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    Research on the Desertification of Ancient Oases at the Lower Reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basin
    Li Bingcheng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 1-10.  
    Abstract316)   HTML51)    PDF (725KB)(157)      

    On the lower reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basis, there was a desertified area once an oasis, it was about 80 square kilometers. On the ancient oasis area, many relics were scattered, such as Huyangdun Buddha temple ruins, Tuopulukedun Buddha Temple ruins, Big Graveyard, Huyang Graveyard, Kalaqin Ancient City, and Sipier Ancient City. The textual research shows the Kalaqin Ancient City was Kanchengzhen (Kanzhou) in Tang Dynasty, also the Phema City. In those years, the Kalaqin Ancient City was of a large population, commercially developed, and prosperous for Buddhism, but abandoned and desertified after 790 A.D. The Sipier Ancient City was the former capital of Qule State in Han Dynasty, but also abandoned and desertified in late Wei and Jin dynastys. The author analyzed two stages of desertification in the ancient oases and its causes.

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    Huizhou Merchants’s Timber Industry Management in the Qiantang River Basin in Qing Dynasty as Seen in the Zuo Shanmu Fangpai Yaolan
    Wang Zhenzhong, Zhu Huimin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 61-76.  
    Abstract278)   HTML24)    PDF (2883KB)(113)      

    The anonymous Zuo Shanmu Fangpai Yaolan (Keys to Chinese Fir Wood Business and River Transportation) offers a slightly different view from previously discovered and rather common itinerary books on the Xin’an River-Qiantang River business journey. In addition to the place names and the distance along the way, it also includes many rules of wood business operation, which makes it a comprehensive business manual. Accordingly, we can explore the many facts of Huizhou merchants’ conducts in timber industry in the Qiantang River basin. The book contains business secrets of Hui-Xi merchants engaged in Qugang timber transportation and marketing, including five sections of continuous water routes along the way and a land route back to the hometown. On that basis, we can outline the route of Hui-Xi merchants engaged in Qugang wood business, and examine their related business norms more closely. From this point of view, the success of Hui merchants in the traditional times depended not only on their abundant wealth and higher cultural quality, but was also closely related to the relevant technologies and business norms they professed and spread.

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    Low Field and Deepwater Rice Planting along Dianchi Lake from the 16th Century to the 1960s
    Geng Jin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 11-23.  
    Abstract258)   HTML22)    PDF (6401KB)(113)      

    The water area of Dianchi Lake is basically stable from Ming and Qing dynasties thanks to the annual dredging of the Haikou area. Still, seasonal change in water level is not completely solved due to frequent flood disasters. The deep rice was gradually planted systematically in Ming and Qing dynasties along the coast of Dianchi Lake to adapt to the seasonal changes in the waters in the Dianchi Lake, realizing the ecological coupling of low-field deepwater rice cultivation with seasonal changes in the water level. The situation changed completely in the late 1960s. With the construction of reservoirs and other water conservancy projects in the upper reaches of the Dianchi Lake, the lakeside and low fields were gradually drained, and the water environment for the deepwater rice was lost. From the point of view of the interactive relationship between the water environment of the Dianchi Lake and rice-growing ecology, if only the regional environment changes regularly for a long time, human beings may gradually turn “harm” into “benefit”, which is the proof of human wisdom to adapt to and make use of nature.

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    Study on Water Environment Changes of Fuzhou’s West Lake and Its Governance During the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Gong Junwen, Chen Yexin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 24-39.  
    Abstract223)   HTML28)    PDF (3011KB)(240)      

    During Ming and Qing dynasties, the water environment of Fuzhou’s West Lake gradually deteriorated. In Ming Dynasty, the water source of West Lake was abundant and the water quality was good. Since Wanli’s reign, affected by social factors such as land reclamation, the West Lake shrunk in size and the water quality was affected. In the middle to late Qing Dynasty, waterways in Fuzhou were shallow, and the river tide eventually disappeared. The changes in water environment of the West Lake during the Ming and Qing dynasties were not only affected by regional climate change in humidity, forest soil and water conservation, and lake sedimentation, but also closely related to water and land disputes. Due to the dire human-land bearing ratio, the unclear ownership of water resources, and the vague taxation regulations on newly reclaimed lake fields, excessive lake reclamation became inevitable. The local government made considerable efforts, such as repairing floodgates and protecting lake embankment, turning the reclaimed land back to water surface, cleaning up feces and silt, etc., which achieved phased effects. However, affected by the socio-economic factors such as population pressure, land resource limits and ecological patterns, the West Lake still deteriorated due to the accumulated problems over the centuries.

