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    A Textual Research on the Old Site of Xincheng County of Sichuan in Sui Dynasty
    Zhang Renkang
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 154-156.  
    Abstract1154)   HTML92)    PDF (455KB)(380)      

    Xincheng County in Sui Dynasty has its origin in the old county set up during the Song Dynasty, one of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. It is generally believed to be located in Santai County. Based on literature critiques on the Memorial and Preface of Xiao Pingzhong, by Chen Ziliang in the Daye 9th year of Sui Dynasty(613 AD), and other historical documents, combining with historical background, geographical location, mountains and rivers shape and folk survey, etc., it can be determined that the site of Xincheng County should be at present-day Xincheng Dam(Xincheng Village, Wanfu Village), Xiangshan Town, Shehong County.

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    Evolution of Lake Distribution and Drainage Pattern in the Lixia River Plain (1570-1938)
    Yang Xiao
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 1-10.  
    Abstract868)   HTML165)    PDF (4607KB)(375)      

    The Lixia River Plain, consisting of a great number of small lakes and swamps, spread widely in the north of Jiangsu Province in history. After 1570, the flood of Huaihe River entering Lixia River Plain continued to increase, which caused great changes in the distribution of lakes and drainage pattern in the region. After 1596, the flood from the Jinghe River and the Ziyinggou River entered into the Guangyang Lake, and then flowed through the Sheyang Lake into the sea. The waters in the southeast of Gaoyou all converge in the Luyang Lake. After 1681, due to the southward shift of the Guihai Dams, floods converged in the middle of the Lixia River Plain and overflowed from the south to the north. As a result, the Dazong Lake and other lakes were connected and merged as a whole. Due to the decrease of flood, the Guangyang Lake was divided into several scattered lakes. Whether the Guihai Dams were opened or not, it would directly affect the hydrological environment of the Lixia River Plain, and thus form two completely different lake distribution and drainage patterns in the flood period and normal period.

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    Water Flow Dynamics and Lake Reclamation in Northwest Taihu Lake Area in Historical Period: A Case Study of Furong Lake
    Kang Yibo
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 81-93.  
    Abstract467)   HTML25)    PDF (16874KB)(326)      

    The flow direction of the mainstream shifted from southwards to northwards in the Chang-Xi-Cheng District, northwest of the Taihu Lake Basin, from pre-Han Dynasty to today. The turning point was approximately between the Tang and Song Dynasties. This was driven by the long-term external factors such as the advance and retreat of coastlines, the variation of tidal power and the water storage and drainage situations in the Taihu Lake Basin over historical periods. Influenced by the variation of mainstream flow directions, the reclamation process of Furong Lake can be divided into three stages. Before the Tang Dynasty, the reclamation attempts in the Furong Lake Area were mainly conducted in the east of Wuxi and the south of the primitive Grand Canal in Wuxi section to adapt to southward characteristics of the mainstream flow in this time. Such projects changed the original form of the south edge of the Furong lake, and shaped the boundary-con-bank between the Furong lake, primitive canal and Taihu Lake. In mid-Tang Dynasty, the south edge of the the Furong Lake retreated by nine li (traditional Chinese length units, one li equals 500 meters approximately) north of the Wuxi section of the Grand Canal. The overall hydrological pattern in the Song Dynasty made it hard for the long-lasting success of reclamations of the Furong lake. All the attempts in this time such as the dredging of river channels and the construction of weir and gate system were soon proved unsustainable. The variation of hydrological patterns in not only the Chang-Xi-Cheng District but also the entire Taihu Lake Basin since the Yuan and Ming Dynasties was the fundamental factor for the complete and final reclamation success of the Furong lake. The dynamic variation of water flows was not only affected the reclamation process of the Furong Lake, but also recorded in the writings of relevant historical material.

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    Research on the Ranking System of Administrative Divisions During the Ming Dynasty
    Hu Cunlu
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 25-42.  
    Abstract350)   HTML20)    PDF (4361KB)(174)      

    In Ming Dynasty, the ranking system of the administrative division of prefectures and counties were initially accorded to the amount of taxes and levied grain, hence the different grades of officials. In the fourteenth year of Hongwu, taxation and location were also used in determining the social and natural quality of the divisions, namely Fan or Jian, as well as the assessment methods of officials. Yang Yunsheng proposed to divide the administrative hierarchy into three levels according to administrative workload, geographic location and transportation during the Jiajing years. Consequently, the Ministry of Personnel unified the administrative divisions into three levels in the first year of Longqing. According to the statistics recorded in the Da ming guan zhi, the places with important roads, heavy workload, dire taxation were mostly concentrated in the Southern Zhili, Northern Zhili, and Jiangxi provinces, among which the places along the canals were particularly typical. Officials were selected to fill in the positions of Fan or Jian in the late Ming dynasty, but the ranking system was not continued after the implementation of the method of drawing lots. The ranking system in the Ming Dynasty had a great influence on the Qing Dynasty, and the spatial distribution of the administrative divisions in the Ming and Qing Dynasties also had certain similarities.

