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    Research on the Desertification of Ancient Oases at the Lower Reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basin
    Li Bingcheng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 1-10.  
    Abstract274)   HTML48)    PDF (725KB)(140)      

    On the lower reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basis, there was a desertified area once an oasis, it was about 80 square kilometers. On the ancient oasis area, many relics were scattered, such as Huyangdun Buddha temple ruins, Tuopulukedun Buddha Temple ruins, Big Graveyard, Huyang Graveyard, Kalaqin Ancient City, and Sipier Ancient City. The textual research shows the Kalaqin Ancient City was Kanchengzhen (Kanzhou) in Tang Dynasty, also the Phema City. In those years, the Kalaqin Ancient City was of a large population, commercially developed, and prosperous for Buddhism, but abandoned and desertified after 790 A.D. The Sipier Ancient City was the former capital of Qule State in Han Dynasty, but also abandoned and desertified in late Wei and Jin dynastys. The author analyzed two stages of desertification in the ancient oases and its causes.

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    Three Corrections to the Qinfeng Lu Map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China
    Yuan Fang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 129-134.  
    Abstract265)   HTML35)    PDF (4986KB)(73)      

    There are two places in the Qinfeng Lu map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China that had been mistakenly placed, and one missing from the map. Laiyuan Zhai is in fact located in Donghanping, to southwest of Peijiazhuang, Luomen Town, Wushan County, Tianshui City, rather than Yuanhe Village, Mali Town. Weiyuan Zhai is not Zhenxing Fortress in Tan’ge Town, but near Liaoyang Village and Waner Village in Luomen Town. Meanwhile, Daluomen Zhai is located along the Da’nan River in the north of Simen Town. The three forts, Laiyuan, Daluomen and Weiyuan, jointly controlled the Luomen Valley and were vital to the defense of the Weihe River valley in the west of Qinzhou.

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    Huizhou Merchants’s Timber Industry Management in the Qiantang River Basin in Qing Dynasty as Seen in the Zuo Shanmu Fangpai Yaolan
    Wang Zhenzhong, Zhu Huimin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 61-76.  
    Abstract256)   HTML23)    PDF (2883KB)(81)      

    The anonymous Zuo Shanmu Fangpai Yaolan (Keys to Chinese Fir Wood Business and River Transportation) offers a slightly different view from previously discovered and rather common itinerary books on the Xin’an River-Qiantang River business journey. In addition to the place names and the distance along the way, it also includes many rules of wood business operation, which makes it a comprehensive business manual. Accordingly, we can explore the many facts of Huizhou merchants’ conducts in timber industry in the Qiantang River basin. The book contains business secrets of Hui-Xi merchants engaged in Qugang timber transportation and marketing, including five sections of continuous water routes along the way and a land route back to the hometown. On that basis, we can outline the route of Hui-Xi merchants engaged in Qugang wood business, and examine their related business norms more closely. From this point of view, the success of Hui merchants in the traditional times depended not only on their abundant wealth and higher cultural quality, but was also closely related to the relevant technologies and business norms they professed and spread.

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    Textual Research on the Old Map of Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu Collected in Germany Library
    Sun Jingchao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 116-128.  
    Abstract243)   HTML33)    PDF (18265KB)(297)      

    The old map Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu collected in Germany library, showing mountain peaks, rivers, lakes, settlements, traffic lines and so on, is a valuable historical material. The map was drawn under the background of immigration and reclamation in the eastern Jilin Province in the late Qing Dynasty. It reflected the regional development in the frontier crisis. By interpreting the features on the piece of map, combining with the historical background outside of the map, it is helpful to understand the historical process of Jilin border area in the late Qing Dynasty.

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    Supplementary Study on Further Textual Research on Tang-Dynasty Provisional Prefectures and Provisional Counties
    Hu Axiang, Lei Xinghe
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 1-16.  
    Abstract242)   HTML394)    PDF (857KB)(130)      

    Provisional prefectures and provisional counties in the Tang Dynasty consist of a special form of administrative division that derived from regular prefectures and counties with their governing centers locatedelsewhere. Based on Shengbo Guo’s study and my own textual research, the Tang court set up at least 37 provisional prefectures and 42 provisional counties, especially in the early and mid-late period of the dynasty, and many of them were in Jiannan, Guannei, Hebei and Longyou Circuits (Dao). These provisional prefectures and provisional counties were set up in strategic sites, indicating their political and military value. Setting up provisional administrative units inside regular administrative divisions would create frictions on local governance. The provisional units led by indigenous leaders may undermine the imperial court’s influence on the frontier region and hence impede their developments into regular administrative units. The dislocation of provisional administrative units could also create misunderstandings on toponyms. These are all negative effects of the Tang-dynasty provisional prefectures and provisional counties.