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    The Change of Administrative Divisions in Wu Region and Huainan Region after the “Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms”
    Dan Changwu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 40-49.  
    Abstract220)   HTML27)    PDF (1687KB)(119)      

    Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty adjusted the administrative divisions in Huainan region and Wu region after the “Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms”. The King of Runan was transfered to be the King of Jiangdu, governing Dongyang Prefecture and the northern counties in the old Zhang Prefecture. The rest of the old Zhang Prefecture was merged with the Kuaiji Prefecture to form the new Kuaiji Prefecture. Similarly, The King of Lujiang became King of Hengshan and the new prefecture of Lujiang was established in the southeast of the old Hengshan kingdom. The original Lujiang south to the Yangtze River was combined with Yuzhang to form the new Yuzhang Prefecture. This adjustment was not only a part of the centralization policy, but also a reconstruction of the political geography in the southeast region.

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    The Formation and Significance of the “Water Ridge” of the Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty
    Gao Yuanjie
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 16-27.  
    Abstract216)   HTML23)    PDF (1975KB)(236)      

    Historical records after the late Ming Dynasty generally claim that Nanwang has been the “water ridge” occupying a commanding height alongside the Huitong Canal, which is a section of the Grand Canal, since the Yuan Dynasty, and the key determining the success of the Huitong Canal in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties lies in choosing Nanwang “water ridge” as the water diversion hub. This paper proposes that this view is incorrect. Nanwang was originally the last remnant of Liangshanpo with a low-lying terrain. It began to silt up after Song Li diverted Wenshui River water to Nanwang for transportation in the early Ming Dynasty. In the Chenghua period of the Ming Dynasty, the pivotal position of Nanwang as the water diversion hub was determined. By then the mud and sand dug out and piled up on both sides of the river created a landform of heaped-up hill, hence the “water ridge” image in the eyes of people since the late Ming Dynasty. That is to say, the Nanwang “water ridge” was formed in the Mid Ming Dynasty as a result of natural sediment accumulation and artificial dredging. Based on this, this paper re-examines the reasons determining the success or failure of the Huitong Canal in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties and discusses the significance of the formation of the Nanwang “water ridge” on transforming the Huitong Canal from a river depending on the violent Yellow River for water supplies to the one that relies on the stable Wenshui River for water source in the middle of the Ming Dynasty as well as its far-reaching influence on the principle of Yellow River maintenance after the Mid Mind Dynasty.

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    A Comparative Study on the Northeastern Part of the Three Measured Maps in Qing Dynasty
    Yang Liting
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 103-116.  
    Abstract214)   HTML7)    PDF (7639KB)(65)      

    This paper compares the geographical elements, such as traffic stations, river systems, village names, and prefectures or counties’ names, of the northeastern part of the three measured maps in Qing Dynasty, including two versions of the Kangxi Huangyu Quanlan Tu, the Yongzheng Shipai Tu and the Qianlong Shisanpai Tu. It shows that, at least in the northeastern part, the copper plate version of the Huangyu Quanlan Tu’s relationship with the Shipai Tu and the Shisanpai Tu is closer than that of the Fuchs version of Huangyu Quanlan Tu. And the geographical element information in Shisanpai Tu was mainly derived from the Shipai Tu.

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    The Location of Yumen Pass in Tang Dynasty and the Accurate Restoration of Xuanzang’s Smuggling Route
    Hou Yangfang, Jia Qiang, Yang Lin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 101-109.  
    Abstract214)   HTML22)    PDF (3408KB)(232)      

    According to the narrate on Xuanzang’s smuggling out of the Yumen Pass from Guazhou recorded in “The Biography of Master Sanzang of the Daci’en Temple”, combined with studies on Soviet military maps and field investigations to carry out “accurate restoration”, it is determined that the site of Xiaowan City is the only possibility of the site of the Yumen Pass in the Tang Dynasty. A deserted beacon was discovered at the southern end of the Jieshanzi Valley, making it even more certain that this road was the route from Guazhou City to the Yumen Pass in the Tang Dynasty.

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    Digitization of Old Maps Based on Machine Learning and Image Morphology: an Example of Surface Water Extraction in Modern Shanghai
    Chai Baohui
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 117-133.  
    Abstract208)   HTML16)    PDF (7561KB)(75)      

    Modern maps drawn using scientific surveying and mapping technology are precious historical geographical data source, directly showing land cover information in the past. Digitization is a necessary way to extract the historical land cover and its changes from old maps. This paper proposes an old map digitization method based on machine learning and image morphology analysis, and takes the “Eastern China: Shanghai” map as an example to elaborate its implementation process and verify the effectiveness. Results show that the method can fully utilize the color information and morphological information in the map, and extract the surface water information quickly and accurately in a semi-automatic manner. The proposed method can be applied to the digital extraction of land cover information with color characteristics in most color modern maps. It shows great potential to provide both data and method basis for accurately restoring land cover changes and understanding the evolution in man-land relationship since modern times.