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    Mount Kunlun as the Center of Ancient Chinese Cosmological World
    Deng Hui
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 63-77.  
    Abstract344)   HTML22)    PDF (12207KB)(159)      

    The Sacred Mountain and Holy Lakes located in the grand Yarlung Tsanpo Valley in the southern part of Ali Region, Tibet, that have been listed in the Preparation List of World Heritage Sites of Natural and Cultural Heritage include the Mount Gang Rinpoche, the Lake Mapam Yutso, the Lake Lana Tso. The four rivers originated in the vicinity are the Senge Kabab (the lion river), the langchen Kabab (the elephant river), the Macha Kabab (the peacock river), and the Tsangpo Kabab (the horse river), all which are the source of several world-famous rivers, such as the Indus River, the Ganges River, the Yarlung Tsanpo River and the Brahmaputra River.

    In the ancient tradition of China and India, the Gang Renboqi mountain and its surrounding lakes and rivers had extremely important symbolic meanings, and they were the geographical landmarks indicating the center of the cosmological world. In the historical period, there were four ancient divine worldviews being formed around the Sacred Mountain and Holy Lakes in Ali, Tibet.

    The first one is recognized by the local Bon religion of Zhangzhung culture in Ali area; the second one is the cosmological world center of anavatapta, which is recognized by Buddhism; the third one is the cosmological world center of Kunlun Mountain and Yao-chi, which is recognized by the ancient Chinese Book of Mountains and Seas; and the fourth one is the cosmological world center of Kailash (Kailasa), which was recognized by Hinduism. The four cosmography systems originated independently, formed their own special cognitive systems, and communicated and merged with other systems in history.

    The integration of the Kunlun Mountain cosmological world view and the Buddhist Anavatapta cosmological world view happened around 1 500 years ago, and the new world view had a wide range of impact on ancient Chinese cosmography. In 1720, this world view was projected on the surveyed map, and the ancient subjective cognition was finally located into the concrete geographical objects of the Sacred Mountains and Lakes.

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    A Study of Sources of Notes on Rivers in the Hanshu Dilizhi
    Yang Zhiyu
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 93-105.  
    Abstract304)   HTML42)    PDF (992KB)(229)      

    Ban Gu’s notes in Hanshu Dilizhi contain extremely rich geographical information, recording more than 300 rivers. The main sources of these notes on rivers come from Book of Rivers written in the period of Emperor Ming in Han Dynasties as well as statistical documents submitted by various administrative divisions. At the same time, regarding the various viewpoints in Confucian classics, Ban Gu researched the rivers recorded in Shangshu Yugong and Zhouli Zhifangshi and made excerpts to be included in Hanshu Dilizhi. In addition, a few of notes by other scholars were incerted into the notes in the centuries to follow when the text was widely disseminated.

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    Textual Research on the Source of the Yellow River in Qing Dynasty and Discussion on Historical Map Marking
    Miao Pengju
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 128-140.  
    Abstract294)   HTML6)    PDF (4419KB)(284)      

    Qing Dynasty officials organized several expeditions to explore the source of the Yellow River. In the late Qing Dynasty, Westerners also did a lot of explorations. The results of the source explorations reflected the understanding of the very question in the Qing Dynasty. Constrainted by surveying and mapping conditions, the water system of the source area of the Yellow River was not fully understood. Therefore, the conclusion drawn from current textual researches on the basis of the source of the Yellow River as explored in the Qing Dynasty might be problematic. Similarly, the historical maps compiled and drawn on the same basisare also worth examing. In this paper I argue that it is appropriate to take a fuzzy approach to the labeling of the river sources in Qing Dynasty.

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    Deciding Boundaries: Division and Demarcation of County-level Administrative Divisions in Qing Dynasty
    Zhao Yicai
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 47-62.  
    Abstract262)   HTML10)    PDF (4415KB)(256)      

    Boundary and jurisdiction are important geographical elements of the administrative division. In Qing Dynasty, a total of 203 county-level administrative divisions were split, most of which resulted in creation of new counties, while a few produced Zhili Ting (Para-county under the direct jurisdiction of the central government). As the number of county-level administrative divisions increased, the cultural and geographical elements such as the gathering point or the wicker edge had become important basis for deciding boundaries. The areas with more intensive adjustment of county boundaries were Fengtian, southern Jiangsu, southern Shaanxi, eastern Sichuan, and the junction between Fujian and Guangdong. More county-level administrative divisions had been added in these regions, reflecting their regional development process in the Qing Dynasty. As an administrative means of balancing local governance, dividing the border operated and evolved under the factors such as rectifying upheavals, grass-roots governance and responding to the border crisis. The spatial form of the county boundary was generally formed according to the principles of natural features including mountains and rivers, shaping a reasonable jurisdiction area, and adjusting the distance from the administrative center.

