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    Eastern Main Road in the Sichuan Basin and the Vicissitude of the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”
    Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 1-17.  
    Abstract399)   HTML206)    PDF (869KB)(370)      

    During the Tang and Song Dynasties, two ancient highways were formed in the Sichuan Basin, known as the Northern and Southern Roads respectively. The Southern Road was less prominent. Yet, it was the predecessor of the Eastern Main Road in later times. Against the background that the political and economic center of the Sichuan Basin moved eastward and southward in Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chongqing ascended in importance and could rival Chengdu. The Eastern Main Road gradually took shape and flourished. In the Ming Dynasty, there were 12 post stations along the Eastern Main Road, which were largely inherited in the Qing Dynasty. Along the road were also a large number of shops and posts. The total mileage of the Eastern Main Road was about 1 000 li (500 meters) comprising in total of 10 stages, which would take 11 to 12 days to travel. The western section was often travelled by boat on the Tuojiang River. The Eastern Main Road took shape in the early Ming Dynasty. At the beginning, it was called the “Southeast road”, the “East Road of Sichuan”, or the “East road”. The name “Eastern Main Road” was formed in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. It has natural and cultural advantages such as connecting Chengdu and Chongqing, low terrain agriculture, abundant water resource, access to the rivers and sea, and close to the salt mines. It was the primary road in the Sichuan Basin and it gave birth to the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”. Since the 1990s, the status of “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt” has declined, but the strategy of “Chengdu-Chongqing Double-city Economic Circle” has brought opportunities for the revitalization of the ancient Eastern Main Road.

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    Overview of Westerners-drawn Beijing City Maps in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Cao Xinning, Yin Wenjuan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 104-123.  
    Abstract356)   HTML67)    PDF (46549KB)(360)      

    Diplomatic staff of the Western powers were permitted to reside in Beijing after 1860. The number of city maps of Beijing drawn by Westerners increased and their accuracy improved significantly. The types and uses of maps were also greatly enriched. This paper first systematically organizes the historical material of these maps, and then classifies them into three categories according to their uses and modes of publication. By taking the perspective of the history of cultural exchanges and using the method of textual analysis in literary studies, we look at these maps as a reflection of Sino-foreign relations in the late Qing Dynasty and the image of Beijing perceived by Westerners.

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    The Literature Sources of Jin Shi Di Li Zhi
    Zhang Liang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 94-103.  
    Abstract328)   HTML40)    PDF (773KB)(122)      

    When the Geographical Records of the History of Jin Dynasty (Jin Shi Di Li Zhi, 《金史·地理志》) was being compiled, its authors didn’t have access to the original texts of the Guo Shi (《国史》) of the Jin Dynasty. The foundation of this work was laid by Wang E (王鹗) at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, and it was not completed until its end. Its contents were divided according to the conquered territories formerly belonged to Liao and Song, and the source material used can be easily distinguished. Specifically, the part on the former Liao territory was based on Chen Daren’s Liao Shi (《辽史》), and the Song part was formulated on the basis of Jiu Yu Zhi (《九域志》), and then supplemented years later with the Royal History of the Song Dynasty. As for the administrative system of Jin, miscellaneous geographical documents, such as Da Ding Zhi Fang Zhi (《大定职方志》), were used.

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    Research on Zong Ze’s Hometown in Yiwu
    Zhu Haibin
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 77-93.  
    Abstract316)   HTML41)    PDF (1846KB)(239)      

    Since the middle and late Ming Dynasty, the legend that Zong Ze was born in Shibantang (石板塘) village and later moved to Niansanli Town is popular in Yiwu County. Textual research reveals that the related documents about Yiwu Zong’s genealogy descending from the Southern Song Dynasty were counterfeited in the late Ming Dynasty. On this basis and using the biographic chronicle of Zong Ze compiled by Qiao Xingjian, it is pointed out that Zongtang village is the birthplace of Zong Ze. Finally, the relevant geographical information from the epitaphs and poems written by Zong Ze, Chen Liang, Huang Jin, etc. is extracted. From the perspective of life circle, the geographical information proves that Zongtang village is the actual hometown of Zong Ze, while neither Shibantang village or Niansanli Town fit the geographical relationship as documented in Song and Yuan dynasties.