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    A Textual Research on the Time Limit and Related Problems of the Renaming of Marquis City to Marquis State in Western Han Dynasty
    Zhao Hailong
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 50-60.  
    Abstract192)   HTML11)    PDF (850KB)(81)      

    The name of the Marquises in Western Han Dynasty went through a process of evolving from “Houyi” (marquis city) to “Houguo” (marquis state). Based on comprehensive use the materials of county of handed down documents, seals, clay-sealed materials, bamboo slips, it can be inferred that the time when marquis cities changed their names to marquis states was around the third year during Emperor Wen’s Reign. The main reasons for the change were the gradual decline of the status of the marquises in the Western Han Dynasty, and the indistinction between the Houyi and Tangmuyi, and the increase in numbers of counties bearing the same name. The change of marquis city to marquis state was not only a change of name, but also reflected the changes of the nature of the marquises in the Western Han Dynasty. The marquises gradually lost their relatively independent status. Clarifying the difference between Houyi and Tangmuyi can provide a reliable basis for judging the nature and age of the county materials in the unearthed literature, and further promote in-depth studies on the county in Han dynasty.

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    River Courses and Water Environment Changes in the Upper Jingjiang River Basin (100-1950): An Investigation Based on Flood Records
    Che Qun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 1-15.  
    Abstract174)   HTML21)    PDF (5052KB)(184)      

    In the mid-Qing Dynasty, the flood level of the Jingjiang River (a section of the Yangtze River) began to rise and was repeatedly recorded in the Sanxun Anlan Zouben of the Qing Palace Memorials and Archives of the Grand Council. During the Xianfeng and Tongzhi reigns, after the Ouchi and Songzi dikes collapsed and the main flow diverged to the Dongting Lake, the flood level eased temporarily and rose again rapidly in the Guangxu’s reign. The rising flood level affected the courses, and water environment of the rivers flowing southward into the Yangtze River. In the Juzhang River Basin, this involves the expansion, separation, and approaching northward of the Bailizhou Island in the Yangtze River, shifts of the estuary of the Juzhang River, the shift of the main Yangtze River course, the extension of the lower reaches of the Juzhang River caused by the adjoining of Lower Bailizhou with the east bank, as well as the silt caused by the counter-balanced effect of the river flow and mountain torrents. In the Ma’nao River Basin, the backwater effect of the rising flood level at the estuary turned the area into a swamp.

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    Research on an Early Map of English Settlement Collected by the British Royal Geographical Society
    Mou Zhenyu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 146-157.  
    Abstract165)   HTML4)    PDF (1138KB)(166)      

    A map of the English Settlement in Shanghai right after its port-opening collected by the British Royal Geographical Society did not mark its drawing time. One view holds the map was drawn in 1846-1847, another infers that in 1844-1847, but both are speculative. We reconsider its drawing time and try to evaluate the map based on the information on it. The results show the map should be drawn from October 1st to October 19th, 1846. It is the earliest map of English Settlement in Shanghai having found, and a very important source to study the developing process of English Settlement. Also, this map is of great value for the study of Land Deed.

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    Redevelopment of Traffic Network in the Setting of Traditional Urban Form: A Case Study of Ningbo Old City
    Zhang Pei, Xu Jianping
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 32-49.  
    Abstract147)   HTML14)    PDF (5632KB)(94)      

    At the turn of the Twentieth century, Western municipal concepts and theories were gradually introduced into China along with the examples set by treaty port cities. Some traditional cities formed in the dynastic time also began to carry out modern municipal constructions. In this study, we take Ningbo old city as a typical case and focus on three ways of road improvements in the 1920s and 1930s: the demolition of the city wall, the filling of rivers and the removal of residential buildings. Based on earlier studies, we use large-scale old maps and local gazettes to restore and analyze the river channels and road networks. It shows that for the traditional cities in China, due to the lack of motivation and capital, even if the urban administrative districts had been set up, it might not be able to promote the conditions. On the contrary, it caused many social problems especially during the expropriation of construction land.

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    A Restudy of the Courier Routes and Administrative Divisions of Hexi as Seen in Han Dynasty Slips from Xuanquan
    Huang Xuechao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 42-53.  
    Abstract139)   HTML113)    PDF (2591KB)(85)      

    It is possible to make a comparative calculation of the distances and routes recorded in ⅡT0214①∶130 and ⅤT1611③∶39, two Han dynasty slips from Xuanquan. The post at the easternmost point of Jiuquan Prefecture recorded in ⅡT0214①∶130 was not Biaoshi, but to the west of it; Biaoshi was a county belonged to Zhangye Prefecture at that time. The jurisdiction of Wuwei Prefecture recorded in ⅤT1611③∶39 was not in Guzang, but possibly in Fanhe. The main line of the “Southeast”courier route as seen in ⅤT1611③∶39 passed Tianshui and connected Anding, which was basically the conventionally acknowledged “North Route”from Chang’an to Hexi. This route also had a branch to Jincheng. Based on the above conclusions, the features of ⅡT0214①∶130 can be roughly reconstructed. The two slips of ⅡT0214①∶130 and ⅤT1611③∶39 commonly display a portion of the courier routes and administrative divisions of Hexi at a certain point in the Western Han dynasty.

