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    A Study of the Governance of Longxi, Beidi and Shang Commanderies in the Early Western Han Dynasty: Centered on the Rank of the Counties as Seen in the Statutes on Salaries ( Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips
    Ma Menglong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 16-30.  
    Abstract471)   HTML61)    PDF (3380KB)(265)      

    This paper compares the surviving and excavated documents and points out that the commandery’s capital county was the highest-ranking among the counties belonging to the same commandery in the Han Dynasty. Based on the rank and order of a commandery’s counties recorded in the Statutes on Salaries (Er Nian Lü Ling: Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips, we can analyze the governance of some commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty. According to the Statutes on Salaries, the capital of Longxi Commandery in the early Western Han Dynasty was Shangli County; Shang Commandery’s capital was Gaonu County, and the capital of Beidi Commandery was Panyang County. Besides, the capital of Hanzhong, Hedong, and Hainai Commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty can also be further inferred by the Statutes on Salaries. This document’s value in the study of capital counties in the early Western Han Dynasty needs to be emphasized.

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    A Study on the Text of the Luo River in Notes on the Book of Rivers and Reconstruction of the River Courses and the Administrative Divisions (Ⅱ)
    Li Xiaojie, Yang Zhiyu, Huang Xuechao, Yang Xiaoyang, Zhao Hailong, Yuan Fang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 1-24.  
    Abstract367)   HTML105)    PDF (7069KB)(338)      

    Notes on the Book of Rivers, one of the masterpieces that focuses on describing rivers and records geographical elements in ancient China, is crucial for researching ancient rivers and changes in administrative divisions. Earlier studies on the Notes on the Book of Rivers mostly concentrated on the dissemination of its various versions or on the history of Li Xue, i.e., the study on the classics and its author Li Daoyuan. However, an intensive geographical examination on the text of Li’s notes per se is missing. On the basis of previous researches of related scholars, Luo River, described in the 15th volume of Notes on the Book of Rivers, is selected and analyzed in conjunction with historical documents and archaeological sources in this paper. Hopefully this paper will serve as a useful trial for the study on Li’s notes. Methodologically, it applies texts collation, historical source tracing, reconstruction of the river courses and administrative divisions, and so on. A reconstructed map with ancient-modern place names and a form with ancient-modern river names are also made to demonstrate the results of this study, which will be of convenience for researchers of the Notes on the Book of Rivers. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part has already been published. The second part covers the region from the San Pass to the junction of Luo river and the Yellow River.

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    Exploration and Analysis on the Criteria of County Tier Designation in Song Dynasty
    Qi Zitong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 57-66.  
    Abstract288)   HTML19)    PDF (803KB)(162)      

    The county system of Song Dynasty basically inherited that of Tang Dynasty, when counties were designated according to the double standards of “political status” and “registered residents”. However, it existed many differences in the county system between Tang and Song Dynasties, and the Later Zhou Dynasty played an important role in this historical evolution. In the Later Zhou Dynasty, Wang county and Jin county lost the qualification to be classified by “political status” but using registered household standard, which was inherited by Song Dynasty. Basically, it was influenced by the impact of Ci Chi county, Ci Ji county. In the early Song Dynasty, the counties under Fu (superior prefecture) were strictly classified according to their political statuses, which was in contrast with counties under Zhou (prefecture) in Later Zhou, designated by registered households. By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the clear-cut division pattern was broken that the counties subordinate to Ci Fu were classified according to the registered households. Also, the meanings of “registered household” was different between Tang and Song Dynasties. It meant the number of households in Tang Dynasty but the number of “main households” that paid two taxes in Song Dynasty. This was also impacted by the policies of Later Zhou Dynasty. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, the policy of county tier designation was dynamic. Till the late Northern Song Dynasty, it gave rise to the mismatch of counties with more registered households but lower county levels. Therefore, a practical solution of disparity between county tier and household registration was to raise the threshold of registered households.