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    Probing-into Geographical Information contained in The Northwest Frontiers Military and Political Documents from the Song Dynasty
    Yang Rui
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 106-116.  
    Abstract241)   HTML18)    PDF (2193KB)(167)      

    The Northwest Frontiers Military and Political Documents from the Song Dynasty is an important Heishuicheng document of Chinese secular literature collected in Russia. It has 109 pages, covering topics including grain and grass loan, Immigration, personal lawsuit, military supplies application, etc. Some of the geographical information contained in this document are not to be found in traditional historical records of the Song and Tangut (West Xia) frontiers. Based on analyzing the relevant geographic terms and information, the author finds out the new situation and new problems including the administrative system, crop transmission, traffics, city-village system and so on, in this paper. They are further used to enact the mutual confirmation between excavated documents and traditional historical records, to complete the missing parts in traditional historical records, and to enhance the understanding of the historical geography and social conditions of the Song and Tangut frontiers.

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    Drought and Climatic Background in the Yangtze River Delta in the 46th Year of Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty
    Niu Lang
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 11-22.  
    Abstract230)   HTML14)    PDF (3093KB)(166)      

    From June to August in the 46th year of Kangxi (1707), there was no continuous precipitation in the Yangtze River Delta, which caused a large-scale drought. Based on the quantified scores of the hazard at county level, the spread of the drought was restored. It was mainly distributed between 30°-33°N, formed a serious disaster center in the Taihu Lake Basin.The daily precipitation sequence from May to August in the Yangtze River Delta was reconstructed by using Yang Dapiao diary. Through the analysis, it is concluded that the reason for the drought is that the subtropical high pressure is stronger than usual in that year, and the its northward movement is also coming earlier, resulting in the rapid northward movement of the rain belt and the abnormality in the Meiyu period. In addition, the drought is strongly related with solar activity and ENSO events.

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    Discussion on the Location, Layout and Function of Shaoyangyuan in the Daming Palace City during the Tang Dynasty
    Jia Hongyuan
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 35-46.  
    Abstract198)   HTML7)    PDF (1553KB)(180)      

    During the Tang Dynasty, there are two Shaoyang yards within the Daming Palace city and both are located in the vicinity of the inner court where the emperors reside. The West Shaoyang Yard is not in line with the tradition of the location of the crown prince’s palace, which prioritize the East, but it can receive the attention from emperor, empress and eunuchs because of its better location. In the period of the Late Tang, the eunuchs find it easier to control the West Shaoyang Yard, hence the emperor and crown prince, because it is close to Neishibiesheng and the barracks of the imperial guards just outside the Jiuxian Gate. The East Shaoyang Yard not only includes the eastern part of the Menxiasheng, but also a quarter inside the Chongming Gate, and the later is the real abode for the crown prince. The Eastern location and the fact that most of the successions of the throne are not from father to son contribute to ascending status of the East Shaoyang Yard as an important ritual space for the crown prince before taking up the throne.

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    Settlement Pattern and Function of the Zhengzhou Shang City Area in Han Dynasties
    Liu Yifang
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 23-34.  
    Abstract196)   HTML11)    PDF (4842KB)(133)      

    The inner city of the Zhengzhou was also where the center of ancient Zhengzhou Shang City had been located. In the past, researchers thought that when Guan Xian (管县) was set up in Han dynasties, a new northern city wall was added. However, it did not accord with the historical records. Within the limit of the inner wall of the Zhengzhou Shang City, ordinary residential remains of Han periods showed no obvious rural-urban distinction. The new city wall was built during the Tang Dynasty rather than Han periods. The settlements in the Zhengzhou Shang City area in Han dynasties were under the control of the Xian level, playing an important role in the regional transport network. This study is also of interest to understanding the historical changes of the urban form of ancient Zhengzhou.

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    An Investigation on the Expansion and Shrinkage of the Minzhou General Administration Office and the Relationship Between Tang and Tuyuhun
    Li Xingui
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 1-12.  
    Abstract175)   HTML27)    PDF (2562KB)(150)      

    The Minzhou Zongguanfu (General Administration Office) was the product of the deteriorating of the relationship between Tang and Tuyuhun which was moving from cooperation to conflict. During the Wude period, the jurisdiction of the governor’s government expanded from north to south, reflecting the Tang defense strategy in the face of the aggressions from the Tuyuhun. By expanding the jurisdiction of the Minzhou General Administration Office, the Tang Dynasty first established a linkage between the prefectures in the Taoshui and Qiangshui basin with Minzhou as the pivot to protect the Weihe Valley passage from Chang’an to the Western Regions. Subsequently, a Wuzhou node was established to connect theprefectures in the Qiangshui and Baishui basins to protect the Sanguan Road from Yizhou to Chang’an. During the Zhenguan period, its jurisdiction shrank from south to north and east to west in accordance with Tang’s military advances. By reducing the area under the jurisdiction of the Minzhou Dudufu (succeeding the Zongguanfu) and the division of territory with the Songzhou Dudufu, the Tang could focus on pacifyng the Tangut and regime change of the Tuyuhun. Behind this expansion and shrinkage of jurisdiction hides the irreconcilable conflict between Tang and Tuyuhun over border security, which proved to be the norm rather than the temporary cooperation.