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    A Study on Dry and Wet Conditions in the Western Part of the Jianghuai Region During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Liu Yuqing, Chen Yexin
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 18-30.  
    Abstract306)   HTML182)    PDF (2792KB)(185)      

    In this paper, the historical data about drought and flood in the western part of the Jianghuai (江淮) region in Ming and Qing dynasties are sorted out, and quantified hierarchically by year and county. Then, by calculating the average grade value of drought and flood and the 10-year moving average value, the time series of dry-wet change in this area from 1450 to 1911 are reconstructed. The results show that there were six dry-wet phases in this area. From 1450 to 1490, the drought was mainly mild. From 1491 to 1545, drought and flood disasters occurred frequently, and the fluctuation of dry and wet climate was obvious. From 1546 to 1625, there were few droughts and floods, and the dry and wet conditions were relatively stable. From 1626 to 1710, moderate drought events were dominant, and the frequency of extreme drought events increased significantly. From 1711 to 1860, wetness dominated. From 1861 to 1911, dry-wet trend fluctuated and tended to be wet. Lakes in this region were also affected in dry and wet stages.

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    Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed Prefectures in the Five Dynasties
    Qu Kale
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 43-61.  
    Abstract295)   HTML176)    PDF (4579KB)(251)      

    On the basis of the existing system in late Tang Dynasty, regimes of the Five Dynasties continued to set up Tuanlianshi-governed and Fangyushi-governed prefectures. By the end of the Later Zhou, there were 19 Fangyushi-governed prefectures and 10 Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures. In the meantime, the conglomeration of Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures gradually moved eastward from Guanzhong and the west of Central Plain to the Central Plain, with Luoyang and Bianzhou as the center. Towards the end of Later Zhou Dynasty, Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures were concentrated in the Central Plain, Huainan, Southern Hebei, and showed a trend of continuous integration. Furthermore, Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures had become an important measure of the central government to weaken the power of the Fangzhen. After setting up Fangyushi-governed or Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures, Fangzhen with jurisdiction over more than three prefectures tended dissolve and became similar to those with two prefectures, which greatly strengthened the central government’s control over local military affairs.

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    Research Notes on the Place Names Related to “the Nanhuai Zhi Xing” of King Ling of Chu
    Xiao Yang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 124-127.  
    Abstract247)   HTML46)    PDF (3930KB)(123)      

    The “Nanhuai Zhi Xing” (南怀之行) was recorded in the chapter of Xi Nian on the Tsinghua Bamboo Slips, which conformed to historical facts that King Ling of Chu led the troops to fight against Wu in the fourth and fifth year of Zhaogong in Zuo Zhuan. It can be inferred from the war that places named Zhufang, Ji, Li, Ma, Xiarui, Zhongli, Zhoulai, Chao, Fanyang, Suo, Quean, Luorui, Laishan, Nanhuai, Ruqing, Dijizhishan are around the region of Huai River.

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    On the Multiple Attributes of the Lords of Chu Counties During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period
    Zheng Yifan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 31-42.  
    Abstract240)   HTML150)    PDF (858KB)(161)      

    The lords of Chu counties of the pre-Qin period were usually equated to the county level administers of the time after the Qin and Han dynasties. However, judging from their activities and the roles they played in history, the lords of Chu counties of this time shared obvious features with the enfeoffed nobilities, and not exactly like an administrative bureaucrat. Most of the lords of counties originated from the royal house or the most powerful noble families, and they had the power and influence that far exceeded those of local officials. They also spent a lot of time on the capital and participated in the making of state policies and leading military acts. At the same time, the lords of counties also had a stronger connection with the place they were named by, compared to the local administers of later times. A better understanding of the “xian gong” (lords of counties) group requires a more comprehensive knowledge of the nature of counties at this time and depends on a deep reflection on the limit of the dichotomy between the so called “feudalism” and the “prefecture-county” institutional system.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 128-139.  
    Abstract232)   HTML48)    PDF (802KB)(530)      
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    Governing Policies and Local Reactions: A Study on the Development of Ruoqiang During the Qing Dynasty
    Wang Pian
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 62-76.  
    Abstract200)   HTML45)    PDF (4022KB)(137)      