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    Four New Textual Researches on the Boundaries and Administrative Centers of Qing Dynasty Yunnan Map in The Historical Atlas of China
    Shen Kaxiang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 140-147.  
    Abstract230)   HTML42)    PDF (1723KB)(51)      

    On the basis of literature critique and field surveys, this paper shows there are several errors in the drawing of some prefecture boundaries and administrative centers in the Yunnan Map in the Qing Dynasty volune of The Historical Atlas of China. Among them, the drawing of the Southern boundary between Yongchang Fu and Shunning Fu, and the prefecture boundary between Shunning Fu and Jingdong Zhili Ting were all incorrect. The locations of administrative centers of Langqu Tuzhou and Nandian Tusi were also incorrect and need to be corrected.

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    Low Field and Deepwater Rice Planting along Dianchi Lake from the 16th Century to the 1960s
    Geng Jin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 11-23.  
    Abstract224)   HTML20)    PDF (6401KB)(94)      

    The water area of Dianchi Lake is basically stable from Ming and Qing dynasties thanks to the annual dredging of the Haikou area. Still, seasonal change in water level is not completely solved due to frequent flood disasters. The deep rice was gradually planted systematically in Ming and Qing dynasties along the coast of Dianchi Lake to adapt to the seasonal changes in the waters in the Dianchi Lake, realizing the ecological coupling of low-field deepwater rice cultivation with seasonal changes in the water level. The situation changed completely in the late 1960s. With the construction of reservoirs and other water conservancy projects in the upper reaches of the Dianchi Lake, the lakeside and low fields were gradually drained, and the water environment for the deepwater rice was lost. From the point of view of the interactive relationship between the water environment of the Dianchi Lake and rice-growing ecology, if only the regional environment changes regularly for a long time, human beings may gradually turn “harm” into “benefit”, which is the proof of human wisdom to adapt to and make use of nature.

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    Study on Water Environment Changes of Fuzhou’s West Lake and Its Governance During the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Gong Junwen, Chen Yexin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 24-39.  
    Abstract202)   HTML28)    PDF (3011KB)(223)      

    During Ming and Qing dynasties, the water environment of Fuzhou’s West Lake gradually deteriorated. In Ming Dynasty, the water source of West Lake was abundant and the water quality was good. Since Wanli’s reign, affected by social factors such as land reclamation, the West Lake shrunk in size and the water quality was affected. In the middle to late Qing Dynasty, waterways in Fuzhou were shallow, and the river tide eventually disappeared. The changes in water environment of the West Lake during the Ming and Qing dynasties were not only affected by regional climate change in humidity, forest soil and water conservation, and lake sedimentation, but also closely related to water and land disputes. Due to the dire human-land bearing ratio, the unclear ownership of water resources, and the vague taxation regulations on newly reclaimed lake fields, excessive lake reclamation became inevitable. The local government made considerable efforts, such as repairing floodgates and protecting lake embankment, turning the reclaimed land back to water surface, cleaning up feces and silt, etc., which achieved phased effects. However, affected by the socio-economic factors such as population pressure, land resource limits and ecological patterns, the West Lake still deteriorated due to the accumulated problems over the centuries.

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    Digitization of Old Maps Based on Machine Learning and Image Morphology: an Example of Surface Water Extraction in Modern Shanghai
    Chai Baohui
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 117-133.  
    Abstract187)   HTML16)    PDF (7561KB)(60)      

    Modern maps drawn using scientific surveying and mapping technology are precious historical geographical data source, directly showing land cover information in the past. Digitization is a necessary way to extract the historical land cover and its changes from old maps. This paper proposes an old map digitization method based on machine learning and image morphology analysis, and takes the “Eastern China: Shanghai” map as an example to elaborate its implementation process and verify the effectiveness. Results show that the method can fully utilize the color information and morphological information in the map, and extract the surface water information quickly and accurately in a semi-automatic manner. The proposed method can be applied to the digital extraction of land cover information with color characteristics in most color modern maps. It shows great potential to provide both data and method basis for accurately restoring land cover changes and understanding the evolution in man-land relationship since modern times.

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    The Change of Administrative Divisions in Wu Region and Huainan Region after the “Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms”
    Dan Changwu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 40-49.  
    Abstract182)   HTML27)    PDF (1687KB)(99)      

    Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty adjusted the administrative divisions in Huainan region and Wu region after the “Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms”. The King of Runan was transfered to be the King of Jiangdu, governing Dongyang Prefecture and the northern counties in the old Zhang Prefecture. The rest of the old Zhang Prefecture was merged with the Kuaiji Prefecture to form the new Kuaiji Prefecture. Similarly, The King of Lujiang became King of Hengshan and the new prefecture of Lujiang was established in the southeast of the old Hengshan kingdom. The original Lujiang south to the Yangtze River was combined with Yuzhang to form the new Yuzhang Prefecture. This adjustment was not only a part of the centralization policy, but also a reconstruction of the political geography in the southeast region.