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    Path to a Modern Academic Paradigm Between the Disciplines of History and Geography: A Comparative Study on the Early Developments of Historical Geography in China and Japan
    Xing Yun
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 141-153.  
    Abstract170)   HTML7)    PDF (1220KB)(120)      

    The establishment of modern geography in China and Japan co-relate with each other and have many comparable characteristics, especially in terms of the early development of historical geography. Historical geography was introduced to Japan from Europe during the middle and late Meiji Period (1868-1911). The discussion on historical geography was mainly carried out by historians, contending on its subject attribution as well as focusing on the scientific traits. However, it was not until the end of Meiji Era when the modern transformation of geography was completed and historical geography gained notable development. Historical geography in China, on the other hand, was imported twice during the first quarter of 20th Century from Japan and the West respectively. The absorption was performed by two generations of Chinese geographers, one under the paradigm of traditional geography and the other under the modern subject of history or geography. The main factor influencing the early development of historical geography in Japan was the maturity of theories in geography since the modern system of academic geographical study had already been established. However, in China, the development of historical geography is influenced by dual factors: the modernization of traditional academic study and the paradigm shift in both disciplines of modern history and modern geography.

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    From Grains to Weeds: Barnyard Millet Planting and Low Wetland Development in Northeast China
    Du Xinhao
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 94-102.  
    Abstract157)   HTML25)    PDF (838KB)(173)      

    Despite that barnyard millet was, in Chinese mainstream narratives on agricultural history, considered a kind of weed that grew along with rice in paddy fields or a rescue crop in years of famine, it was a key staple crop in northeastern China in traditional periods, whose status was not inferior to that of five cereals. The stress resistance attributes, i.e., cold resistant and moisture resistant, made barnyard millet a major player in the development history of low wetlands in northeastern China. Based on their long-term cultivation practices, local farmers bred a number of high yielding and waterlogging resistant varieties, and created a full set of rather distinctive cultivation techniques. Since modern times, along with the rise of the development of water conservatory projects in farmlands in northeastern China, as well as the introduction of a number of cold resistant lowland rice varieties, the low wetlands where barnyard millet had been planted have been transformed into paddy fields, while high-yielding quality lowland rice has started to play a major role in the development of low wetlands. Barnyard millet has faded out of people’s sight as a grain and been turned into a kind of forage only. To some extent, the retreat history of barnyard millet is an epitome of the history of both the low wetlands development and the agricultural development of mid- and high-latitude northeastern Asia since modern times.

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    Regional Integration and the Construction of Anhui Local Identity Since Qing Dynasty
    He Jianhua
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 78-92.  
    Abstract149)   HTML13)    PDF (1448KB)(179)      

    Anhui province spans over the Yangtze River and the Huai River, and its local cultures are detached from each other. How to form a unified regional identity in the tide of modern regionalism is one of the main issues facing Anhui in modern times. On the basis of regional integration of man and land, Anhui’s provincial consciousness and identity were formed and strengthened by a series of events such as the establishment of province, compilation of provincial annals, the rise of the Huai Army, re-compilation of provincial annals, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, etc. In the seemingly monotonous history of linear identity construction, multiple sub-themes, such as administrative level adjustment, social class, regional difference, special groups, etc., all played a role in the tortuous process that included construction, deconstruction and reconstruction of a common provincial identity. Due to the special geographical location and historical context, the local history of Anhui and the history of the whole country are widely connected and share many similar experiences. Anhui provincial identity has multiple connotations at the levels of place, nation and state.

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    The Changes of Urban Subterranean Space: A Study on the Spatio-temporal Characteristics of the Sewerage System in the Shanghai International Settlement (1862-1941)
    Gu Zheming
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 118-134.  
    Abstract144)   HTML23)    PDF (6408KB)(111)      

    Due to the lack of altitude gradient of sewers and scouring capacity of rivers, the old sewerage system in the Shanghai International Settlement was not fully capable of handling domestic waste. In the 1910s, in order to cope with the challenge brought by water-closets, the Municipal Council decided to build an underground separate sewerage system to accomplish the transformation of sewage treatment method from combined sewers to separate sewers. From 1921 to 1934, on the basis of combining the experience of Anglo- American municipal engineering and the geographical situation of Shanghai, the Council gradually constructed a brand-new sewer network with three levels including the main, the subsidiary and house sewers. Through the spatial competition and functional linkage between the sewers and other municipal pipelines, the upgrading of the sewerage system had brought about the integration of urban subterranean space.