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    A Comparative Study on the Contents of Guangdong Area Depicted on Huangyu Quanlan Tu in Kangxi Reign and Shisanpai Tu in Qianlong Reign, and Also a Comparison to Guangxi Area
    Li Liting, Han Zhaoqing
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 141-151.  
    Abstract265)   HTML41)    PDF (3544KB)(181)      

    Huangyu Quanlan Tu in Kangxi Reign (an overview map of imperial territories in Kangxi Reign) is an official surveyed map with coordinates accomplished in early Qing dynasty, which deeply affected the drawing of maps until early Republic of China. Digitizing the map contributes to the historical geographic data collection of this time section, and then to ascertain the absolute positions of locations on the map, is in favor of the research on natural and human element changes. Taking Guangdong Area as an example, with different georeferencing methods and historical literature, compare Shisanpai Tu in Qianlong Reign (a map with thirteen rows in Qianlong Reign) with Huangyu Quanlan Tu for the inheritance and development of this area. There is also a comparation of changes between Guangdong and Guangxi Area. The study shows that Shisanpai Tu is based on the Huangyu Quanlan Tu. The coordinate system of two maps should be the same, but there is offset. The difference may be relative with the registration method. The contents of two maps changed as well, which reflects the degree of development of the two regions in early Qing Dynasty.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 1-4.  
    Abstract242)   HTML114)    PDF (427KB)(114)      
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    New Analysis on the Ranking System of Counties During the Qing Dynasty
    Hu Heng
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 67-90.  
    Abstract236)   HTML37)    PDF (3852KB)(149)      

    The ranking system of counties first emerged during Yongzheng’s reign, and was generally founded in the 12th year of Qianlong. However, up to 124 adjustments of descriptions and ranks on counties ranks still occurred during the 12th and 43rd year of Qianlong, most of which happened on lower-ranked counties changing into a Zuiyao (most significant) or Yao (significant) ranked ones. In the 43rd year of Qianlong, a new regulation on standardized adjustments of descriptions and ranks was promulgated. Although implemented strictly, many exceptional adjustments were still allowed down to Daoguang’s reign. Changes to description hardly happened during the reigns of Xianfeng and Tongzhi, only to emerge again from the end of Guangxu’s reign to Xuantong’s reign. Provinces had different modes of county distribution, including anti core-edge distribution, core-edge double centered distribution, linear distribution along a river, coastline or transit lines, similar distribution to developed towns, etc. Fuguo(附郭)counties were generally ranked higher than others in 1911, except for only 48 cases non-conformative to the rule. Moreover, as Hunan province showcases, ranks of counties were not in accordance with commercial benefits for the county magistrate.

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    A Study on Changes of Administrative Division of Wuyi Area in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Chen Guofei
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 37-50.  
    Abstract234)   HTML24)    PDF (3480KB)(222)      

    For a time, the Wuyi (five counties) Area was generally located inside the Tanjiang River Basin, a relatively detached geographical unit enclosed by mountains and rivers, when its borders went far beyond the limit of the basin intentionally. Till the Ming dynasty, in order to deal with the local political crisis and civil revolts, the government adjusted the administrative division of the area. Four counties were added or reset, namely Enping, Xinning, Kaiping and Heshan. New borders of these counties were basically in line with the range of Tanjiang River Basin. It was a realization of a geographical unit to affect the forming of administrative borders. In Yongzheng and Qianlong period of Qing Dynasty (1678—1796), the administrative division of this area was roughly accomplished. Xinhui county has become the core county. Along with other four counties in the basin, the Wuyi Area was firstly integrated into a prefecture-level region. The political-geographical changes of Tanjiang River Basin indicated that the geographical environment and local politics played an important role in the forming of political-geographical structure.

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    Reconstruct Martino Martini’s Process of Reckoning the Coordinates in the Provincial Maps of the Working Edition of Guang Yu Ji
    Lin Hong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 117-140.  
    Abstract231)   HTML35)    PDF (9249KB)(111)      

    Novus Atlas Sinensis, the first printed provincial atlas of China in Europe, was published in Amsterdam in 1655. The Atlas had a great influence on European knowledge of China at that time. The maps and geographical descriptions were drawn and compiled by the Jesuit Martino Martini, mainly based on Guang Yu Ji, a Chinese geographical book published in late Ming Dynasty, which Martini brought back to Europe. By close reading the notes appended by Martini himself onto the “working edition” of Guang Yu Ji now held in the Vatican Apostolic Library, with the help of logical reasoning, the author tries to reconstruct the method and process through which he reckoned the coordinates in the provincial maps of the working edition. The author finds out that Martini completed reckoned the coordinates of more than 1 700 settlements based on only few measured or pre-set values of control points. This was the pivotal step of Martini’s map-making technique. Although the method was inaccurate in modern eyes, by applying it in transforming Chinese provincial maps and fit them into Western standards, Martini successfully produced an atlas which met the requirments of the European mapping industry.

