20 November 2021, Volume 41 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
Eastern Main Road in the Sichuan Basin and the Vicissitude of the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”
Lan Yong
2021, 41 (4):  1-17. 
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During the Tang and Song Dynasties, two ancient highways were formed in the Sichuan Basin, known as the Northern and Southern Roads respectively. The Southern Road was less prominent. Yet, it was the predecessor of the Eastern Main Road in later times. Against the background that the political and economic center of the Sichuan Basin moved eastward and southward in Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chongqing ascended in importance and could rival Chengdu. The Eastern Main Road gradually took shape and flourished. In the Ming Dynasty, there were 12 post stations along the Eastern Main Road, which were largely inherited in the Qing Dynasty. Along the road were also a large number of shops and posts. The total mileage of the Eastern Main Road was about 1 000 li (500 meters) comprising in total of 10 stages, which would take 11 to 12 days to travel. The western section was often travelled by boat on the Tuojiang River. The Eastern Main Road took shape in the early Ming Dynasty. At the beginning, it was called the “Southeast road”, the “East Road of Sichuan”, or the “East road”. The name “Eastern Main Road” was formed in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. It has natural and cultural advantages such as connecting Chengdu and Chongqing, low terrain agriculture, abundant water resource, access to the rivers and sea, and close to the salt mines. It was the primary road in the Sichuan Basin and it gave birth to the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”. Since the 1990s, the status of “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt” has declined, but the strategy of “Chengdu-Chongqing Double-city Economic Circle” has brought opportunities for the revitalization of the ancient Eastern Main Road.

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A Study on Dry and Wet Conditions in the Western Part of the Jianghuai Region During Ming and Qing Dynasties
Liu Yuqing, Chen Yexin
2021, 41 (4):  18-30. 
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In this paper, the historical data about drought and flood in the western part of the Jianghuai (江淮) region in Ming and Qing dynasties are sorted out, and quantified hierarchically by year and county. Then, by calculating the average grade value of drought and flood and the 10-year moving average value, the time series of dry-wet change in this area from 1450 to 1911 are reconstructed. The results show that there were six dry-wet phases in this area. From 1450 to 1490, the drought was mainly mild. From 1491 to 1545, drought and flood disasters occurred frequently, and the fluctuation of dry and wet climate was obvious. From 1546 to 1625, there were few droughts and floods, and the dry and wet conditions were relatively stable. From 1626 to 1710, moderate drought events were dominant, and the frequency of extreme drought events increased significantly. From 1711 to 1860, wetness dominated. From 1861 to 1911, dry-wet trend fluctuated and tended to be wet. Lakes in this region were also affected in dry and wet stages.

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On the Multiple Attributes of the Lords of Chu Counties During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period
Zheng Yifan
2021, 41 (4):  31-42. 
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The lords of Chu counties of the pre-Qin period were usually equated to the county level administers of the time after the Qin and Han dynasties. However, judging from their activities and the roles they played in history, the lords of Chu counties of this time shared obvious features with the enfeoffed nobilities, and not exactly like an administrative bureaucrat. Most of the lords of counties originated from the royal house or the most powerful noble families, and they had the power and influence that far exceeded those of local officials. They also spent a lot of time on the capital and participated in the making of state policies and leading military acts. At the same time, the lords of counties also had a stronger connection with the place they were named by, compared to the local administers of later times. A better understanding of the “xian gong” (lords of counties) group requires a more comprehensive knowledge of the nature of counties at this time and depends on a deep reflection on the limit of the dichotomy between the so called “feudalism” and the “prefecture-county” institutional system.

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Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed Prefectures in the Five Dynasties
Qu Kale
2021, 41 (4):  43-61. 
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On the basis of the existing system in late Tang Dynasty, regimes of the Five Dynasties continued to set up Tuanlianshi-governed and Fangyushi-governed prefectures. By the end of the Later Zhou, there were 19 Fangyushi-governed prefectures and 10 Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures. In the meantime, the conglomeration of Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures gradually moved eastward from Guanzhong and the west of Central Plain to the Central Plain, with Luoyang and Bianzhou as the center. Towards the end of Later Zhou Dynasty, Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures were concentrated in the Central Plain, Huainan, Southern Hebei, and showed a trend of continuous integration. Furthermore, Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures had become an important measure of the central government to weaken the power of the Fangzhen. After setting up Fangyushi-governed or Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures, Fangzhen with jurisdiction over more than three prefectures tended dissolve and became similar to those with two prefectures, which greatly strengthened the central government’s control over local military affairs.

