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  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 114-131.

    政区沿革数据库可以利用GIS作为辅助手段搭建,这样的数据库有两种描述方式,一是时间截面描述法,一是生存期记录描述法。1934年版《中华民国新地图》是民国时期民用地图最高质量的代表,将其扫描、配准之后提取图上的政区信息,即为某一时间截面的政区数据库。但研究发现,该地图所反映的政区时间断限不严,政区信息准确性上也有不少疏漏。地图反映的时间大致集中在1928—1933年。省级行政单位方面漏绘上海、青岛和西京3个院辖市,威海卫行政区和东省特别行政区;误标琼崖特别行政区;未标示广西省省会。县级行政单位方面漏绘10个省辖市、3个县、2个设治局、1个对汛督办;误绘7个县级行政单位;另有10个县级治所符号绘制有误。所以,时间截面政区数据库的真正实现,需要在数据库中更正上述错漏,辅以历史政区地理的研究手段,将所有政区的时间断限统一到一个年份。

  • Wang Hongxing, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(2): 52-62.

    Based on new materials, this paper argues that the City of Ying was rebuilt alongside the old Jiangling City, after the Qin general Bai Qi's taken-over of Ying. Afterwards, both the Nanjun Prefecture and Jiangling County used this city as their seats. During the middle Western Han, the Nanjun Prefecture and Jiangling County relocated their seats to the newly built Xi'eshan City, and Ying City became the seat of Ying County. Since the end of Western Han, the Ying County was canceled and the city became a courier station, which lasted until the last era of Eastern Han. Later on, Guan Yu, Huan Wen, and Wang Chen, successively rebuilt the Jiangling City on the basis of the old Xi'eshan City. It is only after Huan Wen rebuilt the Jiangling City that the two cities Jiangling and Jingzhou merged. During the reign of Wude in the Tang, Nanjun Prefecture was canceled. At around the fourteenth year of the Tianbao reign, the Yangtze River changed its course to the south of modern Jingzhou City, therefore the Jiangling City was moved from Xi'eshan City to modern Jingzhou City and remained in the same place to this day.

  • Yang Xiao
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(1): 1-10.

    The Lixia River Plain, consisting of a great number of small lakes and swamps, spread widely in the north of Jiangsu Province in history. After 1570, the flood of Huaihe River entering Lixia River Plain continued to increase, which caused great changes in the distribution of lakes and drainage pattern in the region. After 1596, the flood from the Jinghe River and the Ziyinggou River entered into the Guangyang Lake, and then flowed through the Sheyang Lake into the sea. The waters in the southeast of Gaoyou all converge in the Luyang Lake. After 1681, due to the southward shift of the Guihai Dams, floods converged in the middle of the Lixia River Plain and overflowed from the south to the north. As a result, the Dazong Lake and other lakes were connected and merged as a whole. Due to the decrease of flood, the Guangyang Lake was divided into several scattered lakes. Whether the Guihai Dams were opened or not, it would directly affect the hydrological environment of the Lixia River Plain, and thus form two completely different lake distribution and drainage patterns in the flood period and normal period.

  • Bu Fan
    Historical Geography Research. 2022, 42(3): 28-41.

    Located along the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, the Wen’anwa(文安洼) in Wen’an and Dacheng County of Hebei Province is a low-lying depression and shaped like “the bottom of a cauldron” in colloquial language. It is difficult to drain its water reserve, which often caused severe flood disasters in the past. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Wen’an County took many measures, such as building dikes, diverting river courses, and planting rice in shallow water, to control the flood but to no avail. It was not only the environmental factors, such as the low-lying terrain and the silt of the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, that made it hard to control the flood in the Wen’anwa Depression, but also social factors, such as the conflicting interests of water control between Wen’an County and the surrounding prefectural and counties, and the lack of ability and tactfulness of water management by Wen’an County itself.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 1-22.

    《水经注》是我国古代以水道为纲记载地理信息的著名典籍,对于研究中古时期及其以前的水道分布和政区变迁有着极为重要的意义。以往对《水经注》的研究主要集中在版本流传与郦学史方面的探讨,对郦注本文尚缺乏深入而细致的地理学方面的探究。因此,在文本校勘与史源探求工作的基础之上,选取《水经注》卷十五《洛水篇》作为研究对象,并利用相关文献和考古资料对郦注所记载的洛水相关水道与城邑进行全面的考释与系统的复原,不失为在《水经注》本体研究方面所进行的一次有益尝试。此外,以古今对照的形式绘制出的《水经·洛水注图》,不仅可以直观而形象地展现研究的结论,同时,也可为相关研究者研读《水经注》提供便利。上篇研究范围为洛水源头至宜阳县段。

  • Shi Nianhai, Wang Shuanghuai
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 1-17.