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    Water at the Bottom of a Cauldron:The Flood and Flood Control of Wen’anwa Depression during Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Bu Fan
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 28-41.  
    Abstract131)   HTML7)    PDF (1920KB)(316)      

    Located along the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, the Wen’anwa(文安洼) in Wen’an and Dacheng County of Hebei Province is a low-lying depression and shaped like “the bottom of a cauldron” in colloquial language. It is difficult to drain its water reserve, which often caused severe flood disasters in the past. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Wen’an County took many measures, such as building dikes, diverting river courses, and planting rice in shallow water, to control the flood but to no avail. It was not only the environmental factors, such as the low-lying terrain and the silt of the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, that made it hard to control the flood in the Wen’anwa Depression, but also social factors, such as the conflicting interests of water control between Wen’an County and the surrounding prefectural and counties, and the lack of ability and tactfulness of water management by Wen’an County itself.

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    A Supplementary Research of Unearthed Documents and Administrative Districts During the Sixteen States Period
    Wei Jungang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 1-19.  
    Abstract118)   HTML119)    PDF (911KB)(97)      

    The unearthed documents contain many prefectures and counties in sixteen states period that have been lost in the handed down literatures. They are to be found among the records of local officials and titles of nobility, and are helpful for the study of the evolution and changes of the establishment of administrative regions in different countries at that time. This is a supplementary research for A General History of China's Administrative Divisions, the Sixteen States in the Northern Dynasty. Using these documents, and other partial handed down materials, 68 administrative divisions from 11 regimes have been identified, including the later Zhao, former Liang, former Yan, former Qin, later Yan, later Qin, western Qin, later Liang, western Liang and northern Liang. The 68 divisions include 4 prefectures, 1 town (zhen), 18 counties (jun), 2 towns (hujun) and 43 counties (xian). This study also provides information on supplement questions such as the movement of seat of Pingzhou in the later stage of former Yan, the duration of existence of Lelang County, the hierarchical position of Wushi County and Chongquan County, the nature of Youzhou County in the later Qin and Wuwei County in the western Qin, the hierarchical position of Jinzei County in the later Liang, the true and false of Yong'an County and the hierarchical position of Wansui County in the Northern Liang, etc.

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    The Collection, Transmission, and Display of Geographic Knowledge of Northeast Asia During the Imjin War-A Study on Huayi Yanhai Tu
    Liu Jing
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 89-102.  
    Abstract117)   HTML4)    PDF (5380KB)(113)      

    The Imjin War (1592-1598) was an important historical event with far-reaching influence in East Asia at the end of the 16th Century. The importance of the formation of Huayi Yanhai Tu, a map related with the war situation, is also noteworthy in academic cartography. Through a comprehensive analysis of both Chinese and Korean historical accounts, especially intensive examinations of the Annals of the Chosǒn Dynasty and Korean geographic records, this study reveals an increase in the exchange of geographic knowledge between Ming China and Chosǒn Korea during the late 16th Century. When the Ming official Song Yingchang, who was in charge of the military affairs in Korea, directed the production of Huayi Yanhai Tu (the Coastal Map of China and the Barbarians), he relied not only on his accumulated knowledge but also his direct experience in Korea. This led to the timeliness and accuracy of this map, showing a strategic transformation of the Ming government’s management of the Bohai and Yellow Sea region. There were profound implications behind his selection and handling of specific geographic information. The display and interpretation of seemingly minor information could be effective tools for presenting political stances and military thoughts.

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    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 134-154.  
    Abstract117)   HTML24)    PDF (1286KB)(110)      
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    Analysis of Distribution Pattern Evolution and its Driving Factors of Settlement in Tumote Plain
    Wang Wanting, Wu Dun, Su Lide, Han Jialin, Guan Xiaochun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 87-100.  
    Abstract113)   HTML8)    PDF (9329KB)(73)      

    Selecting the population data of settlement in 1934, 1982, and 2019 in Tumote plain, the distribution pattern evolution and its driving factors of settlement in the study area were analyzed through using GIS spatial analysis methods and combining qualitative and qualitative analysis. The results show that: during 1934-2019, the scale system of settlement in the study area was dominated by small settlement. The number and proportion of settlement with larger populations increased year by year and the population hierarchical structure showed a pyramid shape from “flat” to “long-tall”. The spatial distribution pattern of settlement showed the characteristics of agglomeration distribution as a whole. The agglomeration of large-scale settlements is not significant, and the distribution pattern of the other three levels of settlements changed from uniform to agglomeration distribution model. The population polarization in the study area was significant. The non-equilibrium development trend of the spatial distribution of the study area was obvious, showing signs of evolution from pole nucleus type to Pole-axis type. The spatial neighbor effect of network connection of settlement was significant, and the central urban area with a large population became a strong connection node. Terrain, river and traffic were the main driving factors for the evolution of the distribution pattern of the settlement in the study area during 1934-2019. The settlement showed strong spatial orientation to low altitude, and were significantly close to rivers, roads and towns. This study facilitates the clarification of the evolution of the settlement distribution patterns in the Tumut Plain in the past 100 years, and provides a certain reference value for the optimization and regulation of the spatial layout of local settlements.

