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    A Study of the Governance of Longxi, Beidi and Shang Commanderies in the Early Western Han Dynasty: Centered on the Rank of the Counties as Seen in the Statutes on Salaries ( Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips
    Ma Menglong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 16-30.  
    Abstract879)   HTML80)    PDF (3380KB)(433)      

    This paper compares the surviving and excavated documents and points out that the commandery’s capital county was the highest-ranking among the counties belonging to the same commandery in the Han Dynasty. Based on the rank and order of a commandery’s counties recorded in the Statutes on Salaries (Er Nian Lü Ling: Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips, we can analyze the governance of some commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty. According to the Statutes on Salaries, the capital of Longxi Commandery in the early Western Han Dynasty was Shangli County; Shang Commandery’s capital was Gaonu County, and the capital of Beidi Commandery was Panyang County. Besides, the capital of Hanzhong, Hedong, and Hainai Commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty can also be further inferred by the Statutes on Salaries. This document’s value in the study of capital counties in the early Western Han Dynasty needs to be emphasized.

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    Textual Research on the Administrative Areas of the Yingtian Governor in the Ming Dynasty, also Discussing the Belonging of the Chengtian Enclave
    Song Keda
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 91-104.  
    Abstract703)   HTML34)    PDF (2164KB)(257)      

    The office of the Yingtian Governor originated directly from the Governor of Nanzhili and Zhejiang Province, both of which were set up in the first year of Hongxi. When it was officially set up in the fifth year of Xuande, its governing areas should be Yingtian and other ten prefectures rather than only the three prefectures of Suzhou, Songjiang and Changzhou as considered in traditional researches. During the period of Zhengtong, due to the abolishment of the Zhejiang Governor, as well as the need of supervising grain tax collection and water conservancy in the Taihu Lake Basin, the administrative areas of the Yingtian Governor was extended to Western Zhejiang for a long time. Thus, a total of fourteen prefectures were under its administration. As for the prefecture of Chengtian, it had been under the administration of the Huguang Governor after the fourteenth year of Jiajing, but never taken over by the Yingtian Governor. The opinion that Chengtian had been a detached enclave of the Yingtian Governor from the fourteenth year of Jiajing to the beginning of Longqing is not credible. Researchers holding this opinion might be misled by the related records in the current version of the Records of Emperor Shizong of the Ming Dynasty.

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    Exploration and Analysis on the Criteria of County Tier Designation in Song Dynasty
    Qi Zitong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 57-66.  
    Abstract680)   HTML28)    PDF (803KB)(366)      

    The county system of Song Dynasty basically inherited that of Tang Dynasty, when counties were designated according to the double standards of “political status” and “registered residents”. However, it existed many differences in the county system between Tang and Song Dynasties, and the Later Zhou Dynasty played an important role in this historical evolution. In the Later Zhou Dynasty, Wang county and Jin county lost the qualification to be classified by “political status” but using registered household standard, which was inherited by Song Dynasty. Basically, it was influenced by the impact of Ci Chi county, Ci Ji county. In the early Song Dynasty, the counties under Fu (superior prefecture) were strictly classified according to their political statuses, which was in contrast with counties under Zhou (prefecture) in Later Zhou, designated by registered households. By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the clear-cut division pattern was broken that the counties subordinate to Ci Fu were classified according to the registered households. Also, the meanings of “registered household” was different between Tang and Song Dynasties. It meant the number of households in Tang Dynasty but the number of “main households” that paid two taxes in Song Dynasty. This was also impacted by the policies of Later Zhou Dynasty. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, the policy of county tier designation was dynamic. Till the late Northern Song Dynasty, it gave rise to the mismatch of counties with more registered households but lower county levels. Therefore, a practical solution of disparity between county tier and household registration was to raise the threshold of registered households.