    After the outbreak of the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression in 1937, borderland issues became increasingly serious. Shi Nianhai and his tutor Gu Jiegang were concerned with the historical material of China's borderland issues, especially those of northwest China. They examined voluminous historical materials to write this article, so as to reveal the process of formation and historical variations of China's frontier, and to bolster the national spirit against Japanese aggression. Shi thought that as early as the period of Qianlong and Jiaqing of the Qing dynasty, scholars had studied the history and geography of northwest China. After that period, instability of the northeast borderland attracted the attention of even more scholars. They collected documents, wrote monographs, and recorded the imperial court's military attainments in the northwest as well as its conducts in frontier affairs with Russia. Their works are still of great value.

  • Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research. 2021, 41(4): 1-17.

    During the Tang and Song Dynasties, two ancient highways were formed in the Sichuan Basin, known as the Northern and Southern Roads respectively. The Southern Road was less prominent. Yet, it was the predecessor of the Eastern Main Road in later times. Against the background that the political and economic center of the Sichuan Basin moved eastward and southward in Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chongqing ascended in importance and could rival Chengdu. The Eastern Main Road gradually took shape and flourished. In the Ming Dynasty, there were 12 post stations along the Eastern Main Road, which were largely inherited in the Qing Dynasty. Along the road were also a large number of shops and posts. The total mileage of the Eastern Main Road was about 1 000 li (500 meters) comprising in total of 10 stages, which would take 11 to 12 days to travel. The western section was often travelled by boat on the Tuojiang River. The Eastern Main Road took shape in the early Ming Dynasty. At the beginning, it was called the “Southeast road”, the “East Road of Sichuan”, or the “East road”. The name “Eastern Main Road” was formed in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. It has natural and cultural advantages such as connecting Chengdu and Chongqing, low terrain agriculture, abundant water resource, access to the rivers and sea, and close to the salt mines. It was the primary road in the Sichuan Basin and it gave birth to the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”. Since the 1990s, the status of “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt” has declined, but the strategy of “Chengdu-Chongqing Double-city Economic Circle” has brought opportunities for the revitalization of the ancient Eastern Main Road.

  • Dong Jiayu, Yang Weibing
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 29-46.

    Negotiations over the demarcation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty was an important stage of China-Burma border changes in modern times. With the help of diplomatic archives, treaties and maps, this paper makes a detailed restoration of the process of delimitation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the Sino-British negotiations. The signing of Convention Giving Effect to Article Ⅲ of the Convention Relative to Burma and Thibet between China and Great Britain and Agreement Modifying the Burma-China Frontier and Trade Convention between China and Great Britain during the reign of Guangxu basically delineated the middle section of Yunnan-Burma border. The contradiction in the geographical cognition of the “watershed” between China and Britain had an important impact on the negotiation of the undefined boundary in the north of Jiangao Mountain. As a result, China had actually lost the territorial sovereignty of Xiaojiang River Basin north of the Jiangao Mountain and west of Balada-Gaolianggong Mountains. In the southern section of the undefined boundary, China and Britain have many disagreements over the basis of the boundary survey, and it was difficult to reach a consensus. The results of the Sino-British negotiations over the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty basically shaped the course of the Sino-Myanmar border, and had an important impact on the border negotiations and final delineation between China and Myanmar in the Republic of China period and the 1960s.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 58-71.

    在萧梁官班制下,郡的等级被划分为十等。依据萧梁官班制的基本原则,通过分析官员的迁转路径,可以推定江表二十余郡的等级。由于江表为萧梁的核心区域,因此江表诸郡等级的分布情形与变迁规律颇具典型代表意义。通过复原江表诸郡等级可知,萧梁各郡的等级处于不断变化之中,影响各郡等级变化的原因则包括各郡的政治地位、经济发展水平等诸多因素。

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 132-142.