    This study casts light on the small-scale regional development and city-building in Ruoqiang during the Qing. The main material of the study includes Chinese historical records, English language reports of modern surveys and field investigations. The unparalleled advantageous location of Ruoqiang city in terms of transportation brought it prosperity. Ruoqiang is a nodal city on the passage from Xinjiang to Qinghai and Gansu, and the region is characterised by its dotted oases. However, the migrations and the local inhabitants held different reactions to the central government’s policies. The migrations to Ruoqiang clustered around Chaklik (Ruoqiang), and their cultivation activities held the pattern of discarding after poor harvest. Meanwhile, the native inhabitants, represented by the Lop people, moved to the Milan oasis and readapted to new lifestyles. This study shows that the opening-up of Ruoqiang, under the Qing’s policy of Systems the Same to That of Mainland, resulted in the behaviour readaptations of different social groups, while the dotted oases maintained a relative balance between them.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 152-152.  
    Abstract179)   HTML37)    PDF (97KB)(106)      
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    Supplementary Study on Further Textual Research on Tang-Dynasty Provisional Prefectures and Provisional Counties
    Hu Axiang, Lei Xinghe
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 1-16.  
    Abstract157)   HTML391)    PDF (857KB)(87)      

    Provisional prefectures and provisional counties in the Tang Dynasty consist of a special form of administrative division that derived from regular prefectures and counties with their governing centers locatedelsewhere. Based on Shengbo Guo’s study and my own textual research, the Tang court set up at least 37 provisional prefectures and 42 provisional counties, especially in the early and mid-late period of the dynasty, and many of them were in Jiannan, Guannei, Hebei and Longyou Circuits (Dao). These provisional prefectures and provisional counties were set up in strategic sites, indicating their political and military value. Setting up provisional administrative units inside regular administrative divisions would create frictions on local governance. The provisional units led by indigenous leaders may undermine the imperial court’s influence on the frontier region and hence impede their developments into regular administrative units. The dislocation of provisional administrative units could also create misunderstandings on toponyms. These are all negative effects of the Tang-dynasty provisional prefectures and provisional counties.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 140-152.  
    Abstract143)   HTML34)    PDF (1103KB)(138)      
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    Three Corrections to the Qinfeng Lu Map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China
    Yuan Fang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 129-134.  
    Abstract115)   HTML31)    PDF (4986KB)(37)      

    There are two places in the Qinfeng Lu map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China that had been mistakenly placed, and one missing from the map. Laiyuan Zhai is in fact located in Donghanping, to southwest of Peijiazhuang, Luomen Town, Wushan County, Tianshui City, rather than Yuanhe Village, Mali Town. Weiyuan Zhai is not Zhenxing Fortress in Tan’ge Town, but near Liaoyang Village and Waner Village in Luomen Town. Meanwhile, Daluomen Zhai is located along the Da’nan River in the north of Simen Town. The three forts, Laiyuan, Daluomen and Weiyuan, jointly controlled the Luomen Valley and were vital to the defense of the Weihe River valley in the west of Qinzhou.

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    Research on the Desertification of Ancient Oases at the Lower Reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basin
    Li Bingcheng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 1-10.  
    Abstract105)   HTML19)    PDF (725KB)(46)      

    On the lower reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basis, there was a desertified area once an oasis, it was about 80 square kilometers. On the ancient oasis area, many relics were scattered, such as Huyangdun Buddha temple ruins, Tuopulukedun Buddha Temple ruins, Big Graveyard, Huyang Graveyard, Kalaqin Ancient City, and Sipier Ancient City. The textual research shows the Kalaqin Ancient City was Kanchengzhen (Kanzhou) in Tang Dynasty, also the Phema City. In those years, the Kalaqin Ancient City was of a large population, commercially developed, and prosperous for Buddhism, but abandoned and desertified after 790 A.D. The Sipier Ancient City was the former capital of Qule State in Han Dynasty, but also abandoned and desertified in late Wei and Jin dynastys. The author analyzed two stages of desertification in the ancient oases and its causes.

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    Digitization of Old Maps Based on Machine Learning and Image Morphology: an Example of Surface Water Extraction in Modern Shanghai
    Chai Baohui
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 117-133.  
    Abstract105)   HTML11)    PDF (7561KB)(35)      

    Modern maps drawn using scientific surveying and mapping technology are precious historical geographical data source, directly showing land cover information in the past. Digitization is a necessary way to extract the historical land cover and its changes from old maps. This paper proposes an old map digitization method based on machine learning and image morphology analysis, and takes the “Eastern China: Shanghai” map as an example to elaborate its implementation process and verify the effectiveness. Results show that the method can fully utilize the color information and morphological information in the map, and extract the surface water information quickly and accurately in a semi-automatic manner. The proposed method can be applied to the digital extraction of land cover information with color characteristics in most color modern maps. It shows great potential to provide both data and method basis for accurately restoring land cover changes and understanding the evolution in man-land relationship since modern times.

