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    A Textual Research on the Old Site of Xincheng County of Sichuan in Sui Dynasty
    Zhang Renkang
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 154-156.  
    Abstract542)   HTML78)    PDF (455KB)(131)      

    Xincheng County in Sui Dynasty has its origin in the old county set up during the Song Dynasty, one of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. It is generally believed to be located in Santai County. Based on literature critiques on the Memorial and Preface of Xiao Pingzhong, by Chen Ziliang in the Daye 9th year of Sui Dynasty(613 AD), and other historical documents, combining with historical background, geographical location, mountains and rivers shape and folk survey, etc., it can be determined that the site of Xincheng County should be at present-day Xincheng Dam(Xincheng Village, Wanfu Village), Xiangshan Town, Shehong County.

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    The Formation and Significance of the “Water Ridge” of the Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty
    Gao Yuanjie
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 16-27.  
    Abstract321)   HTML30)    PDF (1975KB)(359)      

    Historical records after the late Ming Dynasty generally claim that Nanwang has been the “water ridge” occupying a commanding height alongside the Huitong Canal, which is a section of the Grand Canal, since the Yuan Dynasty, and the key determining the success of the Huitong Canal in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties lies in choosing Nanwang “water ridge” as the water diversion hub. This paper proposes that this view is incorrect. Nanwang was originally the last remnant of Liangshanpo with a low-lying terrain. It began to silt up after Song Li diverted Wenshui River water to Nanwang for transportation in the early Ming Dynasty. In the Chenghua period of the Ming Dynasty, the pivotal position of Nanwang as the water diversion hub was determined. By then the mud and sand dug out and piled up on both sides of the river created a landform of heaped-up hill, hence the “water ridge” image in the eyes of people since the late Ming Dynasty. That is to say, the Nanwang “water ridge” was formed in the Mid Ming Dynasty as a result of natural sediment accumulation and artificial dredging. Based on this, this paper re-examines the reasons determining the success or failure of the Huitong Canal in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties and discusses the significance of the formation of the Nanwang “water ridge” on transforming the Huitong Canal from a river depending on the violent Yellow River for water supplies to the one that relies on the stable Wenshui River for water source in the middle of the Ming Dynasty as well as its far-reaching influence on the principle of Yellow River maintenance after the Mid Mind Dynasty.

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    Research on an Early Map of English Settlement Collected by the British Royal Geographical Society
    Mou Zhenyu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 146-157.  
    Abstract276)   HTML6)    PDF (1138KB)(216)      

    A map of the English Settlement in Shanghai right after its port-opening collected by the British Royal Geographical Society did not mark its drawing time. One view holds the map was drawn in 1846-1847, another infers that in 1844-1847, but both are speculative. We reconsider its drawing time and try to evaluate the map based on the information on it. The results show the map should be drawn from October 1st to October 19th, 1846. It is the earliest map of English Settlement in Shanghai having found, and a very important source to study the developing process of English Settlement. Also, this map is of great value for the study of Land Deed.

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    The Location of Yumen Pass in Tang Dynasty and the Accurate Restoration of Xuanzang’s Smuggling Route
    Hou Yangfang, Jia Qiang, Yang Lin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 101-109.  
    Abstract271)   HTML25)    PDF (3408KB)(332)      

    According to the narrate on Xuanzang’s smuggling out of the Yumen Pass from Guazhou recorded in “The Biography of Master Sanzang of the Daci’en Temple”, combined with studies on Soviet military maps and field investigations to carry out “accurate restoration”, it is determined that the site of Xiaowan City is the only possibility of the site of the Yumen Pass in the Tang Dynasty. A deserted beacon was discovered at the southern end of the Jieshanzi Valley, making it even more certain that this road was the route from Guazhou City to the Yumen Pass in the Tang Dynasty.

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    Evolution of Lake Distribution and Drainage Pattern in the Lixia River Plain (1570-1938)
    Yang Xiao
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 1-10.  
    Abstract257)   HTML138)    PDF (4607KB)(112)      

    The Lixia River Plain, consisting of a great number of small lakes and swamps, spread widely in the north of Jiangsu Province in history. After 1570, the flood of Huaihe River entering Lixia River Plain continued to increase, which caused great changes in the distribution of lakes and drainage pattern in the region. After 1596, the flood from the Jinghe River and the Ziyinggou River entered into the Guangyang Lake, and then flowed through the Sheyang Lake into the sea. The waters in the southeast of Gaoyou all converge in the Luyang Lake. After 1681, due to the southward shift of the Guihai Dams, floods converged in the middle of the Lixia River Plain and overflowed from the south to the north. As a result, the Dazong Lake and other lakes were connected and merged as a whole. Due to the decrease of flood, the Guangyang Lake was divided into several scattered lakes. Whether the Guihai Dams were opened or not, it would directly affect the hydrological environment of the Lixia River Plain, and thus form two completely different lake distribution and drainage patterns in the flood period and normal period.