    《中国大陆五万分之一地图集成》于20世纪80—90年代在日本出版,其影印的图幅内容为民国时期中国大陆的大比例尺军事地图,其中夹杂有中国和日本的混合信息,测绘主体不明。通过对《集成》地图的测图、制版、发行、注记、等高线等信息和地形图图表的分析,再与台北所藏的民国时期同比例尺军事地图进行比较,可以发现《集成》地图主要为中国政府测绘,被日本窃取之后加以改制和发行。《集成》地图中也有极少部分为日本测绘。

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 46-57.

    湖北荆州纪南城遗址,文献记载为楚郢都故址,但20世纪的考古发掘表明,纪南城的年代上限为战国早期或春秋晚期,近年来的考古发掘进一步确认纪南城的年代上限仅为战国中期早段,其使用时间为战国中期晚段至战国晚期早段。纪南城外的冯家冢可能为楚肃王墓,与纪南城的起始年代吻合。清华简和葛陵楚简记楚肃王徙鄩郢,因此纪南城当即鄩郢。楚肃王四年(前377年)至楚顷襄王二十一年(前278年),纪南城作为楚都历时99年。

  • Chen Weixin
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 15-28.

    International boundary demarcation is a trouble-causing problem between countries. Before the middle Qing Dynasty, Vietnam was regarded as a vassal state of the Qing empire, thus the boundary demarcation between two governments had not been conducted, and the southwest boundary of the Qing empire was not clearly defined. After the Sino-French war (1883—1885), the Qing and French governments concluded on the Ten Treaties Between Qing and French Government on Vietnam, which ended the vassal relationship between Vietnam and the Qing, thus giving rise to the discussion over the related demarcation issues. In the 11th year of the Guangxu Reign (1885), the Qing government sent Deng Chengxiu to negotiate with French officials on demarcation issues. After long lasting seesaw debates, the two governments finally signed the boundary treaty and drew the boundary maps. The treaty, boundary maps and related files signed by Deng Chengxiu and French officials collected in the Taipei Palace Museum are important materials for the recovery of the boundary negotiations.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2021, 41(4): 128-139.
  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 15-29.

    元大德、泰定年间,任仁发先后在新泾、赵浦、潘家浜、乌泥泾等处各建两座水闸。通过对乌泥泾水闸废弃过程、《水利集》中的石闸施工规范的分析,可推测出这些水闸不是建在原有河道上,而是建在两侧新开分水河道上,之后再堰断原有河道。水闸建成后,淀山湖、长泖之水全部由六闸外泄,上海浦(黄浦)以西、吴淞江以南水系呈相对封闭形态,赵浦闸与潘家浜闸只有建在吴淞江“二道”(即明代的吴淞江与虬江)的分水河上,才能达到这种效果。在乌泥泾建闸,是因为淀山湖之水在元代改由曹港、东西横泖、乌泥泾入上海浦(黄浦),这一变化反映了宋元时期东太湖地区从吴淞江水系向黄浦江水系演变过程中的一个断面。

  • Wang Yulang, Wang Junzheng
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 54-67.

    During the period of Kaiyuan’s reign in Tang Dynasty, Boli Prefecture, Heishui Army Arca, and Heishui Genaral Government were consecutively set up on the northern border, where were the later Bohai Kingdom and the district of Heishui-mohe. Using documents and archeological materials, combing with related studies of Boli Prefecture (Bozhou), Heishui-mohe Roadway, Bohai Genaral Government, Anjing Genaral Government, and Simu Tribe of Heishui-mohe, the Jiang’an ancient city of presentd-day Luobei County should be the seat of Heishui General Government in history. The inference also considered the historical background of the military confrontation between the Bohai Kingdom and Heishui-mohe, which caused Heishui-mohe to move northward from the middle and lower reaches of the Mudanjiang River. As a regional strategic center and a geographically significant military and political town, Heishui General Government guarded the north front of the Shangjing (Upper Capital) of Bohai and ran through Heishui-mohe along the line of traffic tunnels; at the same time, it was in accordance with the relative positional relationship between the Bohai Genaral Government, Anjing Genaral Government’s jurisdiction and Simu Tribe of Heishui-mohe. These also proved the Jiangan ancient city being seat of the Heishui Genaral Government set up during the Kaiyuan period of Tang Dynasty.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 49-58.