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    Changes of the Jurisdiction and Authorities of the Nan Gan Governor During the Middle and Late Ming Dynasty
    Ruan Ge
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 35-47.  
    Abstract98)   HTML31)    PDF (1053KB)(58)      

    During the Hongzhi reign of Ming Dynasty, the central government set up the Nan Gan Governor to strengthen its management of the Nanling Mountainous Area. The Nan Gan Governor was allocated a vast area encompassing four provinces under its jurisdiction. While it seemed that the jurisdiction of the Nan Gan Governor was vast, its actual authority of office was rather limited by the central government and, consequently, its administration often hindered. At the end of the Jiajing reign, in order to strengthen its governance and expand its jurisdiction area, Nan Gan Governor proposed to set up a new county in neighboring Guangdong province and transfer it to Ganzhou-fu, Jiangxi Province. This action immediately aroused the collective opposition of Guangdong officials. After that, the two sides competed for the establishment of Pingyuan County. Focusing on the dispute over the establishment of counties, this paper discusses the evolution of the governor’s jurisdiction and authorities by combing various efforts from the Nan Gan Governor in order to break the governance dilemma in the middle and late Ming Dynasty.

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    Research on Selection Mechanism of Bingbei Dao’s Station in Ming Dynasty, Taking Chengui Bingbei Dao as an Example
    Zhao Wentao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 25-34.  
    Abstract94)   HTML353)    PDF (1423KB)(63)      

    The Bingbei Dao was set up to pacify turmoils in Ming Dynasty. It is of obvious military characteristics. After the mid-Ming, the Ming court made Bingbei Dao to merge with Shouxun Dao so as to strengthen its control over the provinces. This move resulted the Bingbei Dao gaining civil administrative and supervising responsibilities. At present, historians tend to attribute Bingbei Dao station’s strategic location to its military function. It is however a misreading and has ignored the fact that essentially the Bingbei Dao is not simply a military unit, but also an important category of government organizations. Taking the Chengui Bingbei Dao as an example, this article aims to work out the process from its establishment to merger with the Shanghunan Dao in the period of Jiajing, and then to the period of Wanli when its station was determined. It could be seen that the selection of Bingbei Dao’s station is part and parcel of the governing strategy of the Ming court. As the strategy changed, both the expansion of Bingbei Dao’s responsibilities and the interplay between provincial governors exerted influences on determining Chengui Bingbei Dao’s station.

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    Research on Qinzhou’s Migration and Governance Affairs in Tang and Song Dynasties
    Meng Zhangwang, Chen Qiliu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 17-24.  
    Abstract93)   HTML352)    PDF (1165KB)(59)      

    Qinzhou got its name in the 18th year of Emperor Kaihuang in the Sui Dynasty. During Tang Dynasty, it was either named Qinzhou or Ningyue Prefecture. Since Song Dynasty till today, Qinzhou’s name has not changed. Throughout the historical-geographic evolutions of Qinzhou, there have been four administrative seats, namely Qinjiang, Lingshan, Nanbin, and Anyuan, with three movements took place during Tang and Song dynasties. There are nearly ten different viewpoints in historical records on those three movements of Qinzhou’s seat of governance. Through differentiating and analyzing the different statements, it could be inferred that between the first year of Tianbao in Tang Dynasty and the fifth year of Kaibao of Song Dynasty, Qinzhou moved from Qinjiang County to Lingshan County, and its seat was Jiuzhou Town in Lingshan County. In the first year of Tiansheng in Song Dynasty, it moved from Lingshan County to Nanbinzhai, where it was located in Lingcheng Town of Lingshan County. In the sixth year of Jiayou in Song Dynasty, it moved from Nanbinzhai to Anyuan County, which was the Qinzhou City today.