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    Redevelopment of Traffic Network in the Setting of Traditional Urban Form: A Case Study of Ningbo Old City
    Zhang Pei, Xu Jianping
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 32-49.  
    Abstract238)   HTML19)    PDF (5632KB)(163)      

    At the turn of the Twentieth century, Western municipal concepts and theories were gradually introduced into China along with the examples set by treaty port cities. Some traditional cities formed in the dynastic time also began to carry out modern municipal constructions. In this study, we take Ningbo old city as a typical case and focus on three ways of road improvements in the 1920s and 1930s: the demolition of the city wall, the filling of rivers and the removal of residential buildings. Based on earlier studies, we use large-scale old maps and local gazettes to restore and analyze the river channels and road networks. It shows that for the traditional cities in China, due to the lack of motivation and capital, even if the urban administrative districts had been set up, it might not be able to promote the conditions. On the contrary, it caused many social problems especially during the expropriation of construction land.

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    An Analysis of Routes of the Royal Road System in the Persian Empire—on the Function and Limitation of Classical Texts
    Li Yiming
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 50-67.  
    Abstract223)   HTML16)    PDF (3927KB)(197)      

    The Royal Road System was a road network of the Persian Empire, and routes of the Royal Road System have long been disputed among scholars. The records in Herodotus's History and Persepolis Administrative Archives reflect the general characteristics of the Royal Road which are also the criteria for identifying them from ancient roads. Although multidisciplinary research methods have provided assistances to the reconstruction of routes of the Royal Road System, they also caused many controversies. In general, routes of the Royal Road System in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Armenia are relatively accurate. There is no way to infer routes of the Royal Road System in Egypt or Arabia. Routes of the Royal Road System in eastern satrapies are based on classical texts. However, the Royal Roads were not the general term for ancient roads in Persian Empire, and the diachronic changes of ancient roads are still very significant. With the help of the interpretation of cuneiform characters, archaeological excavations and scientific historical geography, the study of the Royal Road System may will overcome its dependence on classical texts research.

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    River Courses and Water Environment Changes in the Upper Jingjiang River Basin (100-1950): An Investigation Based on Flood Records
    Che Qun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 1-15.  
    Abstract214)   HTML24)    PDF (5052KB)(291)      

    In the mid-Qing Dynasty, the flood level of the Jingjiang River (a section of the Yangtze River) began to rise and was repeatedly recorded in the Sanxun Anlan Zouben of the Qing Palace Memorials and Archives of the Grand Council. During the Xianfeng and Tongzhi reigns, after the Ouchi and Songzi dikes collapsed and the main flow diverged to the Dongting Lake, the flood level eased temporarily and rose again rapidly in the Guangxu’s reign. The rising flood level affected the courses, and water environment of the rivers flowing southward into the Yangtze River. In the Juzhang River Basin, this involves the expansion, separation, and approaching northward of the Bailizhou Island in the Yangtze River, shifts of the estuary of the Juzhang River, the shift of the main Yangtze River course, the extension of the lower reaches of the Juzhang River caused by the adjoining of Lower Bailizhou with the east bank, as well as the silt caused by the counter-balanced effect of the river flow and mountain torrents. In the Ma’nao River Basin, the backwater effect of the rising flood level at the estuary turned the area into a swamp.

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    A Supplementary Research of Unearthed Documents and Administrative Districts During the Sixteen States Period
    Wei Jungang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 1-19.  
    Abstract195)   HTML134)    PDF (911KB)(179)      

    The unearthed documents contain many prefectures and counties in sixteen states period that have been lost in the handed down literatures. They are to be found among the records of local officials and titles of nobility, and are helpful for the study of the evolution and changes of the establishment of administrative regions in different countries at that time. This is a supplementary research for A General History of China's Administrative Divisions, the Sixteen States in the Northern Dynasty. Using these documents, and other partial handed down materials, 68 administrative divisions from 11 regimes have been identified, including the later Zhao, former Liang, former Yan, former Qin, later Yan, later Qin, western Qin, later Liang, western Liang and northern Liang. The 68 divisions include 4 prefectures, 1 town (zhen), 18 counties (jun), 2 towns (hujun) and 43 counties (xian). This study also provides information on supplement questions such as the movement of seat of Pingzhou in the later stage of former Yan, the duration of existence of Lelang County, the hierarchical position of Wushi County and Chongquan County, the nature of Youzhou County in the later Qin and Wuwei County in the western Qin, the hierarchical position of Jinzei County in the later Liang, the true and false of Yong'an County and the hierarchical position of Wansui County in the Northern Liang, etc.