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    Textual Research on Dongguan in the Six Dynasties
    Hong Bin
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 152-154.  
    Abstract230)   HTML19)    PDF (401KB)(131)      

    Dongguan Jun (东官郡) was set up at the sixth year of Xianhe in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (331), the name of which is likely derived from the local salt office. Because of the homonym pair of “官” and “莞”, “东官” or “东莞” was used interchangeably in the literature. In Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties, there should have been a unified check which preferred the use of “东官”, such as in the book of annals of prefectures, which is quite different from the materials of biography from the same period. The whole Eastern Jin and the Southern Dynasties period “东官” was never changed into “东莞”. In the second year of Zhide (757) in Tang Dynasty, Bao’an was renamed as Dongguan, which characters are “东莞” that was confused before.

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    A New Exploration of Traffic Lines of Nanyang County in Qin Dynasty Based on the Bamboo-Strip Manuscripts Collected by Peking University
    Zhu Haotian
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 80-91.  
    Abstract221)   HTML29)    PDF (9980KB)(288)      

    The bamboo-strip manuscripts collected by Peking University has recorded a distance by land and water from Dengpanzhu (邓攀渚) to Luyang (鲁阳) in Qin Dynasty. By comparing the field distance using satellite remote-sensing maps, this paper reconstructs the layout of the traffic nodes along the line, such as settlements, warehouses and ferries. On this basis, further textual research on the track was carried as recorded in the bamboo slips. Finally, the transportation position of Nanyang County in the Qin Dynasty during this period can be re-examined.

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    The Diversion of Puyang River and Water Conservancy Transformation of Xiao-Shao Plain in the Ming Dynasty
    Chen Tao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 25-36.  
    Abstract216)   HTML26)    PDF (4055KB)(252)      

    The diversion of Puyang River was key to the development of Xiao-Shao plain in eastern Zhejiang. The archaeological data of the lower Puyang River and the map of Guang Yu Tu (广舆图), which was made in the Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty (1522—1566), demonstrate the basic eastward flow of the Puyang river before its diversion in the middle of Ming Dynasty. The diversion led to the transformation of water affairs in Xiao-Shao plain, re-orienting from the interior of the plain to its edge, and the content of water affairs also changed from “irrigation works” to “flood containment”. The internal reserveoir-centered conservancy system turned to the river wall, sluice, dam and other water conservancy projects so as to resist the invasion of the external rivers and the sea. This transformation also made the rivers and lakes in the Xiao-Shao plain inter-connected into a complete water conservancy system. The establishment and maintenance of the main projects such as Sanjiang Sluice, West River Wall and Maxi Dam brought the three counties of Xiaoshan, Shanyin and Kuaiji in the same plain to form the “shan-kuai-xiao” regional community with water conservancy as the core.

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    Textual Research on the Administrative Areas of the Yingtian Governor in the Ming Dynasty, also Discussing the Belonging of the Chengtian Enclave
    Song Keda
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 91-104.  
    Abstract216)   HTML25)    PDF (2164KB)(89)      

    The office of the Yingtian Governor originated directly from the Governor of Nanzhili and Zhejiang Province, both of which were set up in the first year of Hongxi. When it was officially set up in the fifth year of Xuande, its governing areas should be Yingtian and other ten prefectures rather than only the three prefectures of Suzhou, Songjiang and Changzhou as considered in traditional researches. During the period of Zhengtong, due to the abolishment of the Zhejiang Governor, as well as the need of supervising grain tax collection and water conservancy in the Taihu Lake Basin, the administrative areas of the Yingtian Governor was extended to Western Zhejiang for a long time. Thus, a total of fourteen prefectures were under its administration. As for the prefecture of Chengtian, it had been under the administration of the Huguang Governor after the fourteenth year of Jiajing, but never taken over by the Yingtian Governor. The opinion that Chengtian had been a detached enclave of the Yingtian Governor from the fourteenth year of Jiajing to the beginning of Longqing is not credible. Researchers holding this opinion might be misled by the related records in the current version of the Records of Emperor Shizong of the Ming Dynasty.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 5-10.  
    Abstract213)   HTML58)    PDF (431KB)(132)      
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    The Formation, Characteristics and Historical-Geographical Value of City Construction Inscriptions in the Northwest China of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Zhang Ping
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 67-79.  
    Abstract207)   HTML26)    PDF (873KB)(168)      