    土军千户所与州县的关系是边疆地区卫所与州县关系的重要内容之一。滇缅边境地区的土军千户所成立初期,除管理土军外,也统辖夷民、部分编民及相应地理空间,其军丁从隶属于土军千户所的夷民、编民中签发。土军千户所与州县的关系表现为: (1) 明初废除州县并将编民及辖区空间纳入土军千户所;(2) 宣德、嘉靖初年将土军千户所所辖夷民、编民及其相应地理空间设为州县;(3) 为保障土军千户所的运行而以土知州、土司等土酋为土军千户所军官。土军千户所与州县的转化影响了土军千户所的运行。

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 95-114.

    南宋时温州进士人数高居浙江第一、全国第二,入元后其进士人数迅速下滑至浙江中下水平。本文通过详尽的进士人数统计,发现明前期六十多年间温州进士涌现率一度居浙江中上水平,但正统年间之后其科举迅速转弱,延至明末,已成为浙江科举最落后的地区。通过统计举人数量后发现,导致温州籍进士人数偏少的直接原因是温州籍读书人在历届乡试中不能取得佳绩,并且越来越差。在此基础上,本文全面分析了导致明代温州科举衰落的深层次原因。

  • Yang Xiaoyang
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 44-62.

    The chapter Zhongshan Jing (Classic of the Mountains: Central) of Shan Hai Jing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) presented the mountains and rivers of He-Luo Region in detail, basically from the middle reaches of the Yellow River to the Luo River and the Yi River. The earliest pieces of Shan Hai Jing were thought to have appeared since as early as the pre-Qin period, and many placenames had been lost in Han and Wei dynasties. Generations of scholars consecutively studied the geography and toponomy of these areas, but the results were barely precise or satisfying. Usually, an incorrect location assigned to a mountain or a river would mislead the naming of its surrounding areas. On the basis of previous work and documents, this article presents seven explanations of mountain and river positions in the He-Luo area and discusses the environmental consciousness of people in the time of Shan Hai Jing.

  • Fang Zhilong
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 68-82.

    The East Taihu Lake is the main drainage region of the Taihu Lake and an environment sensitive region. After 1890s, immigrants from Henan Province moved into Wujiang County, and they started reclamation in the East Taihu Lake area. From then to the breaking of the Anti-Japanese War, related management policy went through three stages, namely, immigrant recruitment and lift of the ban in the middle and late period of the Guangxu Reign, prohibition of new private ownership and reclamation in 1914, and limited reclamation in 1925. The core concerns of these changing policies seemed to be following a progressive process from focusing on financial needs to water conservancy, and then to a well-balanced development. However, after 1914, due to the financial needs and the fact that the lake conservancy fund had to rely on the sale of marsh land ownership, the authorities not only failed to restrict and guide reclamation activities, but also stimulated its disorderly development by setting up the bureau selling marsh lands ownership with a reduced price, which increasingly deteriorated the water conservancy situations. After the large-scale illegal reclamation in 1935, the authorities had to destroy the dikes of the marsh lands reclaimed privately in order to avoid the extreme consequences and make a rehabilitation plan. All in all, in the process of modern transformation, although technologies and concepts of governance were advanced, they failed to play an effective role in environment governance. The financial capacity was a critical factor affecting the implementation of such policies.

  • Zhou Ni
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(2): 91-103.

    The Ying Xun system was the grassroots military system of local governance in Qing Dynasty, important to the local governance of Xiangxi Miaojiang. Although it was relatively stable after its formation, due to the ethnic population, natural and social environment, its establishment, withdrawal, improvement, and adjustment often transformed through the history. Thus, the characteristics of the Ying Xun system could be “changing by the trend”, which also reflected the integrating process of Xiangxi Miaojiang into the National “inland border”.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 70-85.

    明朝嘉靖七年,全国范围内爆发了发生概率为2%的特别极端干旱事件。严重的旱灾在北方及南方九省肆虐,导致占缴纳全国赋税额度七成有余的地区遭受大面积的粮食减产。这一事件造成当年明廷不得不在大幅减免内地税粮的同时大规模提高财政支出,以用于内地赈济和边防供给,酿成中央政府的巨额财政赤字。此次干旱暴露了明廷盐政败坏、宗室占田、军屯荒废等方面的弊端,边防供给体系失效。明廷不得不通过改革盐政、核查六部乃至清查勋戚庄田等一系列革新措施来筹备用于赈济和供边的粮饷,以应对危局。这促成了“嘉靖革新”的开启。

  • Wang Daxue
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 31-43.