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    A Study on the Location of Xinzhou Town in Liao and Jin Dynasties
    Zhao Limeng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 54-60.  
    Abstract104)   HTML4)    PDF (1569KB)(208)      

    In the past, it was believed that Xinzhou(信州) in the Liao and Jin dynasties was located in present-day Qinjiatun, in Gongzhuling City, while the ancient site in Wujiazi, 13 km to the west of Qinjiatun, was considered to be a sub-state of Xinzhou and received little attention. Based on the reading of historical satellite photos and field surveys, we have discovered the outer city wall around Wujiazi, thus increasing its perimeter to be comparable to that of Qinjiatun. This discovery is different from the old understanding. By re-evaluating the surface remains of the two cities and the excavated relics, it is clear the ancient city of Qinjiatun was a Jin dynasty site, while the ancient city of Wujiazi was a Liao dynasty site, abandoned in the early Jin dynasty. Based on the archaeological evidences and combined with the literature, we believe that the Liao Dynasty Xinzhou was ruled from Wujiazi ancient city, and during the Jin Dynasty Xinzhou was ruled in Qinjiatun ancient city. According to the Yuan Yitong Zhi, the time of the change seems to be the third year during the Huangtong period (1143).

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    An Analysis of Routes of the Royal Road System in the Persian Empire—on the Function and Limitation of Classical Texts
    Li Yiming
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 50-67.  
    Abstract100)   HTML7)    PDF (3927KB)(101)      

    The Royal Road System was a road network of the Persian Empire, and routes of the Royal Road System have long been disputed among scholars. The records in Herodotus's History and Persepolis Administrative Archives reflect the general characteristics of the Royal Road which are also the criteria for identifying them from ancient roads. Although multidisciplinary research methods have provided assistances to the reconstruction of routes of the Royal Road System, they also caused many controversies. In general, routes of the Royal Road System in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Armenia are relatively accurate. There is no way to infer routes of the Royal Road System in Egypt or Arabia. Routes of the Royal Road System in eastern satrapies are based on classical texts. However, the Royal Roads were not the general term for ancient roads in Persian Empire, and the diachronic changes of ancient roads are still very significant. With the help of the interpretation of cuneiform characters, archaeological excavations and scientific historical geography, the study of the Royal Road System may will overcome its dependence on classical texts research.

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    Identification of Atlas of Border Towns: The Drawing Time, Reference Book and Relevant Characters
    She Peizhang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 119-129.  
    Abstract99)   HTML11)    PDF (2964KB)(54)      

    Collected by the Nanjing Museum, the Atlas of Border Towns mainly depicts fifteen border towns of significance in Ming dynasty. It used to be collected and commented by Yizhai. The atlas is also compiled into Atlas of Ancient Maps in China (Ming Dynasty) and Collection of Ming Dynasty Maps. After been inspected by Zhang Baochai, the atlas gradually draws attention from the academic circle. According to the current research, the atlas was produced during the 32nd to 33rd year of the Wanli's reign of Ming Dynasty, with Luo Hongxian's Enlarged Terrestrial Atlas as its main reference. Its collector, Yizhai, was believed to have lived in Qing Dynasty. However, after examination and verification, it is proved that the atlas was drawn during the 3rd to 4th year of Kangxi's reign of Qing Dynasty. The author of the work, whose surname is Huang, was a Ming loyalist. He mainly referred to Chen Zushou's Atlas of Territories of August Ming. The collector of the work, Yizhai, is Cheng Zhiqing, a seal carver from Suzhou. Bonze Yiling could be inferred as Qu Dajun, a famous scholar who lived in the early Qing Dynasty.

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    Study on the Abolishment and Operation of Tujia System of Immigrant Society in Qing Dynasty, Centered on the New Document of Tujia in Yichun County
    Ling Yan, Yang Shuigen
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 77-88.  
    Abstract94)   HTML8)    PDF (1306KB)(50)      

    In order to deal with the problem of immigrants’ household registration in Qing Dynasty, the special immigrant Tujia (图甲) was established outside the existing Tujia system. This study takes the new document of Tujia booklets, Tujia contracts and Tujia ledgers in Yichun County as core data to analyze the running of Tujia system in the immigrant society in Yichun County, from its construction, abolishment, and actual operation in the county. A preliminary investigation shows that the Tujia system in Yichun County was deeply influenced by immigrants, and they not only entered the original Tujia system in large numbers, but also established a special immigrant Tujia. The actual operation of Tujia is based on various “wine placement” activities. Through the wine placement ceremony, the scattered members of Tujia were contacted to deepen mutual recognition, discuss and decide the affairs in the system, and to clarify their respective responsibilities and obligations in the form of contracts.