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    Changes of the Jurisdiction and Authorities of the Nan Gan Governor During the Middle and Late Ming Dynasty
    Ruan Ge
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 35-47.  
    Abstract174)   HTML31)    PDF (1053KB)(83)      

    During the Hongzhi reign of Ming Dynasty, the central government set up the Nan Gan Governor to strengthen its management of the Nanling Mountainous Area. The Nan Gan Governor was allocated a vast area encompassing four provinces under its jurisdiction. While it seemed that the jurisdiction of the Nan Gan Governor was vast, its actual authority of office was rather limited by the central government and, consequently, its administration often hindered. At the end of the Jiajing reign, in order to strengthen its governance and expand its jurisdiction area, Nan Gan Governor proposed to set up a new county in neighboring Guangdong province and transfer it to Ganzhou-fu, Jiangxi Province. This action immediately aroused the collective opposition of Guangdong officials. After that, the two sides competed for the establishment of Pingyuan County. Focusing on the dispute over the establishment of counties, this paper discusses the evolution of the governor’s jurisdiction and authorities by combing various efforts from the Nan Gan Governor in order to break the governance dilemma in the middle and late Ming Dynasty.

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    Research on Qinzhou’s Migration and Governance Affairs in Tang and Song Dynasties
    Meng Zhangwang, Chen Qiliu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 17-24.  
    Abstract168)   HTML353)    PDF (1165KB)(86)      

    Qinzhou got its name in the 18th year of Emperor Kaihuang in the Sui Dynasty. During Tang Dynasty, it was either named Qinzhou or Ningyue Prefecture. Since Song Dynasty till today, Qinzhou’s name has not changed. Throughout the historical-geographic evolutions of Qinzhou, there have been four administrative seats, namely Qinjiang, Lingshan, Nanbin, and Anyuan, with three movements took place during Tang and Song dynasties. There are nearly ten different viewpoints in historical records on those three movements of Qinzhou’s seat of governance. Through differentiating and analyzing the different statements, it could be inferred that between the first year of Tianbao in Tang Dynasty and the fifth year of Kaibao of Song Dynasty, Qinzhou moved from Qinjiang County to Lingshan County, and its seat was Jiuzhou Town in Lingshan County. In the first year of Tiansheng in Song Dynasty, it moved from Lingshan County to Nanbinzhai, where it was located in Lingcheng Town of Lingshan County. In the sixth year of Jiayou in Song Dynasty, it moved from Nanbinzhai to Anyuan County, which was the Qinzhou City today.

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    A Comparative Study on the Northeastern Part of the Three Measured Maps in Qing Dynasty
    Yang Liting
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 103-116.  
    Abstract158)   HTML6)    PDF (7623KB)(48)      

    This paper compares the geographical elements, such as traffic stations, river systems, village names, and prefectures or counties’ names, of the northeastern part of the three measured maps in Qing Dynasty, including two versions of the Kangxi Huangyu Quanlan Tu, the Yongzheng Shipai Tu and the Qianlong Shisanpai Tu. It shows that, at least in the northeastern part, the copper plate version of the Huangyu Quanlan Tu’s relationship with the Shipai Tu and the Shisanpai Tu is closer than that of the Fuchs version of Huangyu Quanlan Tu. And the geographical element information in Shisanpai Tu was mainly derived from the Shipai Tu.

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    Research on Selection Mechanism of Bingbei Dao’s Station in Ming Dynasty, Taking Chengui Bingbei Dao as an Example
    Zhao Wentao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 25-34.  
    Abstract155)   HTML354)    PDF (1423KB)(94)      

    The Bingbei Dao was set up to pacify turmoils in Ming Dynasty. It is of obvious military characteristics. After the mid-Ming, the Ming court made Bingbei Dao to merge with Shouxun Dao so as to strengthen its control over the provinces. This move resulted the Bingbei Dao gaining civil administrative and supervising responsibilities. At present, historians tend to attribute Bingbei Dao station’s strategic location to its military function. It is however a misreading and has ignored the fact that essentially the Bingbei Dao is not simply a military unit, but also an important category of government organizations. Taking the Chengui Bingbei Dao as an example, this article aims to work out the process from its establishment to merger with the Shanghunan Dao in the period of Jiajing, and then to the period of Wanli when its station was determined. It could be seen that the selection of Bingbei Dao’s station is part and parcel of the governing strategy of the Ming court. As the strategy changed, both the expansion of Bingbei Dao’s responsibilities and the interplay between provincial governors exerted influences on determining Chengui Bingbei Dao’s station.

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    A Textual Research on the Time Limit and Related Problems of the Renaming of Marquis City to Marquis State in Western Han Dynasty
    Zhao Hailong
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 50-60.  
    Abstract155)   HTML11)    PDF (850KB)(72)      

    The name of the Marquises in Western Han Dynasty went through a process of evolving from “Houyi” (marquis city) to “Houguo” (marquis state). Based on comprehensive use the materials of county of handed down documents, seals, clay-sealed materials, bamboo slips, it can be inferred that the time when marquis cities changed their names to marquis states was around the third year during Emperor Wen’s Reign. The main reasons for the change were the gradual decline of the status of the marquises in the Western Han Dynasty, and the indistinction between the Houyi and Tangmuyi, and the increase in numbers of counties bearing the same name. The change of marquis city to marquis state was not only a change of name, but also reflected the changes of the nature of the marquises in the Western Han Dynasty. The marquises gradually lost their relatively independent status. Clarifying the difference between Houyi and Tangmuyi can provide a reliable basis for judging the nature and age of the county materials in the unearthed literature, and further promote in-depth studies on the county in Han dynasty.