    The reason caused Emperor Qianlong to establish a system of local public welfare granary was the failure of his grain policy. Unsatisfied with the Ever-Normal Granary System or the Community Granary System, he wanted to set up a Public Granary System to attract local storage of grain. The transition from dependence upon official granaries to civil granaries reflected Emperor Qianlong's policy being tightened. His method was to educate people rather than nourish people. Stability of the Zhili (the area surrounding the capital) Province was the priority to Emperor Qianlong and the Public Granary System brought out a good match between relief and regulation for him. Under the broader background of abolishing the Liuyang Zisong policy, the Public Granary System could bring a stable environment because it would reduce the number of refugees staying in the capital city. The setup of Liuyang Ju System meant a compromise and concession to reality for Emperor Qianlong. The distribution of Liuyang Ju was determined by accessibility and physical environment conditions. Overall, the scenario of policy shifts in the 13th year of Qianlong's reign and the establishment of the Public Granary System and the Liuyang Ju System in Zhili Province were the dialectical effects of disaster, environment, and charity taken together.

  • Chen Yunxia
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(2): 133-143.

    After the port opening of Shanghai city, social condition experienced great changes. A founding was that the main worshipers of Hong Temple became the prostitute group. The main reasons of such transformation were the prosperity of prostitution thereby and the policy change for sacrificial ceremonies. Newspapers and modern novels accelerated the transformation of traditional folk beliefs in modern Shanghai as well.

  • Che Qun
    Historical Geography Research. 2022, 42(3): 1-15.

    In the mid-Qing Dynasty, the flood level of the Jingjiang River (a section of the Yangtze River) began to rise and was repeatedly recorded in the Sanxun Anlan Zouben of the Qing Palace Memorials and Archives of the Grand Council. During the Xianfeng and Tongzhi reigns, after the Ouchi and Songzi dikes collapsed and the main flow diverged to the Dongting Lake, the flood level eased temporarily and rose again rapidly in the Guangxu’s reign. The rising flood level affected the courses, and water environment of the rivers flowing southward into the Yangtze River. In the Juzhang River Basin, this involves the expansion, separation, and approaching northward of the Bailizhou Island in the Yangtze River, shifts of the estuary of the Juzhang River, the shift of the main Yangtze River course, the extension of the lower reaches of the Juzhang River caused by the adjoining of Lower Bailizhou with the east bank, as well as the silt caused by the counter-balanced effect of the river flow and mountain torrents. In the Ma’nao River Basin, the backwater effect of the rising flood level at the estuary turned the area into a swamp.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 33-48.

    唐后期的团练、防御州,即本州刺史兼任团练、防御使的州。在行政层级上,团练、防御州可分为高层政区和支郡两类。从军事属性上而言,州军敕额数一般数千,甚至可达万人,远超一般刺史州,防御州军队的主体为官健,团练州军队则由团结兵和官健组成。会昌五年,团练、防御州主要集中于上、东二都周边诸州,以及沿淮诸州。结合团练、防御州的属性和分布,可知中央设置团练、防御州主要有三个政治意图: 军事上拱卫京师;维护漕运安全;归还州刺史军权,限制方镇军权。

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 72-82.

    历史人口地理和人口史研究中都会遇到大规模天灾人祸之后或易代之际人口数量的空白,对遗存人口的数量仅有极端性的描述或缺乏根据的估计。本文提出一些历史人口地理的研究方法与原则,以明末清初今重庆市辖区的遗存人口数量为样本,尽可能广泛地搜集了各类直接与间接的史料,分片详细分析此时段内影响其人口数量变化的各种因素和结果,根据分别取上限或下限的原则,作较严格的推测和估计,该区域内明清之际人口谷底出现在康熙三年(1664年),其最低人口数不低于27万。

  • Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 96-108.

    Taking the change of location of the capital of Changzhou prefecture and administrative area of the Jingnan county in Tang dynasty as examples, this study points out that researchers should make use of historical documents from multiple perspectives in locating counties in the Middle Ages. We find that the position of Jingnan county in Tang dynasty is at the Taihe dam of Zhangjia dam, in Gaosheng town of Dazu county, which was called Jingnan dam and 50 miles west of Dazu county, other than Longshui town or Sanxi town in Dazu counry. The capital of Changzhou prefecture was firstly set in Changyuan county in 758, and then to Rongchang county in 769, and eventually in Jingnan county in 892. We also find that in order to ensure the reliability of research, one must make use of local historical memory, actual geographical situation and cultural relics to correct historical documents, because historical researches are prone to four types of inaccuracies, namely the sensibility of mileage calculation, the rigidity of azimuth coordinates, the fuzziness of azimuth direction and the obvious simplification and derivation in geographical cognition of historical documents.