    According to incomplete statistics, there are about 269 city construction inscriptions in Northwest China of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Among them, 32 original stelae still exist in the world, which are valuable first-hand materials for studying the history of cities. The city construction inscriptions of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai provinces are most distinctive among this type of inscriptions of the Ming dynasty, which retain a large number of Weisuo (military garrison units) and fortress building inscriptions. The state and county inscriptions mostly have several periods of successive records of city expansion, which are the overall narration of the expansion of city walls. Among all the contents of inscriptions, the state and county related are the most numerous, and the number of Weisuo and fortresses account for a certain proportion. Some other cities, such as post towns, fortress towns, are also preserved, even though the cases are very rare. As the first-hand materials, these inscriptions contain details of the process of city building, the time spent on the project, the amount of silver spent, and the number of donors, etc. These inscriptions are of great historical value for textual research on ancient city-building process, system restoration, social classes, and the expansion of urban functions and forms.

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    Discussion on the Controversy of the Religion and Knowledge on An Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa
    Guo Man
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 105-116.  
    Abstract207)   HTML9)    PDF (1096KB)(269)      

    After the colonial rule of Dutch in Taiwan, the West’s concern for Taiwan has not been ended. On the contrary, there has always been a “Formosa complex”. In 1704, the publication of An Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa written by Psalmanazar, while satisfying the readers’ psychology, was also linked to serious religious and political issues, which led to Propriety Debates. Whether the author was a Taiwanese or not is always been confusing, the analysis of the differences between the different parties about this issue was not only reveals the spread of Taiwan’s knowledge in Europe in the early 18th century, but also the different attitudes of diverse countries to knowledge in different religious beliefs.

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    From Official Rank to Salary Rank: An Investigation on County Tiers in the Tang and Five Dynasties
    Luo Kai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 42-56.  
    Abstract200)   HTML29)    PDF (1043KB)(124)      

    Counties in Tang Dynasty were assigned into four, five, six, seven, eight, ten, etc. tiers according to household registration, official rank, salary rank, transfer order and other different standards. From a diachronic point of view, the county tiers were constantly increasing from six tiers in the early stage to ten tiers in the later stage. One exception was during the Tianbao years, the lowest tier of counties was cancelled. However, the designations of Wang (望), Jin (紧), Ci Chi (次赤) and Ci Ji (次畿) counties had no direct relationship with the number of registered permanent residents, but rather reflected more if the county was fertile or barren. Among them, the problem of Ci Chi county was particularly complicated, because it can be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses. However, a comprehensive analysis shows that the system of Ci Chi county had already appeared in the early years of Daizong Period at the latest. The salary rank formed from the late Daizong Period to the early Dezong Period had a new impact on the county tiers in the late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties. In Five Dynasties, the county tier was determined by the number of registered households, although different dynasties had different standards, either complicated or simple. In summary, in the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, the criteria for county tiers changed from official rank to salary rank.

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    The Establishment of Chahar Special Administrative Region and Disputes in Administrative Adjustment
    Li Xiaopeng
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 51-66.  
    Abstract191)   HTML22)    PDF (3109KB)(191)      

    Special Administrative Region was one type of high administrative district, which was established in the Inner Mongolia area in early years of the Republic of China. Due to the borderland crisis, local political and economic situations became important reasons for the special administrative distract establishment. In consideration of vast Mongolian banner area and narrow county area, the central government put Special Administrative Regions into forces instead of provinces. Because of local governors scrambling counties for increasing fiscal revenue, the administrative regions were prone to intense disputes, especially in Chahar area. And in the borderland, ethnic group, military strategy and distance became critical factors in the adjustment of counties.