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    River Courses and Water Environment Changes in the Upper Jingjiang River Basin (100-1950): An Investigation Based on Flood Records
    Che Qun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 1-15.  
    Abstract150)   HTML21)    PDF (5052KB)(136)      

    In the mid-Qing Dynasty, the flood level of the Jingjiang River (a section of the Yangtze River) began to rise and was repeatedly recorded in the Sanxun Anlan Zouben of the Qing Palace Memorials and Archives of the Grand Council. During the Xianfeng and Tongzhi reigns, after the Ouchi and Songzi dikes collapsed and the main flow diverged to the Dongting Lake, the flood level eased temporarily and rose again rapidly in the Guangxu’s reign. The rising flood level affected the courses, and water environment of the rivers flowing southward into the Yangtze River. In the Juzhang River Basin, this involves the expansion, separation, and approaching northward of the Bailizhou Island in the Yangtze River, shifts of the estuary of the Juzhang River, the shift of the main Yangtze River course, the extension of the lower reaches of the Juzhang River caused by the adjoining of Lower Bailizhou with the east bank, as well as the silt caused by the counter-balanced effect of the river flow and mountain torrents. In the Ma’nao River Basin, the backwater effect of the rising flood level at the estuary turned the area into a swamp.

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    The Operation of the Quota System in Qing Dynasty: Focus on Ting, Feixian, Sub-Counties and Sub-Prefectures
    Liang Zhiping
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 73-89.  
    Abstract149)   HTML32)    PDF (1123KB)(93)      

    In the Qing Dynasty, the imperial examinations were carried out through schools. The allocation of the quota was also the allocation of the state’s political resources and power in county-level administrative regions. There were various local administrative divisions, including not only prefectures and counties, but also Ting, Feixian (abolished county), sub-counties and sub-prefectures. However, according to the regulation, non-prefecture or non-county area was not allowed to set up schools. Through statistics and case analysis, this paper points out that in order to ensure a certain number of grassroots gentlemen and to reduce the over quota in different regions, a modified policy of establishing schools at the level of Ting and townships in former Feixian, as well as sub-counties and sub-prefectures, was adopted. To conclude, the Quota System seemed to be rigid but flexible in operation at the local level. Through appropriate adaptations, the effective distribution of national political resources and power in local areas was ensured.

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    Two Mistakes on the Map of Earlier Yuan Dynasty from The Historical Atlas of China
    Zhang Wenming
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 135-137.  
    Abstract138)   HTML36)    PDF (336KB)(76)      

    In The Historical Atlas of China, the earlier map of Yuan Dynasty is drawn in accordance with the administrative divisions in the seventeenth year of the Zhiyuan Period. However, it turns out that the historical evidence doesn’t support the existence of “Kai Cheng Fu” and “Jing Nan Lu”. As a matter of fact, “Kai Cheng Lu” and “Jiang Ling Lu” are their respective accurate names.

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    A Geographic Study of Epidemic Disasters During Qianlong’s Reign (1736-1795) in Qing Dynasty
    Li Zimo
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 104-115.  
    Abstract131)   HTML27)    PDF (2364KB)(70)      

    The Qing Dynasty was the peak of epidemics in Chinese history, and the Qianlong era was one of the important periods. The study achieves several results. (1) There were 58 years out of the entire Qianlong era recorded with epidemic disasters, which produces a frequency of 96.67%. Among the disasters, three large-scale epidemics in 1748, 1756 and 1786 were superimposed to form a fluctuating upward epidemic trend. Epidemics mainly took place in summer, followed by spring and autumn, and much less in winter. (2) At the provincial level, there were two separate zones of high epidemic index in the South and the North, and the epidemic index gradually increased from West to East. Jiangsu Province (including Shanghai) was the most badly affected. At the county level, the distribution of epidemic disasters had stage characteristics, and the scope of affected areas was expanding. The distribution pattern of epidemic disasters has the characteristics of agglomeration, and its degree tends to increase. It also has regional variance, but the epicenter is always in the South (3) The distribution pattern of epidemic disaster during the Qianlong era correlates with population distribution pattern, regional development intensity and natural disasters, which shows a significant positive correlation with epidemic disaster intensity at provincial level, with R values of 0.886, 0.664 and 0.685 respectively (P=0.01).

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    Institutional Development and Spatio-Temporal Evolution of “The Post in Yanzhang Land” in Qing Dynasty
    Dai Longhui
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 90-103.  
    Abstract131)   HTML33)    PDF (1927KB)(51)      

    In response to the special natural environment of the Frontier Yanzhang Land and Frontier governance needs, the Qing court created “The Post in Yanzhang Land” in the Kangxi period, according to the institutional principles of “Governor’s nomination” and “promotion priority” and taking into consideration of the “mutual adaption between officers and the frontier areas” in selecting officials to serve in the Yanzhang Land. The Posts in Yanzhang Land were mainly located in Frontier areas with the poor water and soil resources. In the process of deepening Frontier governance, unique spatial and temporal distribution characteristics are formed according to the characteristics of each region: Guangxi presents dual governance structure, which is the prelude and foundation of governance integration process; whereas in Yunnan the trend of distribution is along the border, which is the guarantee for the central administrative power to promote to the border. Hainan’s is a circular gradient distribution, which is a manifestation of national governance in response to the insular environment. From the perspective of officials to protect the Frontier Yanzhang Land governance system, the creation of The Post in Yanzhang Land enhanced local governance capacity.