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    Identification of Atlas of Border Towns: The Drawing Time, Reference Book and Relevant Characters
    She Peizhang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 119-129.  
    Abstract192)   HTML17)    PDF (2964KB)(95)      

    Collected by the Nanjing Museum, the Atlas of Border Towns mainly depicts fifteen border towns of significance in Ming dynasty. It used to be collected and commented by Yizhai. The atlas is also compiled into Atlas of Ancient Maps in China (Ming Dynasty) and Collection of Ming Dynasty Maps. After been inspected by Zhang Baochai, the atlas gradually draws attention from the academic circle. According to the current research, the atlas was produced during the 32nd to 33rd year of the Wanli's reign of Ming Dynasty, with Luo Hongxian's Enlarged Terrestrial Atlas as its main reference. Its collector, Yizhai, was believed to have lived in Qing Dynasty. However, after examination and verification, it is proved that the atlas was drawn during the 3rd to 4th year of Kangxi's reign of Qing Dynasty. The author of the work, whose surname is Huang, was a Ming loyalist. He mainly referred to Chen Zushou's Atlas of Territories of August Ming. The collector of the work, Yizhai, is Cheng Zhiqing, a seal carver from Suzhou. Bonze Yiling could be inferred as Qu Dajun, a famous scholar who lived in the early Qing Dynasty.

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    Water at the Bottom of a Cauldron:The Flood and Flood Control of Wen’anwa Depression during Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Bu Fan
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 28-41.  
    Abstract185)   HTML9)    PDF (1920KB)(466)      

    Located along the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, the Wen’anwa(文安洼) in Wen’an and Dacheng County of Hebei Province is a low-lying depression and shaped like “the bottom of a cauldron” in colloquial language. It is difficult to drain its water reserve, which often caused severe flood disasters in the past. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Wen’an County took many measures, such as building dikes, diverting river courses, and planting rice in shallow water, to control the flood but to no avail. It was not only the environmental factors, such as the low-lying terrain and the silt of the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, that made it hard to control the flood in the Wen’anwa Depression, but also social factors, such as the conflicting interests of water control between Wen’an County and the surrounding prefectural and counties, and the lack of ability and tactfulness of water management by Wen’an County itself.

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    An Investigation of Chinese Customs Maps, from Late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China
    Wu Songdi
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 130-137.  
    Abstract180)   HTML12)    PDF (602KB)(106)      

    In the era spanning from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, the Chinese Customs charted and published Chinese maps that amounted to close to one thousand. They constituted most of the maps charted and published contemporarily in China. Many of these maps were superior in quality and accuracy than most traditional maps and were supplemented with detailed texts. Given that Chinese Customs publications are mostly collected in libraries and archives that restrict access, the maps are also generally neglected by researchers. To familiarize researchers with them, this paper provides a detailed introduction to these maps, which covers the time of their charting, the variation in the areas charted, a classification of their types, and the origins and characteristics of these maps.

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    Similarities and Differences, from the Abolition of the Huaiyuan Posthouse in Canton to the Prosperity of The Thirteen Hongs
    Wang Yuanlin, Xiao Dongtao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 80-93.  
    Abstract177)   HTML20)    PDF (3914KB)(277)      

    The Huaiyuan Posthouse of Canton was located in Xianzibu, Sai-kwan from the Ming to the early Qing Dynasties, which was the place where the Kwangtung Shi-Po-Si(广东市舶司) received the tribute ships and foreign envoys onboard those ships. It also functioned as the site for China-foreign tributary trade. With establishment of the Hoppo during the Kangxi reign, the Thirteen Hongs (factories) were assigned with the task of undertaking foreign trade. After many efforts, foreign tradesmen were allowed to rent commercial houses and set up factories in the Thirteen-Factory Street to the south of the Huaiyuan Posthouse. The Hongs were was managed by merchants. The Huaiyuan Posthouse was abolished in the late Kangxi emperor. The Thirteen factories basically replaced the functions of the Huaiyuan Posthouse. The essence of this shift from the Huaiyuan Posthouse to the Thirteen Hongs is the declined of the tributary system in Qing Dynasty and the rise of the Canton trade through the Hongs.

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    A Restudy of the Courier Routes and Administrative Divisions of Hexi as Seen in Han Dynasty Slips from Xuanquan
    Huang Xuechao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 42-53.  
    Abstract173)   HTML116)    PDF (2591KB)(97)      

    It is possible to make a comparative calculation of the distances and routes recorded in ⅡT0214①∶130 and ⅤT1611③∶39, two Han dynasty slips from Xuanquan. The post at the easternmost point of Jiuquan Prefecture recorded in ⅡT0214①∶130 was not Biaoshi, but to the west of it; Biaoshi was a county belonged to Zhangye Prefecture at that time. The jurisdiction of Wuwei Prefecture recorded in ⅤT1611③∶39 was not in Guzang, but possibly in Fanhe. The main line of the “Southeast”courier route as seen in ⅤT1611③∶39 passed Tianshui and connected Anding, which was basically the conventionally acknowledged “North Route”from Chang’an to Hexi. This route also had a branch to Jincheng. Based on the above conclusions, the features of ⅡT0214①∶130 can be roughly reconstructed. The two slips of ⅡT0214①∶130 and ⅤT1611③∶39 commonly display a portion of the courier routes and administrative divisions of Hexi at a certain point in the Western Han dynasty.

