Historical Geography Research ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 31-43.

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Dialectical Feedbacks of Disaster, Environment, and Charity: Case Study of Rural Social Security System Establishment in Zhili Province During the Reign of Emperor Qianlong

Wang Daxue   

  1. Center for Historical Geographical Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • Received:2019-05-31 Online:2020-02-20 Published:2020-05-07


The reason caused Emperor Qianlong to establish a system of local public welfare granary was the failure of his grain policy. Unsatisfied with the Ever-Normal Granary System or the Community Granary System, he wanted to set up a Public Granary System to attract local storage of grain. The transition from dependence upon official granaries to civil granaries reflected Emperor Qianlong's policy being tightened. His method was to educate people rather than nourish people. Stability of the Zhili (the area surrounding the capital) Province was the priority to Emperor Qianlong and the Public Granary System brought out a good match between relief and regulation for him. Under the broader background of abolishing the Liuyang Zisong policy, the Public Granary System could bring a stable environment because it would reduce the number of refugees staying in the capital city. The setup of Liuyang Ju System meant a compromise and concession to reality for Emperor Qianlong. The distribution of Liuyang Ju was determined by accessibility and physical environment conditions. Overall, the scenario of policy shifts in the 13th year of Qianlong's reign and the establishment of the Public Granary System and the Liuyang Ju System in Zhili Province were the dialectical effects of disaster, environment, and charity taken together.

Key words: disaster, environment, charity, Zhili Province, Emperor Qianlong's reign

CLC Number: 

  • K928