river officials regarding whether to retain the Kangji River and the circle fields or not. The former tried to consolidate the field as taxable assets, while the latter emphasized on the importance of the embankment. Finally, Wu Guifang rebuilt the Gaoyou canal and the old embankment. The Kangji River was abandoned. The submerged circle fields also lost their significance. The dynamic interplay between the lakeside fields in Gaoyou and the changes of the water environment, intertwining in the process of the reform of the tax and levy, jointly influenced the canal projects.

  • Wu Yiqun, Wang Xuehua
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 50-61. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20230149

    After the control of Xinjiang was restored, Qing Dynasty established the Kashgar Dao (喀什噶尔道) and Aksu Dao (阿克苏道) in the southern Xinjiang area in 1882, which was an important preparatory step for the Xinjiang Province and a concrete manifestation of continuous deepening of the national political system in the border regions. Subsequent territorial expansions and adjustments based on the basic concepts of ‘Liang Di Zhi Yi’(量地置邑) and ‘Zhi Guang Yi Xia’(治广以狭), were specific responses to the border defense crisis, territorial crisis and governance crisis in the administrative setting under the drastic changes of the current situation. This move highlighted the role of the political district setups in consolidating the border and perfecting grassroots governance, while laying the foundational framework of current administrative divisions in southern Xinjiang. Alongside the setting of ‘Zheng Qu Fen Deng’ (政区分等), there was a relatively mature system for the selection and appointment of officials, in order to maximize the achievement of local social governance on the ‘Ren Di Xiang Yi’ (人地相宜). Despite the clear lack of hierarchical grades in the newly established political district, they did not do so according to the rules, and the ‘Zheng Qu Fen Deng’ basically deviate from the selection of officials, which became the precursor of the national state and county ‘Ting Bu Xuan’(停部选) in 1908.

  • Zhu Guobing, Huang Yijun
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 38-49. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20220330

    The reasons for establishment and the setting process of the four Anfu Si Lu (安抚司路) located to ‘Hebei’ (the north of the Yellow River) during the Song Dynasty are still subject to debate. Through the perspective of historical political geography, this study traces the entire process of the formation of Hebei Four Anfusi Lu. It also draws from two clues of administrative division and organization to offer new interpretations and to enrich several historical details. The military administration of Hebei underwent a transition from generals guarding the borders in division during the reign of Emperor Taizu, to the deployment of Dubushu (field headquarter, 都部署) in Emperor Taizong’s era, to the deployment of three Dubushu in Emperor Zhenzong’s era. In the eighth year of Qingli under the reign of Emperor Renzong, the formal Hebei Four Anfushi (安抚使) established. Yet, the court did not adopt the proposal of establishing a Hebei Jinglue Anfushi (河北经略安抚使) in spite of the border crisis in the Qingli era. The frequent rebellion problems caused by arrogant soldiers and weak generals during the Qingli period were the fundamental reasons for the establishment of the clearly delineated Hebei Four Anfusi Lu.

  • Hou Yangfang
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 137-144. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20230066

    Based on Qing dynasty Shilu and historical accounts, as well as reports, photographs and maps from Chinese and foreign expeditions, this paper marks the first successful search in a century for the site of the Qianlong Westernmost Ji Gong Stele, which was located far beyond current borders, by pinpointing it and presenting the results promptly for repetitive examination by academics and society in the ‘Silk Road GIS’, and will also be included in the Qing Dynasty Atlas. This monument stands as an important symbol of the formation of the Qing Dynasty’s territory at its peak.

  • Ren Guilei
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 123-136. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20220078

    Feng Guifen, a thinker in the late Qing Dynasty, once designed a set of surveying and mapping methods in his masterpiece Protest from the Jiaobin Studio. It is based on the square grid style and centered on field surveying, and contains angle, distance and topographic surveying and mapping. It was effectively practiced in the field surveying work of Chuansha Ting and was also partially applied to the later surveying work of the Map of Jiangsu Province during the Tongzhi Reign. Feng Guifen’s not only inherited and integrated traditional Chinese map-making techniques, but also made improvement and innovation in order to meet practical needs. It reflects the pursuit and desire of the society for accurate maps, as well as the attempts and attention cast by the contemporaries onto advancing surveying and mapping technology. Underlying is a complex process of collision and fusion of Chinese and Western modes of knowledge, which offers a perspective for the study of the modernization and transformation of modern Chinese cartographic history.

  • Chang Zeyu
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 148-149. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20230164

    Modern scholars often speculate that Emperor Wu Jing once established the Guzhang County during the Yong’an period on the basis of Song Dynasty geographical records. But the relevant records in the Biography of Sun Quan in the Book of Wu of Records of Three Kingdoms (《三国志》) show that by the thirteenth year of Wu Emperor Chiwu, the Guzhang County had been established. Therefore, it can be inferred that Guzhang was abolished or ceased to exist no later than the first year of Baoding period, the final ruler of the Wu Dynasty.

  • Ma Jian
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 32-37. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20230028

    In the early Tang Dynasty, the seat of Lewen County (乐温县) was firstly set up at Linfeng, which located in the hills alongside the lower reaches of the Longxi River. Yong’an’s seat, on the other hand, was at Yangjiao Bao by the mouth of the river. The administrative center of Lewen County was relocated to the riverside street close to the abandoned Yong’an’s seat after the two counties merged in the late Kaiyuan period, and remained until the Jiaqing’s reign in Qing Dynasty. The spatial process reflects a functional transfer from inland to port. The misunderstandings regarding the relocation of the country seat, which was believed to have taken place in early Ming Dynasty, may be attributed to the loss of local memory caused by the tremendous geographic and demographic changes since late Southern Song Dynasty. It would be useful for the study of local toponym as well as the revitalization local culture to clarify the historical facts.