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    Incorrect Name of the Military Station “Edala Wei” in The Historical Atlas of China
    Xia Boyu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 138-139.  
    Abstract130)   HTML37)    PDF (250KB)(40)      

    There is an incorrect place name in the map “Nurgan Regional Military Commission” in the seventh volume of The Historical Atlas of China, edited by Tan Qixiang that has not been corrected so far. “The Historical Atlas of China Northeast Region Source Literature Compilation” and “The Historical Atlas of China Notes and Interpretations of Northeast Region Volume” also lack the explanation of the origin and positioning of the “Edala Wei”. Based on literature research, it is concluded that “Edala Wei” should have been “Dalahe Wei”. This analysis and clarification on the mistake of “Edala Wei” could provide a reference for related researches.

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    Spatial-Temporal Distribution and Transformation Characteristics of Administrative Divisions in the 19 th Century Vietnam
    Han Zhoujing
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 63-72.  
    Abstract129)   HTML38)    PDF (757KB)(102)      

    The Nguyên court’s reform in the 19th Century led to changes in the temporal and spatial distribution of administrative divisions in Vietnam. The number of administrative divisions reached its peak in 1840, among which the number of high-level administrative districts was most stable, whereas the number of administrative districts at the county and county-level changed dramatically. Quantitative change has affected the density of administrative divisions, as do their jurisdiction ranges, and alleviated the imbalance in administrative divisions between highland and lowland regions. The Gia Long reform was characterized by downplaying the military functions of administrative division, while the Minh Mbng reform was characterized by the introduction and localization of the provincial system from the Qing Dynasty. After that, the Nguyên court implemented no further large-scale reform, except for slight adjustments.

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    The Location of Yumen Pass in Tang Dynasty and the Accurate Restoration of Xuanzang’s Smuggling Route
    Hou Yangfang, Jia Qiang, Yang Lin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 101-109.  
    Abstract126)   HTML16)    PDF (3408KB)(107)      

    According to the narrate on Xuanzang’s smuggling out of the Yumen Pass from Guazhou recorded in “The Biography of Master Sanzang of the Daci’en Temple”, combined with studies on Soviet military maps and field investigations to carry out “accurate restoration”, it is determined that the site of Xiaowan City is the only possibility of the site of the Yumen Pass in the Tang Dynasty. A deserted beacon was discovered at the southern end of the Jieshanzi Valley, making it even more certain that this road was the route from Guazhou City to the Yumen Pass in the Tang Dynasty.

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    The Formation and Significance of the “Water Ridge” of the Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty
    Gao Yuanjie
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 16-27.  
    Abstract117)   HTML10)    PDF (1975KB)(158)      

    Historical records after the late Ming Dynasty generally claim that Nanwang has been the “water ridge” occupying a commanding height alongside the Huitong Canal, which is a section of the Grand Canal, since the Yuan Dynasty, and the key determining the success of the Huitong Canal in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties lies in choosing Nanwang “water ridge” as the water diversion hub. This paper proposes that this view is incorrect. Nanwang was originally the last remnant of Liangshanpo with a low-lying terrain. It began to silt up after Song Li diverted Wenshui River water to Nanwang for transportation in the early Ming Dynasty. In the Chenghua period of the Ming Dynasty, the pivotal position of Nanwang as the water diversion hub was determined. By then the mud and sand dug out and piled up on both sides of the river created a landform of heaped-up hill, hence the “water ridge” image in the eyes of people since the late Ming Dynasty. That is to say, the Nanwang “water ridge” was formed in the Mid Ming Dynasty as a result of natural sediment accumulation and artificial dredging. Based on this, this paper re-examines the reasons determining the success or failure of the Huitong Canal in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties and discusses the significance of the formation of the Nanwang “water ridge” on transforming the Huitong Canal from a river depending on the violent Yellow River for water supplies to the one that relies on the stable Wenshui River for water source in the middle of the Ming Dynasty as well as its far-reaching influence on the principle of Yellow River maintenance after the Mid Mind Dynasty.

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    Water at the Bottom of a Cauldron:The Flood and Flood Control of Wen’anwa Depression during Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Bu Fan
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 28-41.  
    Abstract105)   HTML6)    PDF (1920KB)(158)      

    Located along the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, the Wen’anwa(文安洼) in Wen’an and Dacheng County of Hebei Province is a low-lying depression and shaped like “the bottom of a cauldron” in colloquial language. It is difficult to drain its water reserve, which often caused severe flood disasters in the past. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Wen’an County took many measures, such as building dikes, diverting river courses, and planting rice in shallow water, to control the flood but to no avail. It was not only the environmental factors, such as the low-lying terrain and the silt of the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, that made it hard to control the flood in the Wen’anwa Depression, but also social factors, such as the conflicting interests of water control between Wen’an County and the surrounding prefectural and counties, and the lack of ability and tactfulness of water management by Wen’an County itself.