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    A New Textual Research on the Yanfa-Dao of the Lianghuai Salt Zone in Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Huang Kaikai
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 61-73.  
    Abstract93)   HTML3)    PDF (1085KB)(166)      

    Yanfa-Dao was an important official set up by the Ming and Qing governments to regulate the production and sales of salt. It began with the Wanli reign, at the end of which the Lianghuai salt zone was set up to rectify and manage Yanfa-Dao, which was a special dispatch officer of the imperial court to collect salt taxes. During the Tianqi years, party conflicts were fierce, and Yanfa-Dao’s rectification of salt affairs had not been effective, so the Chongzhen court worked to restore the old system dominated by the Salt Administrator. The Qing Dynasty readjusted the salt official system, and in addition to the merger of Salt Administrator and Yanfa-Dao, the Fenxun Yanwu-Dao to manage production and the Tongsheng Yanfa-Dao to manage sales were established. Yanfa-Dao went from being a dispatch officer to a local salt agency, and together with the Salt Administrator became a direct office of Booi Salt Inspector. To monopolize Lianghuai’s salt interests, the Emperor also ordered the Liangjiang Governor-general to also manage the salt affairs to supervise the Booi Salt Inspector. The Daoguang court abolished Booi Salt Inspector and salt affairs were placed under the administration of Liangjiang Governor-general. After Xianfeng and Tongzhi, the authority of Salt Administrator and Yanfa-Dao was usurped by the Bureaus of Investment and Supervision, and Lianghuai’s salt interests were returned to the Liangjiang Governor-general and became a monopoly and financial basis of his office.

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    Textual Research on the Establishment of Eyue Fanzhen in Daizong’s Period of Tang Dynasty
    Yang Wenchun
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 143-145.  
    Abstract86)   HTML4)    PDF (435KB)(62)      

    The record about the establishment of Eyue Fanzhen(鄂岳镇) in Daizong’s period of Tang Dynasty in Xin Tangshu and Jiu Tangshu(两唐书) was inaccurate, including the change of administrative division, the set-up time and so on. By comparing with other historical data, Mianzhou(沔州), Qizhou(蕲州) and Huangzhou(黄州) haven’t been attached to Eyue Fanzhen in the Daizong’s period. The set-up time of Eyue Guancha Shi was in the eighth year.

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    A Review of Academic Contributions of Prof. Zhang Xiugui to the Establishment of Historical Geomorphology in China
    Han Zhaoqing
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 132-142.  
    Abstract83)   HTML6)    PDF (858KB)(48)      

    Prof. Zhang Xiugui is one of the main founders of the Chinese Historical Geomorphology and Historical Physical Geography. Guided by modern geomorphology theory, he has established a set of unique research methods and paradigms for historical geomorphology through field investigations and interpretations on the historical records of environmental changes. His works on the geomorphological evolution of the riverbed of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are well received in Chinese academia and regarded as the most outstanding achievement in Chinese Historical Geomorphology. Amongst his other accomplishments are the studies on the formation of the Hai River, the change of the lower reaches of the Yellow River, the evolution of the lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the formation of the Shanghai Landmass, all of which were based on Prof. Tan Qixiang’s researches but with new findings and improvements. Prof. Zhang Xiugui’s works have covered a timespan of thousands of years and demonstrated the integration of historical and modern geography as well as the pragmatical applications of the principles of historical geography. In addition, he also took part in the recovery and restoration of the earliest Han Dynasty map found at Mawangdui in China and thoroughly investigated the content of the map to ensure its historical accuracy and reliability. His researches on ancient maps have laid the foundation for future studies in the field.

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    A Sixty-Year Cycle of Mr. Hou Renzhi’s “Humble Opinion on Historical Geography” Published
    Hou Yongjian
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 126-131.  
    Abstract83)   HTML3)    PDF (546KB)(70)      

    The first issue of Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis in 1962 published the article “Humble Opinion on Historical Geography” written by Mr. Hou Renzhi. It has been 60 years since this year. The publication of the paper adapted to the needs of the Historical Geography circles in China at that time to understand the object, nature, future research direction and other professional issues, especially the view that Historical Geography is an integral part of Modern Geography, which greatly promoted the discipline transformation of Historical Geography and the advancement and development of Historical Physical Geography in China. Related to this is the view in the paper, which has also been verified by the degree system management and its discipline evolution in the past 60 years.