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    Maps Cited in the Zi Zhi Tong Jian Annotated by Hu Sanxing
    Chen Zhihong
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 117-127.  
    Abstract137)   HTML3)    PDF (1005KB)(149)      

    Hu Sanxing used maps as proof when annotating the geography of Zi Zhi Tong Jian. Jinren Jiangyu Tu (Territorial Map of the Jin People) is derived from the geographical records of the period from Dading to Taihe, and reflects the information of the administrative system in the mid-Jin Dynasty. It is the only existent general map of the territory of the Jin Dynasty, which can supplement the insufficient records in Jinshi Dilizhi (Jin History, Geographical Records). Huayi Duijing Tu (Map of Hua-Yi Boundary), Huarong Duijing Tu (Map of Hua-Rong Boundary) and Nanbei Duijing Tu (Map of North-South Boundary) are maps of the border area during the confrontation between Song and Jin Dynasties, showing important prefectural cities, army towns, ferry crossings and rivers, etc., in large scale and hence highly practical in military use.

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    Land Boundary Dispute and Local Governance:A Case Study of the Dispute Between Ningxia Garrisonand Ordos Mongolian over Cha Han Tuo Hu in Qing Dynasty
    Ma Jingui, Chen Xu
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 43-54.  
    Abstract136)   HTML12)    PDF (2669KB)(162)      

    In the early Qing Dynasty, the boundary dispute between Ordos Mongolian and Ningxia Garrison over the Cha Han Tuo Hu(查汉托护) is essentially the competition for natural resources between the Mongols and Han. The resolution of the boundary disputes reflected the transformation of the nation of ethnic management and border governance of the central government in the early Qing Dynasty,as well as the improvement of its governance capability. Through a series of economic, political and military manoeuvre, the Qing government completed the adjustment of the administrative territory of Cha Han Tuo Hu. It was mainly reflected in three aspects: firstly Cha Han Tuo Hu was made in agricultural area through establishing a system of irrigation and raising farmers for rehabilitation,thus changing the main economic attributes of the territory. Secondly,by establishing the county system, Cha Han Tuo Hu was incorporated into the inland and local administrative system of prefectures, which truly transformed the political nature of the Ningxia Garrison from border land to inland. Thirdly a new patrolling and defensive system was established in Cha Han Tuo Hu area, which was similar to local security system in other inland provinces in the Qing Dynasty, and eventually replaced the Weisuo system the Qing had inherited from the Ming Dynasty.

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    On the Han Territory in the Late Warring States Period
    Zhang Jianyu
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 145-148.  
    Abstract135)   HTML13)    PDF (436KB)(89)      

    In the late Warring States period, Han occupied some counties on both sides of the Yellow River, including Xinzhong Anyang, Ancheng and Li.Geographically, they were connected to the recovered Shangdang Prefecture to form a buffer zone for defensing the country. By combing the handed down documents and related ancient written material, we can infer that the Xincheng in the late Han weapon inscriptions is not located in Yichuan, but in Xinmi. The so-called “Zhang Tang attacking Zheng” in Qin Benji has nothing to do with the capital of Han, and there is no mistaken word. The “Zheng” in that event should be in the Henei area of the Wei.

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    A New Study on the Location of Gula Chiefdoms in the Early Ming Dynasty
    Xie Xinye
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 13-24.  
    Abstract121)   HTML21)    PDF (3378KB)(325)      

    Both the records of historical documents in the early Ming Dynasty, and the Plaque of the “Timasa Pacification Commission” found in Assam Pradesh, India, indicate that the Gula Chiefdoms set up in the southwest frontier region in the early Ming Dynasty were actually located in the Brahmaputra Valley. Since the Han and Tang Dynasties, the Brahmaputra Valley had been an important channel connecting China and the South Asia. After the reunification of Yunnan, the Ming dynasty actively managed the southwestern frontier. With the continuous expansion of the influence of the Ming China, the Gula tribes established political contact with the Ming Dynasty and the latter then set up chiefdoms in this area. Although the relationship between the Ming dynasty and the Gula chiefdoms did not last long, the re-opening of the land Silk Road to South Asia greatly expanded the geographical cognition of the ancient Chinese.

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    Textual Research on the Restoration of Prefectures and Counties in Sichuan Province in the Middle and Late Yuan Dynasty
    Wu Lei
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 149-156.  
    Abstract116)   HTML9)    PDF (1332KB)(91)      

    In the middle and late Yuan Dynasty, the Yuan government restored a number of prefectures and counties in Sichuan Province. By comparing the historical records and data of schools, ancestral temples and famous officials, we can summarize that from Dade to Zhizheng, the restored administrative districts included three prefectures, namely Rong, Zi, and long, and nine counties of Jingyan, Neijiang, Anyue, Changning, Dazu, Lechang, Jiangyou, Baoning and Tongjiang. Another Shiyang county was newly established. The main reasons for the restoration were the growth of population. These administrative districts shared three characteristics: most of them were established on the basis of the inspection department (xunjiansi), insufficient population and low efficiency.