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    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 134-154.  
    Abstract103)   HTML24)    PDF (1286KB)(94)      
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    The Collection, Transmission, and Display of Geographic Knowledge of Northeast Asia During the Imjin War-A Study on Huayi Yanhai Tu
    Liu Jing
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 89-102.  
    Abstract94)   HTML4)    PDF (5380KB)(91)      

    The Imjin War (1592-1598) was an important historical event with far-reaching influence in East Asia at the end of the 16th Century. The importance of the formation of Huayi Yanhai Tu, a map related with the war situation, is also noteworthy in academic cartography. Through a comprehensive analysis of both Chinese and Korean historical accounts, especially intensive examinations of the Annals of the Chosǒn Dynasty and Korean geographic records, this study reveals an increase in the exchange of geographic knowledge between Ming China and Chosǒn Korea during the late 16th Century. When the Ming official Song Yingchang, who was in charge of the military affairs in Korea, directed the production of Huayi Yanhai Tu (the Coastal Map of China and the Barbarians), he relied not only on his accumulated knowledge but also his direct experience in Korea. This led to the timeliness and accuracy of this map, showing a strategic transformation of the Ming government’s management of the Bohai and Yellow Sea region. There were profound implications behind his selection and handling of specific geographic information. The display and interpretation of seemingly minor information could be effective tools for presenting political stances and military thoughts.

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    A Restudy of the Courier Routes and Administrative Divisions of Hexi as Seen in Han Dynasty Slips from Xuanquan
    Huang Xuechao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 42-53.  
    Abstract93)   HTML112)    PDF (2591KB)(70)      

    It is possible to make a comparative calculation of the distances and routes recorded in ⅡT0214①∶130 and ⅤT1611③∶39, two Han dynasty slips from Xuanquan. The post at the easternmost point of Jiuquan Prefecture recorded in ⅡT0214①∶130 was not Biaoshi, but to the west of it; Biaoshi was a county belonged to Zhangye Prefecture at that time. The jurisdiction of Wuwei Prefecture recorded in ⅤT1611③∶39 was not in Guzang, but possibly in Fanhe. The main line of the “Southeast”courier route as seen in ⅤT1611③∶39 passed Tianshui and connected Anding, which was basically the conventionally acknowledged “North Route”from Chang’an to Hexi. This route also had a branch to Jincheng. Based on the above conclusions, the features of ⅡT0214①∶130 can be roughly reconstructed. The two slips of ⅡT0214①∶130 and ⅤT1611③∶39 commonly display a portion of the courier routes and administrative divisions of Hexi at a certain point in the Western Han dynasty.

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    Planning of New District and Separation of Religion from Politics:the Arrangement of Heicuo County (1943-1945)
    Wang Zhitong
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 48-62.  
    Abstract90)   HTML34)    PDF (1299KB)(50)      

    Heicuo was a township under Xiahe County of Gansu Province during the period of Nationalist Government. During the Anti-Japanese War, the Gansu Provincial Government proposed to set up a new administration division out of the territory of Xiahe, Lintan and Zhuoni counties and sent staff to Gannan (southern Gansu,甘南) three times successively to do field survey for the new administration region. The area, however, has a complex political and religious systems, diverse ethnic and religious cultures and indented administrative boundaries. The idea was not only about dividing the old and establishing a new administrative area, but also promoting the separation of the religion from politics in the new county, signifying the modern turn of the frontier governance strategy. However, the officials’ idea of planning and pushing forward the adjustment of administrative districts had been met with unanimous opposition from the natives, who expressed their voices through various strategies. Coupled with the fiscal difficulties during the Anti-Japanese War and the officials’ fear of local turmoil, the administrative setup of Heicuo was eventually aborted. This case indicates that the alteration of administrative divisions in the borderland needs to take local cultural factors into full consideration.

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    Study on the Abolishment and Operation of Tujia System of Immigrant Society in Qing Dynasty, Centered on the New Document of Tujia in Yichun County
    Ling Yan, Yang Shuigen
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 77-88.  
    Abstract86)   HTML8)    PDF (1306KB)(39)      

    In order to deal with the problem of immigrants’ household registration in Qing Dynasty, the special immigrant Tujia (图甲) was established outside the existing Tujia system. This study takes the new document of Tujia booklets, Tujia contracts and Tujia ledgers in Yichun County as core data to analyze the running of Tujia system in the immigrant society in Yichun County, from its construction, abolishment, and actual operation in the county. A preliminary investigation shows that the Tujia system in Yichun County was deeply influenced by immigrants, and they not only entered the original Tujia system in large numbers, but also established a special immigrant Tujia. The actual operation of Tujia is based on various “wine placement” activities. Through the wine placement ceremony, the scattered members of Tujia were contacted to deepen mutual recognition, discuss and decide the affairs in the system, and to clarify their respective responsibilities and obligations in the form of contracts.