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    An Analysis of the Classification of Counties Under the Official Rank System of the Liang Dynasty
    Yao Le
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 31-41.  
    Abstract189)   HTML33)    PDF (725KB)(87)      

    Analyzing the cases of selection and transfer of county officials in the Liang Dynasty (502-557 AD), the system can be characterized by the rules of “Counties divide into seven classes” and “Officials of large counties equal those at the sixth class” existed at that time. In the actual operation of the system, many county officials were employed below the proper class, i.e. it was common for the seniority of the county officials to exceed the rank of the county. The counties of high rank seen in the official history were all located within the territory of Yangzhou, Nanxuzhou, and mainly belonged to the prefectures of Danyang, Wu, Wuxing and Kuaiji, which were the heartland of the empire. This is not only a result of the bias of history books, but also a direct reflection of the political conditions in the above-mentioned areas. The most important factor influencing the official’s rank of each county is its population. Taking other factors into consideration, it is believed that the highest-ranking counties which were at the sixth class may have been classified by the criterion of having 5 000 households. The analysis of the rank of each county can also improve our knowledge of the population distribution at that time.

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    A Study on the “Shaerhu Road” of the Hami-Turfan Section of the Silk Road in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Song Lizhou
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 92-104.  
    Abstract185)   HTML20)    PDF (1679KB)(188)      

    Based on the study of Map of Mongolian Landscape and other documents, this article restores and verifies the “Shaerhu Road”. This road starts from Shaerhu (Shaer Lake) in the southwest of Hami, then turns northwest to Shanshan, finally reaches Turpan, which is different from either Heifengchuan Road in the Ming Dynasty or Xiaonan Road in the Qing Dynasty. The terrain along the road is flat, with spring water and vegetation. It was an important section of the Silk Road in the Ming Dynasty, and continue to be used until the Qing Dynasty. It was widely used in the political and military confrontation between Ming and Turpan, Qing and Junggar in Hami, but was deserted due to the drying spring lake and hot climate.

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    “The State Advances as the Private Sector Retreats” in Modern Chinese Postal Space
    Wang Zhe
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 119-138.  
    Abstract164)   HTML22)    PDF (9127KB)(72)      

    Postal network was a modern element with the characteristic of “spatiality”. For modern China, it was mainly composed of various corporate entities such as Minxin (native postal services), owned by small private capital, and state-run postal services. After its establishment, the Chinese Imperial Post began to encroach on the operating space of Minxin. Based on the digitization work of the 1936 Postal Atlas, published by the Post of Republic of China, it was found that after nearly 40 years, the state-run post had basically completed the integration and construction of a nationwide postal space. In this process, the state-run postal service prudently imitated the operation modes of the Minxin and adopted a variety of innovative business strategies. In addition to building a convenient and fast postal network within and between large and medium-sized cities, the state-run postal service also adopted new business strategies such as “postal agency” in rural areas that could not be covered by railway and road at a very low cost, and completed the coupling with the traditional rural grassroots “periodical market” network. Basically, it has achieved the effect wherever there was commerce, there was postal service. The “postal agglomeration” formed by the state-run postal network and the concentration of postal points have also become a prominent external spatial representation of modernization and a good macro-external indicator for defining the so-called “core” and “peripheral” spaces.

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    Research on Process and Mechanism of Mianzhou City’s Relocation in Qing Dynasty
    Ma Jian, Zhang Yubo
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 105-118.  
    Abstract145)   HTML19)    PDF (1760KB)(87)      

    During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, the flood of Fujiang River seriously affected the integrity of Mianzhou city and the normal operation of local governmental institutions after the change of its course. Due to the impending war in Jinchuan and shortage of funds, the governor of Sichuan gave up repairing the walled-city and set Luojiang as the prefecture-leveled city instead. During the Jiaqing period, the local gentry and people jointly maneuvered for the return to the old Mianzhou, which regained its strategic importance during the White Lotus Uprising. The uniqueness of natural setting and historical inertia of human location, which reflected regional difference of flood environmental effect, are the reasons that lead to the relocation and return. The combination of the decision-making process of “actors” and the analysis of geographical mechanism in the study of city relocation is vital to the understanding on the causal relationship and primary or secondary factors, and the presentation of a vivid historical outlook and gaining in-depth historical cognition.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 138-138.  
    Abstract138)   HTML22)    PDF (576KB)(73)      
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    Diary of a Field Trip for Old Watercourse of Yellow River from June 3rd to July 9th in 1977
    Zou Yilin, Zou Zhenhuan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 139-156.  
    Abstract128)   HTML19)    PDF (2447KB)(115)      