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    Protecting all in Yanran: The Adjustment of Border Administration in the North in the First Year of Yonghui
    Luo Xiaohui
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 20-31.  
    Abstract154)   HTML16)    PDF (779KB)(142)      

    The Yanran Protectorate(燕然都护府), as well as Yunzhong(云中) and Dingxiang(定襄) prefectural governnorates were the main northern border governing institutions of the Tang Dynasty. A study on them also affords an important window into exploring the political evolution in the north in the early Tang Dynasty. In the first year of Yonghui(永徽), the Regime of Chebi was crashed and the whole Mongolian Plateau was unified by the Tang Dynasty. According to the principle of “separation by moraine and partition” which had always been adhered by the Tang Dynasty, there have been put forward three hypothesis, namely “three-protectorate theory”, “two-protectorate theories” and “one-protectorate theory” regarding the governance pattern of the northern territory. In fact, the type of Jimi prefectures on the Mongolian grassland had indeed proliferated after the unification, but there was only one protectorate, which was responsible for strengthening the contact with the northern part of the plateau. The rest of the southern tribes under Jimi prefectures was under the supervision and leadership of the two governors of Yunzhong and Dingxiang.

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    A Study on the Location of Xinzhou Town in Liao and Jin Dynasties
    Zhao Limeng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 54-60.  
    Abstract146)   HTML12)    PDF (1569KB)(317)      

    In the past, it was believed that Xinzhou(信州) in the Liao and Jin dynasties was located in present-day Qinjiatun, in Gongzhuling City, while the ancient site in Wujiazi, 13 km to the west of Qinjiatun, was considered to be a sub-state of Xinzhou and received little attention. Based on the reading of historical satellite photos and field surveys, we have discovered the outer city wall around Wujiazi, thus increasing its perimeter to be comparable to that of Qinjiatun. This discovery is different from the old understanding. By re-evaluating the surface remains of the two cities and the excavated relics, it is clear the ancient city of Qinjiatun was a Jin dynasty site, while the ancient city of Wujiazi was a Liao dynasty site, abandoned in the early Jin dynasty. Based on the archaeological evidences and combined with the literature, we believe that the Liao Dynasty Xinzhou was ruled from Wujiazi ancient city, and during the Jin Dynasty Xinzhou was ruled in Qinjiatun ancient city. According to the Yuan Yitong Zhi, the time of the change seems to be the third year during the Huangtong period (1143).

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    Seven Corrigendum to Geographical Records of the Ming History
    Ge Xiaohan
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 142-146.  
    Abstract144)   HTML11)    PDF (495KB)(91)      

    There are seven misrecords under the entries of Nanjing and Henan in the Geographical Records of the Ming History, namely, Haimen of Yangzhou, Jiading of Suzhou, Ningguo, Shenqiu of Kaifeng, Yuzhou of Kaifeng, Xiayi of Guide, Henei of Huaiqing. Through the textual researches, the above errors can be corrected, and the original appearance of local administrative divisions in the Ming Dynasty restored.

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    A New Textual Research on the Yanfa-Dao of the Lianghuai Salt Zone in Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Huang Kaikai
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 61-73.  
    Abstract143)   HTML6)    PDF (1085KB)(282)      

    Yanfa-Dao was an important official set up by the Ming and Qing governments to regulate the production and sales of salt. It began with the Wanli reign, at the end of which the Lianghuai salt zone was set up to rectify and manage Yanfa-Dao, which was a special dispatch officer of the imperial court to collect salt taxes. During the Tianqi years, party conflicts were fierce, and Yanfa-Dao’s rectification of salt affairs had not been effective, so the Chongzhen court worked to restore the old system dominated by the Salt Administrator. The Qing Dynasty readjusted the salt official system, and in addition to the merger of Salt Administrator and Yanfa-Dao, the Fenxun Yanwu-Dao to manage production and the Tongsheng Yanfa-Dao to manage sales were established. Yanfa-Dao went from being a dispatch officer to a local salt agency, and together with the Salt Administrator became a direct office of Booi Salt Inspector. To monopolize Lianghuai’s salt interests, the Emperor also ordered the Liangjiang Governor-general to also manage the salt affairs to supervise the Booi Salt Inspector. The Daoguang court abolished Booi Salt Inspector and salt affairs were placed under the administration of Liangjiang Governor-general. After Xianfeng and Tongzhi, the authority of Salt Administrator and Yanfa-Dao was usurped by the Bureaus of Investment and Supervision, and Lianghuai’s salt interests were returned to the Liangjiang Governor-general and became a monopoly and financial basis of his office.

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    Textual Research on the Establishment of Eyue Fanzhen in Daizong’s Period of Tang Dynasty
    Yang Wenchun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 143-145.  
    Abstract143)   HTML6)    PDF (435KB)(101)      

    The record about the establishment of Eyue Fanzhen(鄂岳镇) in Daizong’s period of Tang Dynasty in Xin Tangshu and Jiu Tangshu(两唐书) was inaccurate, including the change of administrative division, the set-up time and so on. By comparing with other historical data, Mianzhou(沔州), Qizhou(蕲州) and Huangzhou(黄州) haven’t been attached to Eyue Fanzhen in the Daizong’s period. The set-up time of Eyue Guancha Shi was in the eighth year.