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    A Comparative Study on the Northeastern Part of the Three Measured Maps in Qing Dynasty
    Yang Liting
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 103-116.  
    Abstract87)   HTML6)    PDF (7623KB)(30)      

    This paper compares the geographical elements, such as traffic stations, river systems, village names, and prefectures or counties’ names, of the northeastern part of the three measured maps in Qing Dynasty, including two versions of the Kangxi Huangyu Quanlan Tu, the Yongzheng Shipai Tu and the Qianlong Shisanpai Tu. It shows that, at least in the northeastern part, the copper plate version of the Huangyu Quanlan Tu’s relationship with the Shipai Tu and the Shisanpai Tu is closer than that of the Fuchs version of Huangyu Quanlan Tu. And the geographical element information in Shisanpai Tu was mainly derived from the Shipai Tu.

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    Low Field and Deepwater Rice Planting along Dianchi Lake from the 16th Century to the 1960s
    Geng Jin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 11-23.  
    Abstract84)   HTML13)    PDF (6401KB)(62)      

    The water area of Dianchi Lake is basically stable from Ming and Qing dynasties thanks to the annual dredging of the Haikou area. Still, seasonal change in water level is not completely solved due to frequent flood disasters. The deep rice was gradually planted systematically in Ming and Qing dynasties along the coast of Dianchi Lake to adapt to the seasonal changes in the waters in the Dianchi Lake, realizing the ecological coupling of low-field deepwater rice cultivation with seasonal changes in the water level. The situation changed completely in the late 1960s. With the construction of reservoirs and other water conservancy projects in the upper reaches of the Dianchi Lake, the lakeside and low fields were gradually drained, and the water environment for the deepwater rice was lost. From the point of view of the interactive relationship between the water environment of the Dianchi Lake and rice-growing ecology, if only the regional environment changes regularly for a long time, human beings may gradually turn “harm” into “benefit”, which is the proof of human wisdom to adapt to and make use of nature.

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    Spatial-Temporal Distribution and Transformation Characteristics of Administrative Divisions in the 19 th Century Vietnam
    Han Zhoujing
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 63-72.  
    Abstract73)   HTML38)    PDF (757KB)(40)      

    The Nguyên court’s reform in the 19th Century led to changes in the temporal and spatial distribution of administrative divisions in Vietnam. The number of administrative divisions reached its peak in 1840, among which the number of high-level administrative districts was most stable, whereas the number of administrative districts at the county and county-level changed dramatically. Quantitative change has affected the density of administrative divisions, as do their jurisdiction ranges, and alleviated the imbalance in administrative divisions between highland and lowland regions. The Gia Long reform was characterized by downplaying the military functions of administrative division, while the Minh Mbng reform was characterized by the introduction and localization of the provincial system from the Qing Dynasty. After that, the Nguyên court implemented no further large-scale reform, except for slight adjustments.

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    Study on Water Environment Changes of Fuzhou’s West Lake and Its Governance During the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Gong Junwen, Chen Yexin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 24-39.  
    Abstract72)   HTML13)    PDF (3011KB)(74)      

    During Ming and Qing dynasties, the water environment of Fuzhou’s West Lake gradually deteriorated. In Ming Dynasty, the water source of West Lake was abundant and the water quality was good. Since Wanli’s reign, affected by social factors such as land reclamation, the West Lake shrunk in size and the water quality was affected. In the middle to late Qing Dynasty, waterways in Fuzhou were shallow, and the river tide eventually disappeared. The changes in water environment of the West Lake during the Ming and Qing dynasties were not only affected by regional climate change in humidity, forest soil and water conservation, and lake sedimentation, but also closely related to water and land disputes. Due to the dire human-land bearing ratio, the unclear ownership of water resources, and the vague taxation regulations on newly reclaimed lake fields, excessive lake reclamation became inevitable. The local government made considerable efforts, such as repairing floodgates and protecting lake embankment, turning the reclaimed land back to water surface, cleaning up feces and silt, etc., which achieved phased effects. However, affected by the socio-economic factors such as population pressure, land resource limits and ecological patterns, the West Lake still deteriorated due to the accumulated problems over the centuries.