    Zou Yilin followed Tan Qixiang to Zhengzhou, Xingyang, Anyang, Xunxian, Huaxian, Puyang, Daming, Handan, Xinxiang, Yanjin, Kaifeng and Xuzhou from June 3rd to July 9th in 1977, making a field trip to investigate the old watercourses of Yellow River. During the trip, Zou Yilin wrote a diary of itinerary, experience and thoughts. The diary is meaningful for recorded the whole field work of Tan’s team, as well as for researchers to know more about the changes of Yellow River watercourses.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 155-155.  
    Abstract127)   HTML19)    PDF (134KB)(146)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 11-15.  
    Abstract119)   HTML24)    PDF (381KB)(61)      
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    Topography and River-Lake Environment along the Lower Yellow River After Tongwaxiang Breach (1855-1911)
    Gu Shuai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 46-64.  
    Abstract118)   HTML13)    PDF (7111KB)(79)      

    In 1855, the Yellow River moved northward in the aftermath of the Tongwaxiang breach, which had a great impact on the topography of the downstream area and the environment of rivers and lakes. In the Shandong plain to the west of the Great Canal, the sediment deposition resulted in the elevation of the terrain, while the flood flow of the Yellow River in this area even disturbed the original water system. In the lower reaches of Wenhe River and Sishui River, it was difficult to drain water because of the high riverbed of the Yellow River. The formation and expansion of Dongping Lake was the result of the increasing water accumulation in the area. In the plain area on the west side of the hills from Changqing to Qidong in the middle of Shandong Province, affected by the silting up of riverbed of the Yellow River or the back-flow of its water, it was difficult to discharge water into the Yellow River, which directly prompt the opening of the New Qinghe River. In the basin of Tuhai River, affected by the breach of the Yellow River, many tributaries of the Tuhai River were silted, while the Tuhai River was scoured wide and deep by the Yellow River. After the breach of the Yellow River in Lijin in 1907, the tail reach of Tuhai River was also silted up.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 6-9.  
    Abstract108)   HTML128)    PDF (711KB)(74)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 104-104.  
    Abstract102)   HTML14)    PDF (408KB)(72)      
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    The Resurrection and Spreading of Caodong School(曹洞宗) During Northern Song Dynasty: Based on Furong Daokai's Activities
    Shen Guoguang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 138-152.  
    Abstract102)   HTML15)    PDF (4864KB)(78)      

    Abstract: In the middle and late Northern Song Dynasty, Caodong school as one of the Zen began to revive. Furong Daokai (芙蓉道楷) was a monk of importance in Caodong School (曹洞宗) during Northern Song Dynasty. This essay, based on the inscription of Daokai and relevant materials, restores Daokai's history of life and the basic process of his preaching Buddism. The region from Suizhou(随州) up north to the surroundings of Dongjing (东京) became a significant area for Daokai and his dharma heirs. Owing to Daokai's influence, his followers took up the positions of numerous famous monasteries and mountains, which was a turning point in the trend of Caodong School. Although Daokai was demoted when in Dongjing, this was due to his personal clash with Tan Zhen. Because of the relationship between Daokai and monks and laymen in Dongjing, Daokai's relegation exerted no negative influence on the promotion of Caodong School in Dongjing immediately. But in the long run, the monks from Dahongshang were no longer appointed abbots of the monasteries in Dongjing. The Caodong school lost the Dongjing as their preaching area, and turned to preach in south of the Yangtze River.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 14-21.  
    Abstract98)   HTML21)    PDF (1320KB)(60)      
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    A Study of “E”, West “E” and East “E”—on the origin “E” as the abbreviation of Hubei Province
    Wang Hongxing, Lu Chuan, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 91-100.  
    Abstract94)   HTML11)    PDF (6530KB)(33)      