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    Analysis of Distribution Pattern Evolution and its Driving Factors of Settlement in Tumote Plain
    Wang Wanting, Wu Dun, Su Lide, Han Jialin, Guan Xiaochun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 87-100.  
    Abstract142)   HTML15)    PDF (9329KB)(112)      

    Selecting the population data of settlement in 1934, 1982, and 2019 in Tumote plain, the distribution pattern evolution and its driving factors of settlement in the study area were analyzed through using GIS spatial analysis methods and combining qualitative and qualitative analysis. The results show that: during 1934-2019, the scale system of settlement in the study area was dominated by small settlement. The number and proportion of settlement with larger populations increased year by year and the population hierarchical structure showed a pyramid shape from “flat” to “long-tall”. The spatial distribution pattern of settlement showed the characteristics of agglomeration distribution as a whole. The agglomeration of large-scale settlements is not significant, and the distribution pattern of the other three levels of settlements changed from uniform to agglomeration distribution model. The population polarization in the study area was significant. The non-equilibrium development trend of the spatial distribution of the study area was obvious, showing signs of evolution from pole nucleus type to Pole-axis type. The spatial neighbor effect of network connection of settlement was significant, and the central urban area with a large population became a strong connection node. Terrain, river and traffic were the main driving factors for the evolution of the distribution pattern of the settlement in the study area during 1934-2019. The settlement showed strong spatial orientation to low altitude, and were significantly close to rivers, roads and towns. This study facilitates the clarification of the evolution of the settlement distribution patterns in the Tumut Plain in the past 100 years, and provides a certain reference value for the optimization and regulation of the spatial layout of local settlements.

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    A New Study on the Goulan Shan on the Route Between China and Java in the Yuan-Ming Period
    Liang Wenli
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 68-79.  
    Abstract136)   HTML6)    PDF (4538KB)(129)      

    Goulan Shan was one of the most important landmarks on the route between China and Java in the Yuan-Ming Period. Scholars usually believe that Goulan Shan is located to the southwest of Kalimantan Island and known as Gelam Island now. However, newly discovered Chinese inscriptions in Indonesia indicate that Serutu Island is where Goulan Shan was located. Through comparative analysis of geographic remote sensing data and traditional documents, the records on Goulan Shan are roughly consistent with the geographical environment of Serutu Island and its surrounding areas, but are quite different from that of Gelam Island. The invasion by the Yuan Dynasty into Java indirectly contributed to the prosperity of Serutu Island in late Yuan and early Ming, while the policy of maritime embargo in Ming Dynasty and the depletion of animal resources may be the main reasons for the decline of the island's status after the mid-Ming.

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    Changes of Settlement Pattern of Jingsheng Village in Lingshi County in Shanxi Province During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Hao Ping, Wei Chunyang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 74-86.  
    Abstract126)   HTML12)    PDF (2298KB)(326)      

    Settlement pattern is an understudied topic in historical settlement geography. The settlement pattern of Jingsheng Village in Lingshi County in Shanxi Province had experienced three stages of change: the initial development of the gullies and lanes from the late Yuan Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty, the boundary expansion and internal expansion from the late Ming Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty, the filling of the settlement pattern in the late Qing Dynasty and the “southward invasion” across the river. Factors such as geographical environment, clan power, war and banditry, national policies had all played an important role in the development and evolution of Jingsheng Village settlement pattern. The case study of Jingsheng Village shows that the formation and development of settlement pattern is a historical process of dynamic change, and the establishment history of settlement temples and landmark buildings has become an important index for investigation. Research on the pattern of rural settlements will be one of the trends of future rural historical geography studies in China.

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    A Sixty-Year Cycle of Mr. Hou Renzhi’s “Humble Opinion on Historical Geography” Published
    Hou Yongjian
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 126-131.  
    Abstract115)   HTML6)    PDF (546KB)(90)      

    The first issue of Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis in 1962 published the article “Humble Opinion on Historical Geography” written by Mr. Hou Renzhi. It has been 60 years since this year. The publication of the paper adapted to the needs of the Historical Geography circles in China at that time to understand the object, nature, future research direction and other professional issues, especially the view that Historical Geography is an integral part of Modern Geography, which greatly promoted the discipline transformation of Historical Geography and the advancement and development of Historical Physical Geography in China. Related to this is the view in the paper, which has also been verified by the degree system management and its discipline evolution in the past 60 years.

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    A Study on the Change of Mianchi County's Name in the Puppet Qi and Early Jin Dynasties
    Wu Tong
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 138-141.  
    Abstract115)   HTML5)    PDF (1727KB)(81)      

    During the Puppet Qi Dynasty, Mianchi County(渑池) was changed to “沔池” to avoid breaking the taboo of using a character from Emperor Jin Taizu's name, namely Wanyan Min. “渑” is a multi-syllabic character, and when used as the county name it does not involve taboos. The regime of Jin Dynasty does not avoid this word. But to please Jin, the Puppet Qi deem “渑” as a taboo character, and used the nearest homonymous character “沔” as a substitute. After the Jin Dynasty re-ruled Henan, they did not change back the county name, and the Jin never strictly avoid the word “渑”. “沔池” was used as the official name during the Jin Dynasty, and it became alias of the county in later dynasties interchangeable with “渑池”. In the new and old annotated versions of Jin Shi, it should be restored where “沔池” had been mistakenly changed to “渑池”. For other literature, unless there is sufficient evidence that “渑池” was used in the original version, “沔池” should be kept and not changed into “渑池”.