  • Li Hui
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 97-109. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20230088

    The Jianghan Plain has long maintained a dominant position in rice-based grain production, and this dominance has persisted continuously into modern times. With the constantly evolving domestic and foreign economic conditions and the growing connection between ports and the hinterland, there has been a gradual increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation. This resulted in a spatial division of labor in crop cultivation. Research on the changes in crop cultivation in the Jianghan Plain reveals that the geographical environment in which small-scale farmers are located influenced their crop selection. While external economic conditions enhanced the competitiveness of specific crops, the location of ports constrained the extent of trade expansion. Finally, the analysis of changes in crop cultivation demonstrates that the economic advantages historically held by Hankou had become a significant factor in the widening gap between inland and coastal areas during the process of modernization.

  • Zhang Qingyi
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 72-82. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20220071

    The Tang Dynasty Chinese cliff carvings discovered in the Dil mountain of Ulziit in the central Gobi Province of Mongolia indicate that this area was an important node on the grassland transportation line at that time. The route through the desert to capital of the Uyghur Empire, as recorded in the New Book of Tang passed through this area as the ‘Eastern Uyghur Road’, also known as the ‘the road of having an audience with Tengri Khan’. The inscriptions were carved during the rule of restraint period of the Tang Dynasty in the second year of Linde, which confirmed the historical event that Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty offered sacrifices to heaven and earth in Mount Tai and invited the leaders of Tiele tribes in the Boreal desert to come, which reflected the communications between the Tang Dynasty and the northern nomads and the control of the Tang government over the vassal prefectures in the Boreal desert.

  • Wei Xu
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 62-71. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20210428

    This article attempts to restore the main land traffic roads in the northern part of Yangzhou City during the Tang and Song Dynasties based on the location of the posts and delivery shops in the relevant literature, combined with archaeological data. Comparing the traffic conditions of the two periods, it is believed that in the Song Dynasty, the traffic starting point and center moved south as compared with the Tang Dynasty, and some roads were abandoned or formed. The reason lies in the changes in the location of the city and its spatial structure during the Tang and Song Dynasties. During the Song Dynasty, the outside of Yangzhou, especially the east of the city, became one of the central areas. The main traffic roads outside Yangzhou and Shugang were important areas that needed to be contended and controlled during the historical period. Archaeological studies show that these roads also had a certain influence on the distribution of tombs in the Tang and Song Dynasties and the formation and development of the suburb of the Song Dynasty. Although water transportation was extremely developed in the Tang and Song dynasties, the role of land transportation still cannot be overlooked in Yangzhou.

  • Zhang Li
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 83-96. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20220113

    After the principle of setting taxes based on the original amount of Wanli was determined in the early Qing Dynasty, a large number of wasteland figures were formed through “removing wasteland and collecting reclaimed land”(Ti Huang Zheng Shu). Through the investigation of Shanxi Province in the early Qing Dynasty, it can be seen that the number of wasteland mainly refers to the excluded wasteland in the original land amount. In the process of wasteland classification and successive census, the numbers showed characteristics of delay, stratification and systematic missing. Under the influence of the policy of exemption, on the one hand, it included some uncultivated or wasteland difficult to cultivate formed in the middle and late Ming Dynasty, on the other hand, it did not include a large number of easily reclaimed wasteland formed in the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty. In the reclamation process in early Qing Dynasty, these wasteland number became an important basis for the rulers to judge the reclamation situation and the starting point of reclamation. Therefore, although the situation of reclamation in Shanxi was not good before Yongzheng’s era, the actual reclamation process of wasteland started earlier, was larger in scale and completed faster than that was reflected in the reclamation figures, and it’s different in terms of spatial process.

  • Zhang Pengcheng
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 110-122. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20230260

    Under the traditional logic of salt administration, the private import and export of table salt have always been prohibited. Since the late Qing Dynasty, there have been several foreign-related salt issues in the Northeast Asia, triggering a number of Sino-foreign negotiations and prompting the salt authorities to adopt varying strategies for import and export management. The export of table salt has various benefits such as maintaining the livelihood of merchants, expanding local products market, and maintaining relations with vassal states without directly undermining domestic salt policies. As a result, it was tacitly permitted to exploit loopholes in the system to allow the export of salt. Conversely, the import of table salt still posed a structural threat to the domestic salt administration system, warranting strict prohibition. The differences in import and export management demonstrate that the government’s actual attitude towards foreign salt administration mainly depended on the administrative security of the domestic monopoly system, while not excluding necessary exchanges in the foreign market. This reflects the deep-seated and stable continuation of the traditional salt administration logic in both domestic and foreign aspects since modern times.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 150-154.
  • Fan Ning, ; Gu Lingling
    Historical Geography Research. 2024, 44(1): 145-147. https://doi.org/10.20166/j.issn.2096-6822.L20210032

    There is a place called ‘Shiqiu’ (石丘) in Mencius (《孟子》). Based on the context of this sentence, along with philological evidences in both handed down and the unearthed documents, it can be concluded that ‘Shiqiu’ probably corresponds to the ‘Zheqiu’(赭丘) as mentioned in Zuozhuan (《左传》), which is located near Shangqiu, the capital of the State of Song (now Shangqiu, Henan Province).