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    A Geographic Study of Epidemic Disasters During Qianlong’s Reign (1736-1795) in Qing Dynasty
    Li Zimo
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 104-115.  
    Abstract69)   HTML27)    PDF (2364KB)(42)      

    The Qing Dynasty was the peak of epidemics in Chinese history, and the Qianlong era was one of the important periods. The study achieves several results. (1) There were 58 years out of the entire Qianlong era recorded with epidemic disasters, which produces a frequency of 96.67%. Among the disasters, three large-scale epidemics in 1748, 1756 and 1786 were superimposed to form a fluctuating upward epidemic trend. Epidemics mainly took place in summer, followed by spring and autumn, and much less in winter. (2) At the provincial level, there were two separate zones of high epidemic index in the South and the North, and the epidemic index gradually increased from West to East. Jiangsu Province (including Shanghai) was the most badly affected. At the county level, the distribution of epidemic disasters had stage characteristics, and the scope of affected areas was expanding. The distribution pattern of epidemic disasters has the characteristics of agglomeration, and its degree tends to increase. It also has regional variance, but the epicenter is always in the South (3) The distribution pattern of epidemic disaster during the Qianlong era correlates with population distribution pattern, regional development intensity and natural disasters, which shows a significant positive correlation with epidemic disaster intensity at provincial level, with R values of 0.886, 0.664 and 0.685 respectively (P=0.01).

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    The Operation of the Quota System in Qing Dynasty: Focus on Ting, Feixian, Sub-Counties and Sub-Prefectures
    Liang Zhiping
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 73-89.  
    Abstract68)   HTML31)    PDF (1123KB)(44)      

    In the Qing Dynasty, the imperial examinations were carried out through schools. The allocation of the quota was also the allocation of the state’s political resources and power in county-level administrative regions. There were various local administrative divisions, including not only prefectures and counties, but also Ting, Feixian (abolished county), sub-counties and sub-prefectures. However, according to the regulation, non-prefecture or non-county area was not allowed to set up schools. Through statistics and case analysis, this paper points out that in order to ensure a certain number of grassroots gentlemen and to reduce the over quota in different regions, a modified policy of establishing schools at the level of Ting and townships in former Feixian, as well as sub-counties and sub-prefectures, was adopted. To conclude, the Quota System seemed to be rigid but flexible in operation at the local level. Through appropriate adaptations, the effective distribution of national political resources and power in local areas was ensured.

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    The Change of Administrative Divisions in Wu Region and Huainan Region after the “Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms”
    Dan Changwu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 40-49.  
    Abstract67)   HTML15)    PDF (1687KB)(55)      

    Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty adjusted the administrative divisions in Huainan region and Wu region after the “Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms”. The King of Runan was transfered to be the King of Jiangdu, governing Dongyang Prefecture and the northern counties in the old Zhang Prefecture. The rest of the old Zhang Prefecture was merged with the Kuaiji Prefecture to form the new Kuaiji Prefecture. Similarly, The King of Lujiang became King of Hengshan and the new prefecture of Lujiang was established in the southeast of the old Hengshan kingdom. The original Lujiang south to the Yangtze River was combined with Yuzhang to form the new Yuzhang Prefecture. This adjustment was not only a part of the centralization policy, but also a reconstruction of the political geography in the southeast region.

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    Four New Textual Researches on the Boundaries and Administrative Centers of Qing Dynasty Yunnan Map in The Historical Atlas of China
    Shen Kaxiang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 140-147.  
    Abstract63)   HTML39)    PDF (1723KB)(33)      

    On the basis of literature critique and field surveys, this paper shows there are several errors in the drawing of some prefecture boundaries and administrative centers in the Yunnan Map in the Qing Dynasty volune of The Historical Atlas of China. Among them, the drawing of the Southern boundary between Yongchang Fu and Shunning Fu, and the prefecture boundary between Shunning Fu and Jingdong Zhili Ting were all incorrect. The locations of administrative centers of Langqu Tuzhou and Nandian Tusi were also incorrect and need to be corrected.