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    Research on an Early Map of English Settlement Collected by the British Royal Geographical Society
    Mou Zhenyu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 146-157.  
    Abstract86)   HTML2)    PDF (1138KB)(104)      

    A map of the English Settlement in Shanghai right after its port-opening collected by the British Royal Geographical Society did not mark its drawing time. One view holds the map was drawn in 1846-1847, another infers that in 1844-1847, but both are speculative. We reconsider its drawing time and try to evaluate the map based on the information on it. The results show the map should be drawn from October 1st to October 19th, 1846. It is the earliest map of English Settlement in Shanghai having found, and a very important source to study the developing process of English Settlement. Also, this map is of great value for the study of Land Deed.

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    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 148-155.  
    Abstract75)   HTML36)    PDF (615KB)(91)      
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    A Study on the Location of Xinzhou Town in Liao and Jin Dynasties
    Zhao Limeng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 54-60.  
    Abstract73)   HTML1)    PDF (1569KB)(119)      

    In the past, it was believed that Xinzhou(信州) in the Liao and Jin dynasties was located in present-day Qinjiatun, in Gongzhuling City, while the ancient site in Wujiazi, 13 km to the west of Qinjiatun, was considered to be a sub-state of Xinzhou and received little attention. Based on the reading of historical satellite photos and field surveys, we have discovered the outer city wall around Wujiazi, thus increasing its perimeter to be comparable to that of Qinjiatun. This discovery is different from the old understanding. By re-evaluating the surface remains of the two cities and the excavated relics, it is clear the ancient city of Qinjiatun was a Jin dynasty site, while the ancient city of Wujiazi was a Liao dynasty site, abandoned in the early Jin dynasty. Based on the archaeological evidences and combined with the literature, we believe that the Liao Dynasty Xinzhou was ruled from Wujiazi ancient city, and during the Jin Dynasty Xinzhou was ruled in Qinjiatun ancient city. According to the Yuan Yitong Zhi, the time of the change seems to be the third year during the Huangtong period (1143).

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    A Sixty-Year Cycle of Mr. Hou Renzhi’s “Humble Opinion on Historical Geography” Published
    Hou Yongjian
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 126-131.  
    Abstract71)   HTML2)    PDF (546KB)(45)      

    The first issue of Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis in 1962 published the article “Humble Opinion on Historical Geography” written by Mr. Hou Renzhi. It has been 60 years since this year. The publication of the paper adapted to the needs of the Historical Geography circles in China at that time to understand the object, nature, future research direction and other professional issues, especially the view that Historical Geography is an integral part of Modern Geography, which greatly promoted the discipline transformation of Historical Geography and the advancement and development of Historical Physical Geography in China. Related to this is the view in the paper, which has also been verified by the degree system management and its discipline evolution in the past 60 years.

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    Analysis of Distribution Pattern Evolution and its Driving Factors of Settlement in Tumote Plain
    Wang Wanting, Wu Dun, Su Lide, Han Jialin, Guan Xiaochun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 87-100.  
    Abstract65)   HTML4)    PDF (9329KB)(32)      

    Selecting the population data of settlement in 1934, 1982, and 2019 in Tumote plain, the distribution pattern evolution and its driving factors of settlement in the study area were analyzed through using GIS spatial analysis methods and combining qualitative and qualitative analysis. The results show that: during 1934-2019, the scale system of settlement in the study area was dominated by small settlement. The number and proportion of settlement with larger populations increased year by year and the population hierarchical structure showed a pyramid shape from “flat” to “long-tall”. The spatial distribution pattern of settlement showed the characteristics of agglomeration distribution as a whole. The agglomeration of large-scale settlements is not significant, and the distribution pattern of the other three levels of settlements changed from uniform to agglomeration distribution model. The population polarization in the study area was significant. The non-equilibrium development trend of the spatial distribution of the study area was obvious, showing signs of evolution from pole nucleus type to Pole-axis type. The spatial neighbor effect of network connection of settlement was significant, and the central urban area with a large population became a strong connection node. Terrain, river and traffic were the main driving factors for the evolution of the distribution pattern of the settlement in the study area during 1934-2019. The settlement showed strong spatial orientation to low altitude, and were significantly close to rivers, roads and towns. This study facilitates the clarification of the evolution of the settlement distribution patterns in the Tumut Plain in the past 100 years, and provides a certain reference value for the optimization and regulation of the spatial layout of local settlements.

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    A Review of Academic Contributions of Prof. Zhang Xiugui to the Establishment of Historical Geomorphology in China
    Han Zhaoqing
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 132-142.  
    Abstract64)   HTML5)    PDF (858KB)(33)      

    Prof. Zhang Xiugui is one of the main founders of the Chinese Historical Geomorphology and Historical Physical Geography. Guided by modern geomorphology theory, he has established a set of unique research methods and paradigms for historical geomorphology through field investigations and interpretations on the historical records of environmental changes. His works on the geomorphological evolution of the riverbed of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are well received in Chinese academia and regarded as the most outstanding achievement in Chinese Historical Geomorphology. Amongst his other accomplishments are the studies on the formation of the Hai River, the change of the lower reaches of the Yellow River, the evolution of the lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the formation of the Shanghai Landmass, all of which were based on Prof. Tan Qixiang’s researches but with new findings and improvements. Prof. Zhang Xiugui’s works have covered a timespan of thousands of years and demonstrated the integration of historical and modern geography as well as the pragmatical applications of the principles of historical geography. In addition, he also took part in the recovery and restoration of the earliest Han Dynasty map found at Mawangdui in China and thoroughly investigated the content of the map to ensure its historical accuracy and reliability. His researches on ancient maps have laid the foundation for future studies in the field.