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    A Review of Academic Contributions of Prof. Zhang Xiugui to the Establishment of Historical Geomorphology in China
    Han Zhaoqing
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 132-142.  
    Abstract113)   HTML8)    PDF (858KB)(63)      

    Prof. Zhang Xiugui is one of the main founders of the Chinese Historical Geomorphology and Historical Physical Geography. Guided by modern geomorphology theory, he has established a set of unique research methods and paradigms for historical geomorphology through field investigations and interpretations on the historical records of environmental changes. His works on the geomorphological evolution of the riverbed of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are well received in Chinese academia and regarded as the most outstanding achievement in Chinese Historical Geomorphology. Amongst his other accomplishments are the studies on the formation of the Hai River, the change of the lower reaches of the Yellow River, the evolution of the lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the formation of the Shanghai Landmass, all of which were based on Prof. Tan Qixiang’s researches but with new findings and improvements. Prof. Zhang Xiugui’s works have covered a timespan of thousands of years and demonstrated the integration of historical and modern geography as well as the pragmatical applications of the principles of historical geography. In addition, he also took part in the recovery and restoration of the earliest Han Dynasty map found at Mawangdui in China and thoroughly investigated the content of the map to ensure its historical accuracy and reliability. His researches on ancient maps have laid the foundation for future studies in the field.

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    A Study of Sources of Notes on Rivers in the Hanshu Dilizhi
    Yang Zhiyu
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 93-105.  
    Abstract109)   HTML9)    PDF (992KB)(79)      

    Ban Gu’s notes in Hanshu Dilizhi contain extremely rich geographical information, recording more than 300 rivers. The main sources of these notes on rivers come from Book of Rivers written in the period of Emperor Ming in Han Dynasties as well as statistical documents submitted by various administrative divisions. At the same time, regarding the various viewpoints in Confucian classics, Ban Gu researched the rivers recorded in Shangshu Yugong and Zhouli Zhifangshi and made excerpts to be included in Hanshu Dilizhi. In addition, a few of notes by other scholars were incerted into the notes in the centuries to follow when the text was widely disseminated.

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    Drought and Climatic Background in the Yangtze River Delta in the 46th Year of Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty
    Niu Lang
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 11-22.  
    Abstract108)   HTML10)    PDF (3093KB)(56)      

    From June to August in the 46th year of Kangxi (1707), there was no continuous precipitation in the Yangtze River Delta, which caused a large-scale drought. Based on the quantified scores of the hazard at county level, the spread of the drought was restored. It was mainly distributed between 30°-33°N, formed a serious disaster center in the Taihu Lake Basin.The daily precipitation sequence from May to August in the Yangtze River Delta was reconstructed by using Yang Dapiao diary. Through the analysis, it is concluded that the reason for the drought is that the subtropical high pressure is stronger than usual in that year, and the its northward movement is also coming earlier, resulting in the rapid northward movement of the rain belt and the abnormality in the Meiyu period. In addition, the drought is strongly related with solar activity and ENSO events.

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    The Grass-roots Reality and Regional Market Structure of Likin Collection in Southern Jiangsu in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Sun Jian
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 110-125.  
    Abstract102)   HTML11)    PDF (4256KB)(43)      

    Likin system is an important commercial tax system in modern times, which affects the development of commodity economy and market. This article attempts to restore the actual state of likin collection in the southern Jiangsu area in the late Qing Dynasty, and sort out the collection items and various collection modes. The taxation model was not completely divided between commodities. Rather, there were various options which not only facilitated merchants choosing to pay according to their own circumstances, but also ensured that the officials maximize their collects, so as to balance the relationship between the two. In addition, this paper uses the likin stations as a carrier to perform ArcGIS Thiessen polygon(泰森多边形) segmentation to analyze the market space structure in southern Jiangsu. The results show that the radius of Southern Jiangsu area likin stations(厘卡) in the late Qing Dynasty was 5.56-6.67 kilometers, and the radius of Head offices was 16.45-21.93 kilometers. The difference between the Thiessen polygons generated by the Head office and the likin station is different from the regional market analysis under the Skinnerian Model. This difference is due to the difference in the attributes of the space division carrier in the regional market, which partially reflects the spatial characteristics of the “local market according to likin stations” issue.

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    On Editions of Yudi Guangji
    Zheng Lifeng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 105-118.  
    Abstract99)   HTML5)    PDF (1132KB)(51)      

    Since the Northern Song Dynasty, Yudi Guangji has been issued in many different versions. In addition to the original version, there were two more re-issued editions from the Southern Song Dynasty. In the Qing Dynasty, many more editions were issued either based on the original version or the re-issued versions. The Qing versions are on the one hand comparatively independent from each other, and on the other hand complementary to each other. To compile the best edition of Yudi Guangji, one has to rely on the original Northern Song Dynasty version, and consult with the other versions.