  • Li Denan
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 132-142.

    Submerged city caused by the drastic changes of hydrological environment is an extreme type of disastrous events. But mirages of the submerged cities recall the memory of this kind of disaster in the form of auspicious illusions. The confluence region of the Yellow River, the Huaihe River and the Grand Canal is well known for its numerous lakes and small rivers, and the river works were frequently rebuilt. It was the core region of the hydraulic conservancy facilities for the clarification of the Yellow River and the water supply for the canal transportation during Ming and Qing Dynasty. In the Qing Dynasty, there was no more need to take the protection of the Mausoleum of Ming Dynasty into consideration in river management. Therefore, the drastic changes of lake environment caused the submersion of the Hongze Town and the Sizhou City, which had profound impacts on the local environment and society. The records of mirages in history are mostly found in the Qing Dynasty when the lake area expanded rapidly. The mirages occurred on Hongze Lake and Gaobao Lakes, and they were mostly associated with the recent or most influential event of submerging city. Although the submerged cities reappearing through the mirages were not credible, it proved that disasters had a lasting effect on people’s memory. It is also a reminder that history needs to be remembered and the disasters should not be forgotten.

  • Qi Chuangye, Huang Zhongxin
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(2): 72-90.

    The Military Defence Circuit was an important local management institution in the Ming Dynasty. In order to contain the intrusion of “River thieves”, “Wokou” (Japanese pirates) and “Mining thief”, as well as to consolidate the local farming system, water conservancy, and other affairs, the Ming court successively established five Military Defence Circuits in Fengyang, Jiujiang, Taicang, Yingtian and Huirao from Hongzhi to Jiajing Reigns. Their scope of the jurisdiction cover both Anqing and Huizhou. During this period, the Military Defence Circuit's jurisdiction unit gradually changed from Wei to Fu (prefecture). In the sixth year of the Longqing Reign, out of the consideration of unifying administrative divisions, the Ming court set up the Huining Military Defence Circuit, which put Fu and Wei in Anqing and Huizhou under the same Military Defence Circuit's management, while remained under the jurisdiction of South Zhili. Later, due to changes in local situations, the Ming court made a series of differentiations and adjustments to the Huining Military Defence Circuit in order to keep it militarily advantageous. The evolution of the division and integration of the Military Defence Circuit shows the importance of local governance in Anqing, Huizhou areas. It would become one of the precursors to the formation of Anhui Province in the Qing Dynasty.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 83-94.

    宋代是中国古代科举精英和士大夫家族形成的时期,其产生的家族传统影响深远,具有重要研究意义。不同于前人以个案为基础的分析,本研究尝试了以更为宏观和定量化的方式进行考察。通过查询和整理中国历史人物传记数据库(CBDB)中北宋时期的官僚及其亲属关系数据,结合中国历史地理信息系统(CHGIS)和中华文明时空基础框架(CCTS)等地理数据库,构建了北宋官僚家族网络数据集。基于极大连通子图算法,发现北宋家族网络是由一个庞大但联系较为稀疏的核心子网络和其他大量较小的边缘子网络构成。基于地理信息系统(GIS)空间分析技术,从时空演化的角度发现北宋官僚网络不仅是由少数核心家族所主导,在地域上也高度集聚于中原、吴越等核心区域。通过进一步计算家族或者地理节点与核心节点、本地节点的关系,发现这种高度集聚、中心化的家族网络随着历史的演变也存在解构的趋势,但是在北宋末期趋势有所逆转。

  • Hao Ping, Wei Chunyang
    Historical Geography Research. 2022, 42(3): 74-86.