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Governing Policies and Local Reactions: A Study on the Development of Ruoqiang During the Qing Dynasty
Wang Pian
2021, 41 (4):  62-76. 
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This study casts light on the small-scale regional development and city-building in Ruoqiang during the Qing. The main material of the study includes Chinese historical records, English language reports of modern surveys and field investigations. The unparalleled advantageous location of Ruoqiang city in terms of transportation brought it prosperity. Ruoqiang is a nodal city on the passage from Xinjiang to Qinghai and Gansu, and the region is characterised by its dotted oases. However, the migrations and the local inhabitants held different reactions to the central government’s policies. The migrations to Ruoqiang clustered around Chaklik (Ruoqiang), and their cultivation activities held the pattern of discarding after poor harvest. Meanwhile, the native inhabitants, represented by the Lop people, moved to the Milan oasis and readapted to new lifestyles. This study shows that the opening-up of Ruoqiang, under the Qing’s policy of Systems the Same to That of Mainland, resulted in the behaviour readaptations of different social groups, while the dotted oases maintained a relative balance between them.

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Research on Zong Ze’s Hometown in Yiwu
Zhu Haibin
2021, 41 (4):  77-93. 
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Since the middle and late Ming Dynasty, the legend that Zong Ze was born in Shibantang (石板塘) village and later moved to Niansanli Town is popular in Yiwu County. Textual research reveals that the related documents about Yiwu Zong’s genealogy descending from the Southern Song Dynasty were counterfeited in the late Ming Dynasty. On this basis and using the biographic chronicle of Zong Ze compiled by Qiao Xingjian, it is pointed out that Zongtang village is the birthplace of Zong Ze. Finally, the relevant geographical information from the epitaphs and poems written by Zong Ze, Chen Liang, Huang Jin, etc. is extracted. From the perspective of life circle, the geographical information proves that Zongtang village is the actual hometown of Zong Ze, while neither Shibantang village or Niansanli Town fit the geographical relationship as documented in Song and Yuan dynasties.

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The Literature Sources of Jin Shi Di Li Zhi
Zhang Liang
2021, 41 (4):  94-103. 
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When the Geographical Records of the History of Jin Dynasty (Jin Shi Di Li Zhi, 《金史·地理志》) was being compiled, its authors didn’t have access to the original texts of the Guo Shi (《国史》) of the Jin Dynasty. The foundation of this work was laid by Wang E (王鹗) at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, and it was not completed until its end. Its contents were divided according to the conquered territories formerly belonged to Liao and Song, and the source material used can be easily distinguished. Specifically, the part on the former Liao territory was based on Chen Daren’s Liao Shi (《辽史》), and the Song part was formulated on the basis of Jiu Yu Zhi (《九域志》), and then supplemented years later with the Royal History of the Song Dynasty. As for the administrative system of Jin, miscellaneous geographical documents, such as Da Ding Zhi Fang Zhi (《大定职方志》), were used.

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Overview of Westerners-drawn Beijing City Maps in the Late Qing Dynasty
Cao Xinning, Yin Wenjuan
2021, 41 (4):  104-123. 
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Diplomatic staff of the Western powers were permitted to reside in Beijing after 1860. The number of city maps of Beijing drawn by Westerners increased and their accuracy improved significantly. The types and uses of maps were also greatly enriched. This paper first systematically organizes the historical material of these maps, and then classifies them into three categories according to their uses and modes of publication. By taking the perspective of the history of cultural exchanges and using the method of textual analysis in literary studies, we look at these maps as a reflection of Sino-foreign relations in the late Qing Dynasty and the image of Beijing perceived by Westerners.

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Research Notes on the Place Names Related to “the Nanhuai Zhi Xing” of King Ling of Chu
Xiao Yang
2021, 41 (4):  124-127. 
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The “Nanhuai Zhi Xing” (南怀之行) was recorded in the chapter of Xi Nian on the Tsinghua Bamboo Slips, which conformed to historical facts that King Ling of Chu led the troops to fight against Wu in the fourth and fifth year of Zhaogong in Zuo Zhuan. It can be inferred from the war that places named Zhufang, Ji, Li, Ma, Xiarui, Zhongli, Zhoulai, Chao, Fanyang, Suo, Quean, Luorui, Laishan, Nanhuai, Ruqing, Dijizhishan are around the region of Huai River.

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