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    Deciding Boundaries: Division and Demarcation of County-level Administrative Divisions in Qing Dynasty
    Zhao Yicai
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 47-62.  
    Abstract97)   HTML6)    PDF (4415KB)(90)      

    Boundary and jurisdiction are important geographical elements of the administrative division. In Qing Dynasty, a total of 203 county-level administrative divisions were split, most of which resulted in creation of new counties, while a few produced Zhili Ting (Para-county under the direct jurisdiction of the central government). As the number of county-level administrative divisions increased, the cultural and geographical elements such as the gathering point or the wicker edge had become important basis for deciding boundaries. The areas with more intensive adjustment of county boundaries were Fengtian, southern Jiangsu, southern Shaanxi, eastern Sichuan, and the junction between Fujian and Guangdong. More county-level administrative divisions had been added in these regions, reflecting their regional development process in the Qing Dynasty. As an administrative means of balancing local governance, dividing the border operated and evolved under the factors such as rectifying upheavals, grass-roots governance and responding to the border crisis. The spatial form of the county boundary was generally formed according to the principles of natural features including mountains and rivers, shaping a reasonable jurisdiction area, and adjusting the distance from the administrative center.

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    Mount Kunlun as the Center of Ancient Chinese Cosmological World
    Deng Hui
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 63-77.  
    Abstract90)   HTML7)    PDF (12207KB)(48)      

    The Sacred Mountain and Holy Lakes located in the grand Yarlung Tsanpo Valley in the southern part of Ali Region, Tibet, that have been listed in the Preparation List of World Heritage Sites of Natural and Cultural Heritage include the Mount Gang Rinpoche, the Lake Mapam Yutso, the Lake Lana Tso. The four rivers originated in the vicinity are the Senge Kabab (the lion river), the langchen Kabab (the elephant river), the Macha Kabab (the peacock river), and the Tsangpo Kabab (the horse river), all which are the source of several world-famous rivers, such as the Indus River, the Ganges River, the Yarlung Tsanpo River and the Brahmaputra River.

    In the ancient tradition of China and India, the Gang Renboqi mountain and its surrounding lakes and rivers had extremely important symbolic meanings, and they were the geographical landmarks indicating the center of the cosmological world. In the historical period, there were four ancient divine worldviews being formed around the Sacred Mountain and Holy Lakes in Ali, Tibet.

    The first one is recognized by the local Bon religion of Zhangzhung culture in Ali area; the second one is the cosmological world center of anavatapta, which is recognized by Buddhism; the third one is the cosmological world center of Kunlun Mountain and Yao-chi, which is recognized by the ancient Chinese Book of Mountains and Seas; and the fourth one is the cosmological world center of Kailash (Kailasa), which was recognized by Hinduism. The four cosmography systems originated independently, formed their own special cognitive systems, and communicated and merged with other systems in history.

    The integration of the Kunlun Mountain cosmological world view and the Buddhist Anavatapta cosmological world view happened around 1 500 years ago, and the new world view had a wide range of impact on ancient Chinese cosmography. In 1720, this world view was projected on the surveyed map, and the ancient subjective cognition was finally located into the concrete geographical objects of the Sacred Mountains and Lakes.

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    Study on the Relationship Between the Current Situation, Environment and the Successful Promotion of American Tobacco in Yunnan During the Anti-Japanese War
    Zhang Yongshuai
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 94-104.  
    Abstract89)   HTML7)    PDF (874KB)(109)      

    The successful promotion of American tobacco in Yunnan during the Anti-Japanese War is a turning point in the history of the development of the tobacco industry in Yunnan. It is the result of the comprehensive action of several factors. Among them, the unprecedented market demand is the driving force of promotion. The key to the success of popularization is the adoption, based on experimental research, of a set of cultivation techniques suitable for the natural environment of Yunnan. Due to the solid foundation laid by this promotion campaign, the advantages of Yunnan's natural environment, which is suitable for tobacco planting, have been highlighted. The interaction between nature and man paved the way for Yunnan province's status as a major tobacco producer.

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    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 147-149.  
    Abstract83)   HTML11)    PDF (296KB)(89)      
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    Probing-into Geographical Information contained in The Northwest Frontiers Military and Political Documents from the Song Dynasty
    Yang Rui
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 106-116.  
    Abstract76)   HTML9)    PDF (2193KB)(32)      

    The Northwest Frontiers Military and Political Documents from the Song Dynasty is an important Heishuicheng document of Chinese secular literature collected in Russia. It has 109 pages, covering topics including grain and grass loan, Immigration, personal lawsuit, military supplies application, etc. Some of the geographical information contained in this document are not to be found in traditional historical records of the Song and Tangut (West Xia) frontiers. Based on analyzing the relevant geographic terms and information, the author finds out the new situation and new problems including the administrative system, crop transmission, traffics, city-village system and so on, in this paper. They are further used to enact the mutual confirmation between excavated documents and traditional historical records, to complete the missing parts in traditional historical records, and to enhance the understanding of the historical geography and social conditions of the Song and Tangut frontiers.