    Settlement pattern is an understudied topic in historical settlement geography. The settlement pattern of Jingsheng Village in Lingshi County in Shanxi Province had experienced three stages of change: the initial development of the gullies and lanes from the late Yuan Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty, the boundary expansion and internal expansion from the late Ming Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty, the filling of the settlement pattern in the late Qing Dynasty and the “southward invasion” across the river. Factors such as geographical environment, clan power, war and banditry, national policies had all played an important role in the development and evolution of Jingsheng Village settlement pattern. The case study of Jingsheng Village shows that the formation and development of settlement pattern is a historical process of dynamic change, and the establishment history of settlement temples and landmark buildings has become an important index for investigation. Research on the pattern of rural settlements will be one of the trends of future rural historical geography studies in China.

  • Xie Xinye
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(2): 13-24.

    Both the records of historical documents in the early Ming Dynasty, and the Plaque of the “Timasa Pacification Commission” found in Assam Pradesh, India, indicate that the Gula Chiefdoms set up in the southwest frontier region in the early Ming Dynasty were actually located in the Brahmaputra Valley. Since the Han and Tang Dynasties, the Brahmaputra Valley had been an important channel connecting China and the South Asia. After the reunification of Yunnan, the Ming dynasty actively managed the southwestern frontier. With the continuous expansion of the influence of the Ming China, the Gula tribes established political contact with the Ming Dynasty and the latter then set up chiefdoms in this area. Although the relationship between the Ming dynasty and the Gula chiefdoms did not last long, the re-opening of the land Silk Road to South Asia greatly expanded the geographical cognition of the ancient Chinese.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 115-134.

    《舆地纪胜》是我国南宋时期著名的地理总志,刊刻于南宋理宗嘉熙四年至景定三年间。今可考该志的宋刻本有2种,即钱曾述古堂藏宋板足本和陆漻佳趣堂藏宋刻本,但皆下落不明;在明代,其主要传本有文渊阁藏“三十册”本、“十八册”本和由“三十册”本衍出的杨慎家抄秘阁本;至清代则有华希闵藏影宋抄本、何元锡藏影宋抄本以及由何元锡藏本衍出的18种传本,其中14种为抄本,4种为刻本。综观《舆地纪胜》的流传,在清嘉庆朝之前不绝如缕,至嘉庆朝及之后则版本众多、流传广泛,授受关系复杂,共同形成了其在历史上的版本流传。今若整理此志,当以精校的道光二十九年惧盈斋刻本或咸丰十年粤雅堂重刻本为底本,辅以今见最早的华希闵藏本,再以其他诸本为补充,当得最佳本。

  • Wang Changming
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 145-152.

    The Middle Persian (pahlavi) geographical book The Regions of the World (Hudud al-alam) records two important salt resources both named Bughshur in Tang dynasty based on regional differentiation. The former lies in the drainage area of the Upper Yangtze River, the latter lies in the drainage area of the Yellow River. We could identify the former as salt well named Fuyi near prefecture Lu in the region of Jiannan Dao, the latter as salt lake near the prefecture Hezhong in the region of Hedong Dao. There is a hall in the city of Hezhong which bears the name “Lü sha” (Persian as “rusa”), and means scarf in English. Based on literature study, we can conclude there was a Persian man Li Jingshen, wore scarf in hall occasionally, who had been a leader of local militia for almost twenty years. With his assistance, Persian merchants came to Hezhong to attend to the state monopoly of Hezhong crystal salt.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(2): 144-149.
    This article makes a new research on the unknown place name on the “Yuan Nian Pi”(元年铍)inscription in Luo Zhenyu's old collection. The name of the place should be identified as “ ”, read as “Guang Wang” (广望). It is related to the Kingdom of Guang Wang Hou in the Western Han Dynasty. The location of Guang Wang lay in the territory of Yan state for a long time. Because the “Yuan Nian Pi” was a weapon of Zhao state, it can be inferred that Guang Wang once belonged to Zhao state during the Warring States period. Combining the inscription contents and historical materials, the Yuan Nian should be the King Zhao Daoxiang's first year (244 B.C.). The upper limit of time when Guang Wang belonged to Zhao should not be earlier than the King Zhao Xiaocheng's first year (265 B.C.), and no later than the eighth year (228 B.C.) of the King Zhao Qian.
  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 23-32.

    青溪是六朝建康城东一条重要河流。五代杨吴、南唐时期,青溪水被截入金陵城外壕中,原城内青溪部分逐渐湮塞废弃。近些年来,南京城市考古和六朝建康城市空间研究取得重大进展,确定了建康宫城的范围,进而可以明确青溪所在的区域范围,结合史料和在此区域考古发掘的多处河道遗迹,基本可以复原出建康城东侧青溪故道。这一研究为复原六朝建康城水系及城市空间形态提供了新的范例。

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 30-45.