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    Re-discussion on the Zhendi Circuit of Xinjiang During the Qing Dynasty
    Lu Jingkang
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 55-67.  
    Abstract113)   HTML9)    PDF (1523KB)(83)      

    The Zhendi Circuit of Xinjiang during the Qing Dynasty was formed on the basis of both the Anxi circuit and the Liangwu Circuit of Urumqi. During the relatively peaceful era before the Tongzhi period, the Zhendi Circuit functioned in the capacity of provincial governor and surveillance commissioner. There were formal and hierarchical administrative districts and sub-official defence posts that also functioned as administrative district under its jurisdiction. It was administered by the Viceroy of Shaanxi and Gansu, and at the same time jointly liaised to the Urumqi Dutong, while Urumqi Dutong was a subordinate to the Yili General before the Tongzhi period. However, the Governor of Shaanxi and Gansu not being based at Urumqi meant that its administration was to a large extent remote, and the Yili General’s control over the Urumqi Dutong was nominal, which made Urumqi Dutong’s administration to Zhendi Circuit rather uninterrupted. As such, the Circuit Intendant took the mandate of provincial governor and surveillance commissioner, and that of Dutong was comparable to Viceroy. The district formed was a special type of quasi-provincial jurisdiction: the Urumqi Dutong, which was relatively independent. This special administration system was imitated in other districts that were facing similar situation for reference purpose.

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    The Hedongzhao in the Oracle Inscriptions and the Nearby-Eastern Political Geography in the Yin Dynasty
    Wang Xudong
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 135-144.  
    Abstract102)   HTML5)    PDF (1073KB)(120)      

    The word zhao in oracle inscriptions means frontier, so the phrase Hedongzhao could be interpreted as area to the east of the Yellow River which was located near Puyang, Henan province today. The kings of Shang dynasty often hunt or patrolled in the Hedongzhao and neighbouring sites such as Gun and Wei, and sent officers to inspect the ferry, so as to consolidate the control over the xiaodong area. At the same time, Hedongzhao was for the Shang people the starting point of the route into the dadong area around the Tai Mountain by first crossing the Ji river hear Liaocheng and Pingyin of today. They might, however, also go southeast from Puyang and arrive at the south of the Wen River by way of the ancient Daye Lake. In Zhou dynasty, with the political center transferring from Anyang to Qixian-Puyang, the importance of the north ferry in Hedongzhao decreased even though it was still in use.

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    A Study on the Establishment of Horgos County, Xinjiang in Republic of China
    Wang Rongyu
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 68-80.  
    Abstract101)   HTML14)    PDF (1384KB)(182)      

    In the late Qing Dynasty and the Period of Republic of China, the provincial government of Xinjiang actively promoted the reform of administrative divisions and created a large number of new county-level administrative districts, in order to meet the needs of frontier management. It’s worth an in-depth study on the characteristics of these new counties, and the similarities and differences between them and the counties in the hinterland. By restoring the process of Horgos County’s establishment and reconstructing its boundaries in 1914 using archives and maps, this study reveals the political considerations of the provincial government of Xinjiang including strengthening the military defense, diplomacy, management of foreign trade and domestic affairs, when establishing new counties along the border area between China and Russia. At the same time, this case also shows that in the process of delineating the boundaries of administration districts in the modern frontier areas, in addition to concerns over traditional principle of following mountains and rivers, domestic and foreign political relations such as disputes over national boundaries, economic distribution, and the local warlords’ own benefits also affect the delimitation.

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    Spatial Structure Evolution and Strategies of Foreign Companies in Modern Tianjin
    Wang Ruoran, Lü Zhichen, Aoki Nobuo, Xu Subin
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 103-117.  
    Abstract99)   HTML11)    PDF (7799KB)(150)      

    Foreign owned trading companies were an essential institution between China and western countries in modern times. Its spatial evolution and strategy represent imperialism’s destructive and reconstructive influences on Chinese cities. This paper takes Tianjin as a case study, and analyzes the important role that foreign companies played in urban development through a visual analysis of its spatial evolution process using HGIS. The result shows that Tianjin, as a trading center in northern China attracted a large number of foreign companies, which formed a unique spatial system. These foreign companies had a complex impact on the formation and transformation of the urban spatial structure of modern Tianjin, as they did on other treaty port cities.

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    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 157-157.  
    Abstract94)   HTML11)    PDF (147KB)(84)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 158-158.  
    Abstract68)   HTML4)    PDF (161KB)(82)      
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    Garrison Controlled by Government: Evolution of Military-Civilian Government System in Ming Dynasty
    Ma Chujie
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 31-41.  
    Abstract57)   HTML22)    PDF (914KB)(44)      

    The military-civilian government system was a key strategy employed by the central government to manage the ethnic frontiers during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. The system was particularly prevalent in the southwest, where it was implemented for over half a millennium. The Ming Dynasty saw the system mature and adapt to the realities of the border areas, building on the foundation laid by the Yuan Dynasty. During the mid to late period of Ming Dynasty, six new military-civilian governments named Yongchang, Liping, Zunyi, Pingyue, Guiyang, and Anshun were established. These governments disrupted the tradition that local officials manage the local people and transformed the relationship between the government and the frontier guards. The evolution of the military-civilian government system in Ming Dynasty was shaped by various stakeholders, including the frontier guards, the Bingbei Dao (regional military command), and the chieftain. These factors contributed to the maintenance of military and political order in southwestern China and ultimately contributed to the creation of a new politico-geographical pattern.