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    A New Textual Research on the Yanfa-Dao of the Lianghuai Salt Zone in Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Huang Kaikai
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 61-73.  
    Abstract61)   HTML1)    PDF (1085KB)(70)      

    Yanfa-Dao was an important official set up by the Ming and Qing governments to regulate the production and sales of salt. It began with the Wanli reign, at the end of which the Lianghuai salt zone was set up to rectify and manage Yanfa-Dao, which was a special dispatch officer of the imperial court to collect salt taxes. During the Tianqi years, party conflicts were fierce, and Yanfa-Dao’s rectification of salt affairs had not been effective, so the Chongzhen court worked to restore the old system dominated by the Salt Administrator. The Qing Dynasty readjusted the salt official system, and in addition to the merger of Salt Administrator and Yanfa-Dao, the Fenxun Yanwu-Dao to manage production and the Tongsheng Yanfa-Dao to manage sales were established. Yanfa-Dao went from being a dispatch officer to a local salt agency, and together with the Salt Administrator became a direct office of Booi Salt Inspector. To monopolize Lianghuai’s salt interests, the Emperor also ordered the Liangjiang Governor-general to also manage the salt affairs to supervise the Booi Salt Inspector. The Daoguang court abolished Booi Salt Inspector and salt affairs were placed under the administration of Liangjiang Governor-general. After Xianfeng and Tongzhi, the authority of Salt Administrator and Yanfa-Dao was usurped by the Bureaus of Investment and Supervision, and Lianghuai’s salt interests were returned to the Liangjiang Governor-general and became a monopoly and financial basis of his office.

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    Changes of Settlement Pattern of Jingsheng Village in Lingshi County in Shanxi Province During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Hao Ping, Wei Chunyang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 74-86.  
    Abstract52)   HTML5)    PDF (2298KB)(90)      

    Settlement pattern is an understudied topic in historical settlement geography. The settlement pattern of Jingsheng Village in Lingshi County in Shanxi Province had experienced three stages of change: the initial development of the gullies and lanes from the late Yuan Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty, the boundary expansion and internal expansion from the late Ming Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty, the filling of the settlement pattern in the late Qing Dynasty and the “southward invasion” across the river. Factors such as geographical environment, clan power, war and banditry, national policies had all played an important role in the development and evolution of Jingsheng Village settlement pattern. The case study of Jingsheng Village shows that the formation and development of settlement pattern is a historical process of dynamic change, and the establishment history of settlement temples and landmark buildings has become an important index for investigation. Research on the pattern of rural settlements will be one of the trends of future rural historical geography studies in China.

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    Textual Research on the Establishment of Eyue Fanzhen in Daizong’s Period of Tang Dynasty
    Yang Wenchun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 143-145.  
    Abstract52)   HTML2)    PDF (435KB)(36)      

    The record about the establishment of Eyue Fanzhen(鄂岳镇) in Daizong’s period of Tang Dynasty in Xin Tangshu and Jiu Tangshu(两唐书) was inaccurate, including the change of administrative division, the set-up time and so on. By comparing with other historical data, Mianzhou(沔州), Qizhou(蕲州) and Huangzhou(黄州) haven’t been attached to Eyue Fanzhen in the Daizong’s period. The set-up time of Eyue Guancha Shi was in the eighth year.

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    The Grass-roots Reality and Regional Market Structure of Likin Collection in Southern Jiangsu in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Sun Jian
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 110-125.  
    Abstract45)   HTML5)    PDF (4256KB)(25)      

    Likin system is an important commercial tax system in modern times, which affects the development of commodity economy and market. This article attempts to restore the actual state of likin collection in the southern Jiangsu area in the late Qing Dynasty, and sort out the collection items and various collection modes. The taxation model was not completely divided between commodities. Rather, there were various options which not only facilitated merchants choosing to pay according to their own circumstances, but also ensured that the officials maximize their collects, so as to balance the relationship between the two. In addition, this paper uses the likin stations as a carrier to perform ArcGIS Thiessen polygon(泰森多边形) segmentation to analyze the market space structure in southern Jiangsu. The results show that the radius of Southern Jiangsu area likin stations(厘卡) in the late Qing Dynasty was 5.56-6.67 kilometers, and the radius of Head offices was 16.45-21.93 kilometers. The difference between the Thiessen polygons generated by the Head office and the likin station is different from the regional market analysis under the Skinnerian Model. This difference is due to the difference in the attributes of the space division carrier in the regional market, which partially reflects the spatial characteristics of the “local market according to likin stations” issue.

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