    明清时期下河地区的基层水利系统的运作大体可分为明代前中期、明中后期、清代康乾时期、嘉庆直至清末四个阶段,相继表现为运行良好、严重毁坏、国家与地方共同重建、地方主导维护的历史过程。总体上,明代基层水利的维护由地方政府主导,清代康乾时期国家的控制较强,嘉庆以降地方政府与社会在基层水利系统的管理中又逐渐占据主导地位。道光后期运河干堤的修筑开始出现地方主导的端倪,咸丰十年运河管理机构正式裁撤,运河干堤的维护由省级政府主导,具体的维护事宜则由州县政府与绅董负责,运河干堤的维护正式地方化。洪泽湖水的排泄、国家黄运治理的方略与成效、国家的基层水利政策取向以及地方政府与社会的应对方式,是影响基层水利系统形态与运作的四个核心要素。

  • Wu Qiang, He Yinan
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 100-118.

    For the most important economic phenomenon in modern Chinese history, the treaty ports system, we can use the research methods of contemporary economic geography, GIS, economics, and so on, to investigate the pattern of modern China’s economic geography and regional economic differences through the investigation of historical data. More than 100 treaty ports in modern China have gradually formed a geographical pattern of opening up to the outside world from the coastal, riverside to border areas, which has provided conditions for modernization, promoted the spatial expansion of modern capitalist mode of production, and reconstructed China’s economic regions. In this paper, first of all, through the discussion of the geographical spatial distribution of the transit duty trade in the treaty-ports system, we preliminarily determine the influence areas of some larger treaty ports; then, with the support of quantification and GIS methods, especially the spatial interactive models, economic regional changes under the influence of modern Chinese trading ports are calculated. Based on this result, the treaty ports system can be regarded as the representative and systematic research object of regional economic modernization, which directly affects the economic geographical pattern of contemporary China, and provides a historical and practical reference for the current economic geographical division of China.

  • Zhao Limeng
    Historical Geography Research. 2022, 42(3): 54-60.

    In the past, it was believed that Xinzhou(信州) in the Liao and Jin dynasties was located in present-day Qinjiatun, in Gongzhuling City, while the ancient site in Wujiazi, 13 km to the west of Qinjiatun, was considered to be a sub-state of Xinzhou and received little attention. Based on the reading of historical satellite photos and field surveys, we have discovered the outer city wall around Wujiazi, thus increasing its perimeter to be comparable to that of Qinjiatun. This discovery is different from the old understanding. By re-evaluating the surface remains of the two cities and the excavated relics, it is clear the ancient city of Qinjiatun was a Jin dynasty site, while the ancient city of Wujiazi was a Liao dynasty site, abandoned in the early Jin dynasty. Based on the archaeological evidences and combined with the literature, we believe that the Liao Dynasty Xinzhou was ruled from Wujiazi ancient city, and during the Jin Dynasty Xinzhou was ruled in Qinjiatun ancient city. According to the Yuan Yitong Zhi, the time of the change seems to be the third year during the Huangtong period (1143).

  • Wang Han
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 83-99.

    The demarcation of Shaanxi and Suiyuan was an important political event in the adjustments of northwestern provincial boundaries in the early years of the Republic of China. In the course of the whole incident, from the central government and local governments at different levels in Shaanxi and Suiyuan, down to the Ikechao League princes and the local gentry in the disputed areas, the stake-holders made varying appeals from such as the perspectives of national decrees, border security, economic interests in the disputed areas, and decision-making power in grassroots social affairs, to to ask for their own interests. On the border of Mongolia and Shaanxi, the gentry owned the land in the disputed area through the land subscription in the end of Qing Dynasty. The core issue of the demarcation dispute is whether these ownership was still recognized in a new dynasty. In the process of disputes, which lasted for nearly eight years, the central government and local governments, local governments and local governments (both Shaanxi and Suiyuan), local forces and two levels of government competed for their own interests. In the end, the central government gave way to the fait accompli of the Shaanxi side, so the immigrants would not retreat. The local governments and gentry along the border in northern Shaanxi used their prestige and appealed to publicize and guide the people in the disputed area, formed a community of interests, and maintained the “legitimateness” of the right to speak in local social affairs.