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    Changes of Settlement Pattern of Jingsheng Village in Lingshi County in Shanxi Province During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Hao Ping, Wei Chunyang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 74-86.  
    Abstract82)   HTML9)    PDF (2298KB)(167)      

    Settlement pattern is an understudied topic in historical settlement geography. The settlement pattern of Jingsheng Village in Lingshi County in Shanxi Province had experienced three stages of change: the initial development of the gullies and lanes from the late Yuan Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty, the boundary expansion and internal expansion from the late Ming Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty, the filling of the settlement pattern in the late Qing Dynasty and the “southward invasion” across the river. Factors such as geographical environment, clan power, war and banditry, national policies had all played an important role in the development and evolution of Jingsheng Village settlement pattern. The case study of Jingsheng Village shows that the formation and development of settlement pattern is a historical process of dynamic change, and the establishment history of settlement temples and landmark buildings has become an important index for investigation. Research on the pattern of rural settlements will be one of the trends of future rural historical geography studies in China.

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    An Investigation of Chinese Customs Maps, from Late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China
    Wu Songdi
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 130-137.  
    Abstract79)   HTML8)    PDF (602KB)(60)      

    In the era spanning from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, the Chinese Customs charted and published Chinese maps that amounted to close to one thousand. They constituted most of the maps charted and published contemporarily in China. Many of these maps were superior in quality and accuracy than most traditional maps and were supplemented with detailed texts. Given that Chinese Customs publications are mostly collected in libraries and archives that restrict access, the maps are also generally neglected by researchers. To familiarize researchers with them, this paper provides a detailed introduction to these maps, which covers the time of their charting, the variation in the areas charted, a classification of their types, and the origins and characteristics of these maps.

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    Similarities and Differences, from the Abolition of the Huaiyuan Posthouse in Canton to the Prosperity of The Thirteen Hongs
    Wang Yuanlin, Xiao Dongtao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 80-93.  
    Abstract79)   HTML7)    PDF (3914KB)(113)      

    The Huaiyuan Posthouse of Canton was located in Xianzibu, Sai-kwan from the Ming to the early Qing Dynasties, which was the place where the Kwangtung Shi-Po-Si(广东市舶司) received the tribute ships and foreign envoys onboard those ships. It also functioned as the site for China-foreign tributary trade. With establishment of the Hoppo during the Kangxi reign, the Thirteen Hongs (factories) were assigned with the task of undertaking foreign trade. After many efforts, foreign tradesmen were allowed to rent commercial houses and set up factories in the Thirteen-Factory Street to the south of the Huaiyuan Posthouse. The Hongs were was managed by merchants. The Huaiyuan Posthouse was abolished in the late Kangxi emperor. The Thirteen factories basically replaced the functions of the Huaiyuan Posthouse. The essence of this shift from the Huaiyuan Posthouse to the Thirteen Hongs is the declined of the tributary system in Qing Dynasty and the rise of the Canton trade through the Hongs.

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    Protecting all in Yanran: The Adjustment of Border Administration in the North in the First Year of Yonghui
    Luo Xiaohui
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 20-31.  
    Abstract79)   HTML10)    PDF (779KB)(76)      

    The Yanran Protectorate(燕然都护府), as well as Yunzhong(云中) and Dingxiang(定襄) prefectural governnorates were the main northern border governing institutions of the Tang Dynasty. A study on them also affords an important window into exploring the political evolution in the north in the early Tang Dynasty. In the first year of Yonghui(永徽), the Regime of Chebi was crashed and the whole Mongolian Plateau was unified by the Tang Dynasty. According to the principle of “separation by moraine and partition” which had always been adhered by the Tang Dynasty, there have been put forward three hypothesis, namely “three-protectorate theory”, “two-protectorate theories” and “one-protectorate theory” regarding the governance pattern of the northern territory. In fact, the type of Jimi prefectures on the Mongolian grassland had indeed proliferated after the unification, but there was only one protectorate, which was responsible for strengthening the contact with the northern part of the plateau. The rest of the southern tribes under Jimi prefectures was under the supervision and leadership of the two governors of Yunzhong and Dingxiang.

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    The Grass-roots Reality and Regional Market Structure of Likin Collection in Southern Jiangsu in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Sun Jian
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 110-125.  
    Abstract77)   HTML10)    PDF (4256KB)(36)      

    Likin system is an important commercial tax system in modern times, which affects the development of commodity economy and market. This article attempts to restore the actual state of likin collection in the southern Jiangsu area in the late Qing Dynasty, and sort out the collection items and various collection modes. The taxation model was not completely divided between commodities. Rather, there were various options which not only facilitated merchants choosing to pay according to their own circumstances, but also ensured that the officials maximize their collects, so as to balance the relationship between the two. In addition, this paper uses the likin stations as a carrier to perform ArcGIS Thiessen polygon(泰森多边形) segmentation to analyze the market space structure in southern Jiangsu. The results show that the radius of Southern Jiangsu area likin stations(厘卡) in the late Qing Dynasty was 5.56-6.67 kilometers, and the radius of Head offices was 16.45-21.93 kilometers. The difference between the Thiessen polygons generated by the Head office and the likin station is different from the regional market analysis under the Skinnerian Model. This difference is due to the difference in the attributes of the space division carrier in the regional market, which partially reflects the spatial characteristics of the “local market according to likin stations” issue.