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    Huizhou Merchants’s Timber Industry Management in the Qiantang River Basin in Qing Dynasty as Seen in the Zuo Shanmu Fangpai Yaolan
    Wang Zhenzhong, Zhu Huimin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 61-76.  
    Abstract62)   HTML9)    PDF (2883KB)(30)      

    The anonymous Zuo Shanmu Fangpai Yaolan (Keys to Chinese Fir Wood Business and River Transportation) offers a slightly different view from previously discovered and rather common itinerary books on the Xin’an River-Qiantang River business journey. In addition to the place names and the distance along the way, it also includes many rules of wood business operation, which makes it a comprehensive business manual. Accordingly, we can explore the many facts of Huizhou merchants’ conducts in timber industry in the Qiantang River basin. The book contains business secrets of Hui-Xi merchants engaged in Qugang timber transportation and marketing, including five sections of continuous water routes along the way and a land route back to the hometown. On that basis, we can outline the route of Hui-Xi merchants engaged in Qugang wood business, and examine their related business norms more closely. From this point of view, the success of Hui merchants in the traditional times depended not only on their abundant wealth and higher cultural quality, but was also closely related to the relevant technologies and business norms they professed and spread.

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    Two Mistakes on the Map of Earlier Yuan Dynasty from The Historical Atlas of China
    Zhang Wenming
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 135-137.  
    Abstract61)   HTML33)    PDF (336KB)(36)      

    In The Historical Atlas of China, the earlier map of Yuan Dynasty is drawn in accordance with the administrative divisions in the seventeenth year of the Zhiyuan Period. However, it turns out that the historical evidence doesn’t support the existence of “Kai Cheng Fu” and “Jing Nan Lu”. As a matter of fact, “Kai Cheng Lu” and “Jiang Ling Lu” are their respective accurate names.

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    Institutional Development and Spatio-Temporal Evolution of “The Post in Yanzhang Land” in Qing Dynasty
    Dai Longhui
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 90-103.  
    Abstract60)   HTML29)    PDF (1927KB)(36)      

    In response to the special natural environment of the Frontier Yanzhang Land and Frontier governance needs, the Qing court created “The Post in Yanzhang Land” in the Kangxi period, according to the institutional principles of “Governor’s nomination” and “promotion priority” and taking into consideration of the “mutual adaption between officers and the frontier areas” in selecting officials to serve in the Yanzhang Land. The Posts in Yanzhang Land were mainly located in Frontier areas with the poor water and soil resources. In the process of deepening Frontier governance, unique spatial and temporal distribution characteristics are formed according to the characteristics of each region: Guangxi presents dual governance structure, which is the prelude and foundation of governance integration process; whereas in Yunnan the trend of distribution is along the border, which is the guarantee for the central administrative power to promote to the border. Hainan’s is a circular gradient distribution, which is a manifestation of national governance in response to the insular environment. From the perspective of officials to protect the Frontier Yanzhang Land governance system, the creation of The Post in Yanzhang Land enhanced local governance capacity.

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    Planning of New District and Separation of Religion from Politics:the Arrangement of Heicuo County (1943-1945)
    Wang Zhitong
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 48-62.  
    Abstract60)   HTML33)    PDF (1299KB)(31)      

    Heicuo was a township under Xiahe County of Gansu Province during the period of Nationalist Government. During the Anti-Japanese War, the Gansu Provincial Government proposed to set up a new administration division out of the territory of Xiahe, Lintan and Zhuoni counties and sent staff to Gannan (southern Gansu,甘南) three times successively to do field survey for the new administration region. The area, however, has a complex political and religious systems, diverse ethnic and religious cultures and indented administrative boundaries. The idea was not only about dividing the old and establishing a new administrative area, but also promoting the separation of the religion from politics in the new county, signifying the modern turn of the frontier governance strategy. However, the officials’ idea of planning and pushing forward the adjustment of administrative districts had been met with unanimous opposition from the natives, who expressed their voices through various strategies. Coupled with the fiscal difficulties during the Anti-Japanese War and the officials’ fear of local turmoil, the administrative setup of Heicuo was eventually aborted. This case indicates that the alteration of administrative divisions in the borderland needs to take local cultural factors into full consideration.

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    Incorrect Name of the Military Station “Edala Wei” in The Historical Atlas of China
    Xia Boyu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 138-139.  
    Abstract58)   HTML34)    PDF (250KB)(28)      

    There is an incorrect place name in the map “Nurgan Regional Military Commission” in the seventh volume of The Historical Atlas of China, edited by Tan Qixiang that has not been corrected so far. “The Historical Atlas of China Northeast Region Source Literature Compilation” and “The Historical Atlas of China Notes and Interpretations of Northeast Region Volume” also lack the explanation of the origin and positioning of the “Edala Wei”. Based on literature research, it is concluded that “Edala Wei” should have been “Dalahe Wei”. This analysis and clarification on the mistake of “Edala Wei” could provide a reference for related researches.