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    A Study of “E”, West “E” and East “E”—on the origin “E” as the abbreviation of Hubei Province
    Wang Hongxing, Lu Chuan, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 91-100.  
    Abstract617)   HTML25)    PDF (6530KB)(358)      

    This paper clarifies the location changes of several different E's at Xiangning, Qinyang, Suizhou and Nanyang and their relationship between each other based on archaeological material and previous scholarship. The earliest E State was established at modern Suizhou by the court of the Western Zhou in order to control the nearby Huai and Jing Barbarians. During king Yi's reign, it was moved to the West E located in modern Xindian township of Nanyang city, marking the shrinking of the southern defensive line. In the early Spring and Autumn Period, the West E State was extincted and the Nanyang Basin was incorporated into the Chu State. Around the mid-Warring States Period, this place became the fief of the Lord of E. It was not until the War at Chuisha that the Lord of E moved eastward to the capital city of Daye, which was the beginning of the East E. In the Qin and early Western Han Dynasty, the central court established E County at the place of former East E, and later established another county in the Nanyang Basin, the West E, so as to distinguish from the East E. As for E being Hubei's abbreviation, it was not directly related to the E State in Western Zhou or the West E in the Nanyang Basin, but rather to the provincial capital. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Jiangxia (in modern Wuchang of Wuhan) was an important transportation hub. Since Wuchang was also named as E, the later eventually became the abbreviation of modern Hubei Province.

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    The Resurrection and Spreading of Caodong School(曹洞宗) During Northern Song Dynasty: Based on Furong Daokai's Activities
    Shen Guoguang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 138-152.  
    Abstract573)   HTML55)    PDF (4864KB)(308)      

    Abstract: In the middle and late Northern Song Dynasty, Caodong school as one of the Zen began to revive. Furong Daokai (芙蓉道楷) was a monk of importance in Caodong School (曹洞宗) during Northern Song Dynasty. This essay, based on the inscription of Daokai and relevant materials, restores Daokai's history of life and the basic process of his preaching Buddism. The region from Suizhou(随州) up north to the surroundings of Dongjing (东京) became a significant area for Daokai and his dharma heirs. Owing to Daokai's influence, his followers took up the positions of numerous famous monasteries and mountains, which was a turning point in the trend of Caodong School. Although Daokai was demoted when in Dongjing, this was due to his personal clash with Tan Zhen. Because of the relationship between Daokai and monks and laymen in Dongjing, Daokai's relegation exerted no negative influence on the promotion of Caodong School in Dongjing immediately. But in the long run, the monks from Dahongshang were no longer appointed abbots of the monasteries in Dongjing. The Caodong school lost the Dongjing as their preaching area, and turned to preach in south of the Yangtze River.

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    New Analysis on the Ranking System of Counties During the Qing Dynasty
    Hu Heng
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 67-90.  
    Abstract529)   HTML45)    PDF (3852KB)(369)      

    The ranking system of counties first emerged during Yongzheng’s reign, and was generally founded in the 12th year of Qianlong. However, up to 124 adjustments of descriptions and ranks on counties ranks still occurred during the 12th and 43rd year of Qianlong, most of which happened on lower-ranked counties changing into a Zuiyao (most significant) or Yao (significant) ranked ones. In the 43rd year of Qianlong, a new regulation on standardized adjustments of descriptions and ranks was promulgated. Although implemented strictly, many exceptional adjustments were still allowed down to Daoguang’s reign. Changes to description hardly happened during the reigns of Xianfeng and Tongzhi, only to emerge again from the end of Guangxu’s reign to Xuantong’s reign. Provinces had different modes of county distribution, including anti core-edge distribution, core-edge double centered distribution, linear distribution along a river, coastline or transit lines, similar distribution to developed towns, etc. Fuguo(附郭)counties were generally ranked higher than others in 1911, except for only 48 cases non-conformative to the rule. Moreover, as Hunan province showcases, ranks of counties were not in accordance with commercial benefits for the county magistrate.