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    Discussion on the Location, Layout and Function of Shaoyangyuan in the Daming Palace City during the Tang Dynasty
    Jia Hongyuan
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 35-46.  
    Abstract75)   HTML4)    PDF (1553KB)(43)      

    During the Tang Dynasty, there are two Shaoyang yards within the Daming Palace city and both are located in the vicinity of the inner court where the emperors reside. The West Shaoyang Yard is not in line with the tradition of the location of the crown prince’s palace, which prioritize the East, but it can receive the attention from emperor, empress and eunuchs because of its better location. In the period of the Late Tang, the eunuchs find it easier to control the West Shaoyang Yard, hence the emperor and crown prince, because it is close to Neishibiesheng and the barracks of the imperial guards just outside the Jiuxian Gate. The East Shaoyang Yard not only includes the eastern part of the Menxiasheng, but also a quarter inside the Chongming Gate, and the later is the real abode for the crown prince. The Eastern location and the fact that most of the successions of the throne are not from father to son contribute to ascending status of the East Shaoyang Yard as an important ritual space for the crown prince before taking up the throne.

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    Path to a Modern Academic Paradigm Between the Disciplines of History and Geography: A Comparative Study on the Early Developments of Historical Geography in China and Japan
    Xing Yun
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 141-153.  
    Abstract73)   HTML6)    PDF (1220KB)(31)      

    The establishment of modern geography in China and Japan co-relate with each other and have many comparable characteristics, especially in terms of the early development of historical geography. Historical geography was introduced to Japan from Europe during the middle and late Meiji Period (1868-1911). The discussion on historical geography was mainly carried out by historians, contending on its subject attribution as well as focusing on the scientific traits. However, it was not until the end of Meiji Era when the modern transformation of geography was completed and historical geography gained notable development. Historical geography in China, on the other hand, was imported twice during the first quarter of 20th Century from Japan and the West respectively. The absorption was performed by two generations of Chinese geographers, one under the paradigm of traditional geography and the other under the modern subject of history or geography. The main factor influencing the early development of historical geography in Japan was the maturity of theories in geography since the modern system of academic geographical study had already been established. However, in China, the development of historical geography is influenced by dual factors: the modernization of traditional academic study and the paradigm shift in both disciplines of modern history and modern geography.

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    Settlement Pattern and Function of the Zhengzhou Shang City Area in Han Dynasties
    Liu Yifang
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 23-34.  
    Abstract73)   HTML8)    PDF (4842KB)(32)      

    The inner city of the Zhengzhou was also where the center of ancient Zhengzhou Shang City had been located. In the past, researchers thought that when Guan Xian (管县) was set up in Han dynasties, a new northern city wall was added. However, it did not accord with the historical records. Within the limit of the inner wall of the Zhengzhou Shang City, ordinary residential remains of Han periods showed no obvious rural-urban distinction. The new city wall was built during the Tang Dynasty rather than Han periods. The settlements in the Zhengzhou Shang City area in Han dynasties were under the control of the Xian level, playing an important role in the regional transport network. This study is also of interest to understanding the historical changes of the urban form of ancient Zhengzhou.

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    Textual Research on the Source of the Yellow River in Qing Dynasty and Discussion on Historical Map Marking
    Miao Pengju
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 128-140.  
    Abstract70)   HTML3)    PDF (4419KB)(43)      

    Qing Dynasty officials organized several expeditions to explore the source of the Yellow River. In the late Qing Dynasty, Westerners also did a lot of explorations. The results of the source explorations reflected the understanding of the very question in the Qing Dynasty. Constrainted by surveying and mapping conditions, the water system of the source area of the Yellow River was not fully understood. Therefore, the conclusion drawn from current textual researches on the basis of the source of the Yellow River as explored in the Qing Dynasty might be problematic. Similarly, the historical maps compiled and drawn on the same basisare also worth examing. In this paper I argue that it is appropriate to take a fuzzy approach to the labeling of the river sources in Qing Dynasty.

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    Regional Integration and the Construction of Anhui Local Identity Since Qing Dynasty
    He Jianhua
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 78-92.  
    Abstract55)   HTML8)    PDF (1448KB)(30)      

    Anhui province spans over the Yangtze River and the Huai River, and its local cultures are detached from each other. How to form a unified regional identity in the tide of modern regionalism is one of the main issues facing Anhui in modern times. On the basis of regional integration of man and land, Anhui’s provincial consciousness and identity were formed and strengthened by a series of events such as the establishment of province, compilation of provincial annals, the rise of the Huai Army, re-compilation of provincial annals, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, etc. In the seemingly monotonous history of linear identity construction, multiple sub-themes, such as administrative level adjustment, social class, regional difference, special groups, etc., all played a role in the tortuous process that included construction, deconstruction and reconstruction of a common provincial identity. Due to the special geographical location and historical context, the local history of Anhui and the history of the whole country are widely connected and share many similar experiences. Anhui provincial identity has multiple connotations at the levels of place, nation and state.

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    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 157-157.  
    Abstract50)   HTML6)    PDF (147KB)(27)      
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