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    Seven Corrigendum to Geographical Records of the Ming History
    Ge Xiaohan
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 142-146.  
    Abstract70)   HTML6)    PDF (495KB)(50)      

    There are seven misrecords under the entries of Nanjing and Henan in the Geographical Records of the Ming History, namely, Haimen of Yangzhou, Jiading of Suzhou, Ningguo, Shenqiu of Kaifeng, Yuzhou of Kaifeng, Xiayi of Guide, Henei of Huaiqing. Through the textual researches, the above errors can be corrected, and the original appearance of local administrative divisions in the Ming Dynasty restored.

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    A New Study on the Goulan Shan on the Route Between China and Java in the Yuan-Ming Period
    Liang Wenli
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 68-79.  
    Abstract69)   HTML3)    PDF (4538KB)(32)      

    Goulan Shan was one of the most important landmarks on the route between China and Java in the Yuan-Ming Period. Scholars usually believe that Goulan Shan is located to the southwest of Kalimantan Island and known as Gelam Island now. However, newly discovered Chinese inscriptions in Indonesia indicate that Serutu Island is where Goulan Shan was located. Through comparative analysis of geographic remote sensing data and traditional documents, the records on Goulan Shan are roughly consistent with the geographical environment of Serutu Island and its surrounding areas, but are quite different from that of Gelam Island. The invasion by the Yuan Dynasty into Java indirectly contributed to the prosperity of Serutu Island in late Yuan and early Ming, while the policy of maritime embargo in Ming Dynasty and the depletion of animal resources may be the main reasons for the decline of the island's status after the mid-Ming.

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    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 147-149.  
    Abstract55)   HTML3)    PDF (296KB)(39)      
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    A Study on the Change of Mianchi County's Name in the Puppet Qi and Early Jin Dynasties
    Wu Tong
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 138-141.  
    Abstract51)   HTML4)    PDF (1727KB)(34)      

    During the Puppet Qi Dynasty, Mianchi County(渑池) was changed to “沔池” to avoid breaking the taboo of using a character from Emperor Jin Taizu's name, namely Wanyan Min. “渑” is a multi-syllabic character, and when used as the county name it does not involve taboos. The regime of Jin Dynasty does not avoid this word. But to please Jin, the Puppet Qi deem “渑” as a taboo character, and used the nearest homonymous character “沔” as a substitute. After the Jin Dynasty re-ruled Henan, they did not change back the county name, and the Jin never strictly avoid the word “渑”. “沔池” was used as the official name during the Jin Dynasty, and it became alias of the county in later dynasties interchangeable with “渑池”. In the new and old annotated versions of Jin Shi, it should be restored where “沔池” had been mistakenly changed to “渑池”. For other literature, unless there is sufficient evidence that “渑池” was used in the original version, “沔池” should be kept and not changed into “渑池”.

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    Study on the Relationship Between the Current Situation, Environment and the Successful Promotion of American Tobacco in Yunnan During the Anti-Japanese War
    Zhang Yongshuai
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 94-104.  
    Abstract47)   HTML6)    PDF (874KB)(40)      

    The successful promotion of American tobacco in Yunnan during the Anti-Japanese War is a turning point in the history of the development of the tobacco industry in Yunnan. It is the result of the comprehensive action of several factors. Among them, the unprecedented market demand is the driving force of promotion. The key to the success of popularization is the adoption, based on experimental research, of a set of cultivation techniques suitable for the natural environment of Yunnan. Due to the solid foundation laid by this promotion campaign, the advantages of Yunnan's natural environment, which is suitable for tobacco planting, have been highlighted. The interaction between nature and man paved the way for Yunnan province's status as a major tobacco producer.

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    On Editions of Yudi Guangji
    Zheng Lifeng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 105-118.  
    Abstract46)   HTML0)    PDF (1132KB)(27)      

    Since the Northern Song Dynasty, Yudi Guangji has been issued in many different versions. In addition to the original version, there were two more re-issued editions from the Southern Song Dynasty. In the Qing Dynasty, many more editions were issued either based on the original version or the re-issued versions. The Qing versions are on the one hand comparatively independent from each other, and on the other hand complementary to each other. To compile the best edition of Yudi Guangji, one has to rely on the original Northern Song Dynasty version, and consult with the other versions.

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