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    Textual Research on the Old Map of Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu Collected in Germany Library
    Sun Jingchao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 116-128.  
    Abstract54)   HTML29)    PDF (18265KB)(282)      

    The old map Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu collected in Germany library, showing mountain peaks, rivers, lakes, settlements, traffic lines and so on, is a valuable historical material. The map was drawn under the background of immigration and reclamation in the eastern Jilin Province in the late Qing Dynasty. It reflected the regional development in the frontier crisis. By interpreting the features on the piece of map, combining with the historical background outside of the map, it is helpful to understand the historical process of Jilin border area in the late Qing Dynasty.

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    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 134-154.  
    Abstract44)   HTML11)    PDF (1286KB)(44)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 148-155.  
    Abstract41)   HTML33)    PDF (615KB)(44)      
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    A Textual Research on the Time Limit and Related Problems of the Renaming of Marquis City to Marquis State in Western Han Dynasty
    Zhao Hailong
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 50-60.  
    Abstract38)   HTML6)    PDF (850KB)(37)      

    The name of the Marquises in Western Han Dynasty went through a process of evolving from “Houyi” (marquis city) to “Houguo” (marquis state). Based on comprehensive use the materials of county of handed down documents, seals, clay-sealed materials, bamboo slips, it can be inferred that the time when marquis cities changed their names to marquis states was around the third year during Emperor Wen’s Reign. The main reasons for the change were the gradual decline of the status of the marquises in the Western Han Dynasty, and the indistinction between the Houyi and Tangmuyi, and the increase in numbers of counties bearing the same name. The change of marquis city to marquis state was not only a change of name, but also reflected the changes of the nature of the marquises in the Western Han Dynasty. The marquises gradually lost their relatively independent status. Clarifying the difference between Houyi and Tangmuyi can provide a reliable basis for judging the nature and age of the county materials in the unearthed literature, and further promote in-depth studies on the county in Han dynasty.

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    The Collection, Transmission, and Display of Geographic Knowledge of Northeast Asia During the Imjin War-A Study on Huayi Yanhai Tu
    Liu Jing
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 89-102.  
    Abstract37)   HTML3)    PDF (5380KB)(40)      

    The Imjin War (1592-1598) was an important historical event with far-reaching influence in East Asia at the end of the 16th Century. The importance of the formation of Huayi Yanhai Tu, a map related with the war situation, is also noteworthy in academic cartography. Through a comprehensive analysis of both Chinese and Korean historical accounts, especially intensive examinations of the Annals of the Chosǒn Dynasty and Korean geographic records, this study reveals an increase in the exchange of geographic knowledge between Ming China and Chosǒn Korea during the late 16th Century. When the Ming official Song Yingchang, who was in charge of the military affairs in Korea, directed the production of Huayi Yanhai Tu (the Coastal Map of China and the Barbarians), he relied not only on his accumulated knowledge but also his direct experience in Korea. This led to the timeliness and accuracy of this map, showing a strategic transformation of the Ming government’s management of the Bohai and Yellow Sea region. There were profound implications behind his selection and handling of specific geographic information. The display and interpretation of seemingly minor information could be effective tools for presenting political stances and military thoughts.

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    Study on the Abolishment and Operation of Tujia System of Immigrant Society in Qing Dynasty, Centered on the New Document of Tujia in Yichun County
    Ling Yan, Yang Shuigen
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 77-88.  
    Abstract35)   HTML4)    PDF (1306KB)(18)      

    In order to deal with the problem of immigrants’ household registration in Qing Dynasty, the special immigrant Tujia (图甲) was established outside the existing Tujia system. This study takes the new document of Tujia booklets, Tujia contracts and Tujia ledgers in Yichun County as core data to analyze the running of Tujia system in the immigrant society in Yichun County, from its construction, abolishment, and actual operation in the county. A preliminary investigation shows that the Tujia system in Yichun County was deeply influenced by immigrants, and they not only entered the original Tujia system in large numbers, but also established a special immigrant Tujia. The actual operation of Tujia is based on various “wine placement” activities. Through the wine placement ceremony, the scattered members of Tujia were contacted to deepen mutual recognition, discuss and decide the affairs in the system, and to clarify their respective responsibilities and obligations in the form of contracts.

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