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    Spatio-temporal Changes of the Prefecture and County Tiers in Tang Dynasty and Their Geographical Significances
    Gong Shengsheng, Xiao Kemei
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 8-30.  
    Abstract51)   HTML10)    PDF (11362KB)(55)      

    The tiers of prefectures and counties are important indicators that reflect their political status, population and economic importance. By using historical quantitative analysis and GIS analysis methods, this paper unpacks the spatiotemporal changes of 339 prefectures and 1 607 counties in Tang Dynasty. The results show that: (1) The number of prefecture tier Fu (府), Fu (辅), Xiong (雄) and county tier Chi (赤), Ji (畿), Ci-Chi (次赤) and Ci-Ji (次畿) was relatively stable in Tang Dynasty, while the number of Shang (上), Zhong (中), Xia (下) prefectures and counties changed drastically. In the late Tang Dynasty, the number of upgraded prefectures and counties was more than that of degraded prefectures and counties, with the most significant hierarchical change took place from Kaiyuan (713-741) to Yuanhe (806-820). (2) The spatio-temporal changes of prefectures and counties in Tang Dynasty was “high in the north and low in the south”. Guanzhong Plain was the highest area in the prefecture and county level. The temporal change was “falling in the north and rising in the south”. The Plain of Hubei and Hunan, Poyang Lake Plain and Taihu Plain in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River rose most significantly. (3) The tiers of prefectures and counties in the vicinity of the capital of the Tang Dynasty were most affected by political factors, while the tiers of the frontier fortresses and traffic throats were most affected by military factors. Other prefectures’ and counties’ tiers were mainly affected by economic factors, especially population size. (4) The spatio-temporal changes of the tiers of prefectures and counties in Tang Dynasty reflected the eastward and southward movement of the national political, demographic, urban and economic centers after the An-Shi Rebellion in the middle of the Tang Dynasty.

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    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 1-7.  
    Abstract38)   HTML11)    PDF (455KB)(24)      
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    Writing of Chieftain in Ming Shi and Tuguan System under Xifan Territory Division in Ming Dynasty
    Zou Libo
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 42-52.  
    Abstract33)   HTML2)    PDF (972KB)(18)      

    Ming Shi for the first time included biographies of chieftains in the official history, but selectively classified some of Xifan (西番) Tuguan (土官) as chieftains in Ming Dynasty. When compilers such as Wan Sitong (万斯同) and Wang Hongxu (王鸿绪) revised manuscripts in the early Qing Dynasty, they were deeply influenced by the historical records since the middle of the Ming Dynasty on Xifan territorial affiliation. These records were direct reflection of the inheritance and adjustment of administrative region in Yuan Dynasty during the establishment of the Xifan political system in the early Ming Dynasty. Jimi Tuguan were excluded from the ranks of chieftains by the compilers. Due to the differences in local political practices in the early Ming Dynasty, Xifan Tuguan under the jurisdiction of Dusiwei (都司卫) in Shaanxi and Sichuan were included in different military and political management systems, which became the deep-seated reason for defining Xifan chieftains in officially compiled historical books of early Qing Dynasty. By the late Ming, the territorial governance of Xifan gradually broke down. The spatial distribution of chieftains and their territories as recognized by the contemporaries accordingly changed. The generation process of the chieftain conception complements the study of institutional history. Investigation on the use of historical concepts needs to be more attentive on the context of historical documents and the process of local political practice in different regions.

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    Spatial Distribution, Types and Environmental Background of Paleolithic Sites in Northeast China
    Zhang Pengbo, Wang Miaofa
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 99-114.  
    Abstract26)   HTML2)    PDF (4325KB)(27)      

    Analysis on the spatio-temporal changes and types of 229 Paleolithic sites in Northeast China shows that, the early sites were distributed sparsely in the foothills of Qianshan Mountain and the eastern Songnen Plain, with about 57.1% of them located at less than 200 meters above the sea level. The ruins type was predominatly mountain and hillock platform type. In the middle period, the sites were mainly distributed on both banks of rivers and streams in the eastern mountains. About 58.8% of the sites were in the area between 200-400 meters above the sea level, and the type of the sites was mainly river valley terrace type. The distribution of the late sites basically extended to as far as half of the Northeast, especially in the middle and lower reaches of Nenjiang River, the lower reaches of Liaohe River, the foothills of Qianshan Mountain,the lower reaches of Mudan River, the upper reaches of Muling River, Buerhatong River basin, Suifenhe River basin and other regions. About 49.4% of ruins were located in the area between 200-400 meters above the sea level, and the type of ruins was mainly valley terrace type. A few were hillock platform type or mountain hilly type. The spatial distribution of the ruins gradually expanded from the southeast to the northwest and from low altitude to high altitude. This change may be the result of diversified strategies such as improving stone tools technology, maintaining high mobility, changing hunting methods, and strengthening resource utilization so as to adapt to climate and environmental changes.