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    Topography and River-Lake Environment along the Lower Yellow River After Tongwaxiang Breach (1855-1911)
    Gu Shuai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 46-64.  
    Abstract517)   HTML30)    PDF (7111KB)(345)      

    In 1855, the Yellow River moved northward in the aftermath of the Tongwaxiang breach, which had a great impact on the topography of the downstream area and the environment of rivers and lakes. In the Shandong plain to the west of the Great Canal, the sediment deposition resulted in the elevation of the terrain, while the flood flow of the Yellow River in this area even disturbed the original water system. In the lower reaches of Wenhe River and Sishui River, it was difficult to drain water because of the high riverbed of the Yellow River. The formation and expansion of Dongping Lake was the result of the increasing water accumulation in the area. In the plain area on the west side of the hills from Changqing to Qidong in the middle of Shandong Province, affected by the silting up of riverbed of the Yellow River or the back-flow of its water, it was difficult to discharge water into the Yellow River, which directly prompt the opening of the New Qinghe River. In the basin of Tuhai River, affected by the breach of the Yellow River, many tributaries of the Tuhai River were silted, while the Tuhai River was scoured wide and deep by the Yellow River. After the breach of the Yellow River in Lijin in 1907, the tail reach of Tuhai River was also silted up.

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    Eastern Main Road in the Sichuan Basin and the Vicissitude of the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”
    Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 1-17.  
    Abstract509)   HTML208)    PDF (869KB)(741)      

    During the Tang and Song Dynasties, two ancient highways were formed in the Sichuan Basin, known as the Northern and Southern Roads respectively. The Southern Road was less prominent. Yet, it was the predecessor of the Eastern Main Road in later times. Against the background that the political and economic center of the Sichuan Basin moved eastward and southward in Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chongqing ascended in importance and could rival Chengdu. The Eastern Main Road gradually took shape and flourished. In the Ming Dynasty, there were 12 post stations along the Eastern Main Road, which were largely inherited in the Qing Dynasty. Along the road were also a large number of shops and posts. The total mileage of the Eastern Main Road was about 1 000 li (500 meters) comprising in total of 10 stages, which would take 11 to 12 days to travel. The western section was often travelled by boat on the Tuojiang River. The Eastern Main Road took shape in the early Ming Dynasty. At the beginning, it was called the “Southeast road”, the “East Road of Sichuan”, or the “East road”. The name “Eastern Main Road” was formed in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. It has natural and cultural advantages such as connecting Chengdu and Chongqing, low terrain agriculture, abundant water resource, access to the rivers and sea, and close to the salt mines. It was the primary road in the Sichuan Basin and it gave birth to the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”. Since the 1990s, the status of “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt” has declined, but the strategy of “Chengdu-Chongqing Double-city Economic Circle” has brought opportunities for the revitalization of the ancient Eastern Main Road.

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    The Literature Sources of Jin Shi Di Li Zhi
    Zhang Liang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 94-103.  
    Abstract473)   HTML41)    PDF (773KB)(194)      

    When the Geographical Records of the History of Jin Dynasty (Jin Shi Di Li Zhi, 《金史·地理志》) was being compiled, its authors didn’t have access to the original texts of the Guo Shi (《国史》) of the Jin Dynasty. The foundation of this work was laid by Wang E (王鹗) at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, and it was not completed until its end. Its contents were divided according to the conquered territories formerly belonged to Liao and Song, and the source material used can be easily distinguished. Specifically, the part on the former Liao territory was based on Chen Daren’s Liao Shi (《辽史》), and the Song part was formulated on the basis of Jiu Yu Zhi (《九域志》), and then supplemented years later with the Royal History of the Song Dynasty. As for the administrative system of Jin, miscellaneous geographical documents, such as Da Ding Zhi Fang Zhi (《大定职方志》), were used.