    This paper clarifies the location changes of several different E's at Xiangning, Qinyang, Suizhou and Nanyang and their relationship between each other based on archaeological material and previous scholarship. The earliest E State was established at modern Suizhou by the court of the Western Zhou in order to control the nearby Huai and Jing Barbarians. During king Yi's reign, it was moved to the West E located in modern Xindian township of Nanyang city, marking the shrinking of the southern defensive line. In the early Spring and Autumn Period, the West E State was extincted and the Nanyang Basin was incorporated into the Chu State. Around the mid-Warring States Period, this place became the fief of the Lord of E. It was not until the War at Chuisha that the Lord of E moved eastward to the capital city of Daye, which was the beginning of the East E. In the Qin and early Western Han Dynasty, the central court established E County at the place of former East E, and later established another county in the Nanyang Basin, the West E, so as to distinguish from the East E. As for E being Hubei's abbreviation, it was not directly related to the E State in Western Zhou or the West E in the Nanyang Basin, but rather to the provincial capital. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Jiangxia (in modern Wuchang of Wuhan) was an important transportation hub. Since Wuchang was also named as E, the later eventually became the abbreviation of modern Hubei Province.

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    A Different Viewpoint on the Ancient Fortress Site of Haiyan County from Qin Dynasty to the Early Western Han Dynasty
    Wang Bin, Chen Ji
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 101-110.  
    Abstract91)   HTML15)    PDF (3573KB)(48)      

    There have been three different viewpoints on the ancient fortress site of Haiyan County from Qin Dynasty to the early Western Han Dynasty: the north foot of Dajinshan, Qijiadun, and Dianshan. While each of them is reasonable in its own right, they are not correct and true in all details. The archaeological excavations of Zhashan ancient cultural site in 1973, 2008, 2017 (Block N) and 2018 (Block L) provide us with new clues and ideas, that is, the fortress site of Haiyan County during the said period maybe located on the east side of Zhashan. This paper takes the story of Gongbeimen stone tablet, which was popular in the Jinshanwei region, as the point of departure, and makes full use of the remains collected from the surface of the area, the existing archaeological work reports, the multidisciplinary data or research results of historical philology and meteorological geology as well to test the new hypothesis. It is hoped that this discussion will benefit future site exploration and accurate positioning of the Haiyan fortress.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 1-5.  
    Abstract88)   HTML144)    PDF (733KB)(58)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 10-13.  
    Abstract85)   HTML123)    PDF (650KB)(62)      
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    The Inlandization of Frontier Administrative Divisions in Republican China: Taking Dengkou County as an Example
    Yu Hao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 79-90.  
    Abstract85)   HTML14)    PDF (3454KB)(61)      

    Dengkou County, now under the jurisdiction of Bayan Nur City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is located in the west part of Hetao Plain and agro-pastoral ecotone in northwestern China. The area was the fiefdom of Alxa Lord in the Qing Dynasty. Due to the convenient conditions of irrigation and water transportation along the Yellow River, the Catholic Church established a Catholic society in Dengkou area by reclaiming land, constructing irrigation canals, and attracting the poor farmers of the Han population in Shaanxi and Gansu since the late Qing Dynasty. During the period of the Republic of China, along with the gradual increasing of Han immigrants in Dengkou area, Gansu Province and Ningxia Province separated from Gansu tried to continue the policy of “The Mongols are governed by Qi, while the Han are governed by counties”, which from Qing period and based on the principle of personal jurisdiction. At the same time, Gansu and Ningxia Province tried to extend the political power to Dengkou and establish the county administration. The political competition and the benefit struggle in Dengkou area reflected the frontier policy of the central government during the Republic of China, and also reflected the influence on the administrative divisions of different groups and various forces in frontier areas.

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    New Study on the Administrative Rank of Prefectures in the Jin Dynasty
    Li Dahai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 65-78.  
    Abstract84)   HTML13)    PDF (2736KB)(57)      

    It's generally accepted in academia that the various prefectural governments, were divided, top-down, into capital prefecture, general prefecture and the third class Sanfu (散府) in the Jin Dynasty. This paper holds that, from the point of view of administrative division, the above division blurs the difference between the general office of administrative organization and the general prefecture's capital town. It also conceals the fact that “Jingfu” (the Capital prefecture) in Jin Shi and other documents refers not only to the capital prefecture Lu (诸京路). Depending on the administrative status of the authorities they host, the various prefectural governments can be divided into the capital prefecture Lu's town, general prefecture Lu's town and non-general prefecture Lu or third rank Sanfu's town. There is no direct correlation between the aforementioned order and the upper, middle and lower tier system, which is mainly composed of demographic factors, and they are independent from each other. It is helpful in understanding the actual practice of the administrative divisions in the Yuan Dynasty and revealing the great turning point of the development of the Lu system during Jin and Yuan Dynasties.