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    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 149-154.  
    Abstract24)   HTML2)    PDF (483KB)(76)      
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    Illicit Surveying of Southeast Tibet by the British in the 19th Century and Its Implications-Focus on the River System
    Huo Renlong
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 115-129.  
    Abstract22)   HTML3)    PDF (1123KB)(17)      

    Throughout the 19th century, the British dispatched surveyors, spies, and frontier officials to conduct large-scale illicit surveying and mapping, with a focus on the river system, in Southeast Tibet. By the end of the century, geographical knowledge of the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and its main tributaries had gradually improved. Information about the primary and secondary relationships, downstream flow direction, course, and source of the Chayu, Dihang, and Subansiri rivers helped to fill many gaps on the world map, and the knowledge of the river system in this area was formed. Simultaneously, the surveying and mapping activities during this period also provided much needed geographical knowledge facilitated the British invasion of the Tibetan territory and served as an important means of colonial territorial expansion.

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    The Formation and Composition of Administrative Divisions in the West Part of Jilin Province in Qing Dynasty
    Xie Changlong
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 53-71.  
    Abstract20)   HTML1)    PDF (4566KB)(13)      

    Administrative divisions, namely Fu, Ting, Zhou and Xian, were established in the west part of Jilin mainly after 1906, based on domestic political reformations on the system of eight-banner garrisons. Large amount of newly established administrative divisions within the short time led to the unusual equivalence between Fu-level and Xian-level divisions. As a result, the boundaries between administrative divisions remained the same as margin zones between regions of eight-banners garrisons before 1907, most of which were referring to mountains or rivers. After that, delimitation and alternation moved boundaries away from existing frontiers. As to provincial boundaries in the western part of Jilin, their continuous changes were related to the development of lands near the boundary, and changes of the land ownership afterwards. By the third year of reign of Xuantong, boundaries between administrative divisions in the western part of Jilin were mainly natural boundaries, complemented with a minority group of man-made objects. However, among the boundaries inside Jilin Province, most of the newly settled ones were formed by the border of settlements.

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    The Qing-France Negotiations: A Brief Introduction to the Maps and Treaty on the Boundary Between Yunnan Province and Vietnam Collected in the Taipei Palace Museum
    Chen Weixin
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 130-148.  
    Abstract20)   HTML4)    PDF (1560KB)(13)      

    The boundary demarcation between Qing and Vietnam governments had not been conducted until the 11th year of the Guangxu Reign (1885), after the Ten Treaties Between Qing and French Government on Vietnam was signed. In the following decade, the Qing government negotiated with French officials on demarcation issues. After long lasting seesaw debates, they signed memoranda relative to Sino-Vietnamese border survey in Yunnan, accompanied by corresponding border maps. Zhou Derun, Cen yuying dispatched by the Qing court joined their French counterparts Auguste Gérard, Charles Dillon as border survey officials. The treaty, boundary maps and related files collected in the Taipei Palace Museum are important materials for the recovery of the boundary negotiations.

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    On Nature Rhythm and the Tide-Watching Custom in Jiangnan
    Zuo Peng
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 85-98.  
    Abstract17)   HTML4)    PDF (1776KB)(14)      

    There used to be the tide watching custom, locally dubbed as the “August 18th tide birthday”, around the estuaries and tributaries of the Yangtze, Qiantang, Wusong, Loujiang and Huangpu River. The rise or fall of this custom was closely related to the unobstructed or blocked of those rivers. The tide watching custom originated in Qujiang in Guangling (now Yangzhou), and the most famous is the Qiantang tide. Tide watching had become an entertaining folk festival in Tang and Song dynasties. The lore of “tide birthday” appeared and spread among the people in the Jiangnan area after the Yuan Dynasty, and there were sacrificing ceremonies as well. However, the adoration of “Tide God” along the Qiantang River was rarely seen in other places, indicating the different impacts of tide on the local society, and the local adaption of man-land relationship in this area.

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    Spatial Patterns of Prefectural Land and Labor Tax and State Governance in Qing Dynasty
    Guo Yongqin, Yuan Linxi
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (3): 72-84.  
    Abstract17)   HTML3)    PDF (6265KB)(16)      

    This paper compiles panel data on prefectural land and labor tax for the years 1717, 1748, 1784, and 1820 based on historical data, and uses geographic information system to analyze its spatially divergent patterns. The spatial panel model is used to explore the role of topographic factors on these characteristics. The results show that: (1) The distribution of land and labor tax is significantly limited by altitude, and the high tax distribution is all located below 600 meters above the sea level. (2) There was a significant positive spatial correlation of land and labor tax. The local Moran index showed an uneven development pattern. High-high clustering mainly in eastern China and low-low clustering mostly in western and southwestern China. The gravity model shows that the formation of a spatially positive autocorrelation pattern of taxes is most influenced by the agglomeration effect of the Yangtze River Delta region, as well as some northern provinces. (3) Spatial panel regression results show that population is positively correlated with land and labor tax, and altitude and slope are negatively correlated with it. (4) The influence of topographic factors on tax amount distribution gradually decreased, while the influence of governance factors gradually increased.

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