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    The Technological, Environmental and Political Elements Behind Institution: The Case Study of the Special Annual Repair Funds of Chai'tang During the Qing Dynasty
    Wang Daxue
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 22-33.  
    Abstract81)   HTML12)    PDF (2699KB)(65)      

    The large-scale reconstruct from Chai'tang (seawalls which built with firewoods) to Shi'tang (stone sewalls) in Zhejiang Province began with the fifth Southern Tour of the Qianlong Emperor. Qianlong hoped to achieve monumental feats through the Grand Canal engineering and seawall projects, so he ordered to wait for an opportunity to change the Chai'tang into Shi'tang, which need not rebuilt. He stressed that the Chai'tang should be used as the water tank and it need not paired annually as this practice violated the technical requirements of Shi'tang revetment project. Qianlong was well aware that if the indirect embankment protect works was still needed to be constructed and maintained for the new Shi'tang, it would undoubtedly show that his decision was wrong. When the courtiers talked about the need to build apron or repair the Chai'tang annually, which acted as an external protection for Shi'tang, his reaction was as follows: he repeatedly claimed that Chai'tang as an external protection for Shi'tang did not need to be repaired. He passed the blame for the decision-making mistakes on to the relevant courtiers, and vaguely or explicitly ordered the imperial commissioner to pass the responsibilities to local stakeholders. Even though the emperor tried his best to maintain that his decisions were correct, the objective technical requirements eventually convinced him to approve the special silver system of Chai'tang Annual Repairing, which also explained the initial decision was improper. The whole process shows that technology and environment often take a back seat to politics when it comes to the institutional issues of large public water projects in ancient times.The complexity of history is highlighted by the interweaving of institutional, technological, environmental and political factors.

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    The Transition of the Penal Colony System in Song Dynasty and its Influence
    Cheng Tao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 125-137.  
    Abstract80)   HTML8)    PDF (4188KB)(54)      

    As the Cipei (literally, prick and expel) punishment was abused in judicatory practice of Song Dynasty, the number of fugitives convicted for expulsion increased significantly. Accordingly, the Song court transferred and dispersed the convicts from the capital and its environs to remote regions in the south. However, by the turn of the Southern Song, the exiled criminals gradually assembled in the Five Ridges, where they joined the forces of Yankou (salt bandits) and Dongkou (minority bandits), resulting in a chronic threat to the stability in the region and its surrounding areas.

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    The Operation of Yuze Reporting System in Counties in the Late Qing Dynasty: A Case Study Based on Xunhua Archives
    Liu Bingtao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 34-45.  
    Abstract77)   HTML14)    PDF (2837KB)(73)      

    In historical periods, Chinese emperors paid great attention to local precipitation and required local government to report precipitation to the central government regularly. This paper mainly uses the Xunhua (循化) archives to investigate the practice of Yuze (***) reporting system in counties in the late Qing Dynasty. There were reports every ten days and monthly ones. Both are required to record daily information including the weather condition, precipitation, begin-and-end time of rainfall. What's more, there was a special report to record rain in summer and snow in winter. It is an important guarantee to ensure the accuracy of Yuze (雨泽) reports to check the record format, time, clients and information of local government by sensior officials from prefectures, provinces, and ministries. In addition, the report from agrarian officials was also one of the sources of reports of rainfall and harvest.

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    Three Use and Three Break: Study on the Use of Narin Road in Qing Dynasty
    Wang Qiming
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 111-124.  
    Abstract62)   HTML10)    PDF (3947KB)(54)      

    After reading the Manchu and Chinese records in Beijing and Taibei's archives, the article firstly discovers that the Qing army used the Narin Road to relocate the Ili troops to Kashgar and patrolled on the Burut's border in three stages from the end of the eighteenth century to the 1830s, to achieve the dual effect of incorporating borderland inspection into the rotation of troops. Secondly, the article discusses the origin of the use of this road, the rotation process and its evolution, the reason of deserting the road, and the final influences and so forth. Lastly, the article argues that the map with the description “from Ili to Kashgar by Narin meadow road” is an attachment with annotation of the Ili General Deyingga's memorial to the emperor on September fourteenth of the seventh year of Daoguang.

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