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    Overview of Westerners-drawn Beijing City Maps in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Cao Xinning, Yin Wenjuan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 104-123.  
    Abstract464)   HTML73)    PDF (46549KB)(422)      

    Diplomatic staff of the Western powers were permitted to reside in Beijing after 1860. The number of city maps of Beijing drawn by Westerners increased and their accuracy improved significantly. The types and uses of maps were also greatly enriched. This paper first systematically organizes the historical material of these maps, and then classifies them into three categories according to their uses and modes of publication. By taking the perspective of the history of cultural exchanges and using the method of textual analysis in literary studies, we look at these maps as a reflection of Sino-foreign relations in the late Qing Dynasty and the image of Beijing perceived by Westerners.

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    From Official Rank to Salary Rank: An Investigation on County Tiers in the Tang and Five Dynasties
    Luo Kai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 42-56.  
    Abstract459)   HTML35)    PDF (1043KB)(305)      

    Counties in Tang Dynasty were assigned into four, five, six, seven, eight, ten, etc. tiers according to household registration, official rank, salary rank, transfer order and other different standards. From a diachronic point of view, the county tiers were constantly increasing from six tiers in the early stage to ten tiers in the later stage. One exception was during the Tianbao years, the lowest tier of counties was cancelled. However, the designations of Wang (望), Jin (紧), Ci Chi (次赤) and Ci Ji (次畿) counties had no direct relationship with the number of registered permanent residents, but rather reflected more if the county was fertile or barren. Among them, the problem of Ci Chi county was particularly complicated, because it can be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses. However, a comprehensive analysis shows that the system of Ci Chi county had already appeared in the early years of Daizong Period at the latest. The salary rank formed from the late Daizong Period to the early Dezong Period had a new impact on the county tiers in the late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties. In Five Dynasties, the county tier was determined by the number of registered households, although different dynasties had different standards, either complicated or simple. In summary, in the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, the criteria for county tiers changed from official rank to salary rank.

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    The Transition of the Penal Colony System in Song Dynasty and its Influence
    Cheng Tao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 125-137.  
    Abstract456)   HTML35)    PDF (4188KB)(240)      

    As the Cipei (literally, prick and expel) punishment was abused in judicatory practice of Song Dynasty, the number of fugitives convicted for expulsion increased significantly. Accordingly, the Song court transferred and dispersed the convicts from the capital and its environs to remote regions in the south. However, by the turn of the Southern Song, the exiled criminals gradually assembled in the Five Ridges, where they joined the forces of Yankou (salt bandits) and Dongkou (minority bandits), resulting in a chronic threat to the stability in the region and its surrounding areas.

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    Research on Zong Ze’s Hometown in Yiwu
    Zhu Haibin
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 77-93.  
    Abstract434)   HTML41)    PDF (1846KB)(390)      

    Since the middle and late Ming Dynasty, the legend that Zong Ze was born in Shibantang (石板塘) village and later moved to Niansanli Town is popular in Yiwu County. Textual research reveals that the related documents about Yiwu Zong’s genealogy descending from the Southern Song Dynasty were counterfeited in the late Ming Dynasty. On this basis and using the biographic chronicle of Zong Ze compiled by Qiao Xingjian, it is pointed out that Zongtang village is the birthplace of Zong Ze. Finally, the relevant geographical information from the epitaphs and poems written by Zong Ze, Chen Liang, Huang Jin, etc. is extracted. From the perspective of life circle, the geographical information proves that Zongtang village is the actual hometown of Zong Ze, while neither Shibantang village or Niansanli Town fit the geographical relationship as documented in Song and Yuan dynasties.

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    New Study on the Administrative Rank of Prefectures in the Jin Dynasty
    Li Dahai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 65-78.  
    Abstract433)   HTML24)    PDF (2736KB)(260)      

    It's generally accepted in academia that the various prefectural governments, were divided, top-down, into capital prefecture, general prefecture and the third class Sanfu (散府) in the Jin Dynasty. This paper holds that, from the point of view of administrative division, the above division blurs the difference between the general office of administrative organization and the general prefecture's capital town. It also conceals the fact that “Jingfu” (the Capital prefecture) in Jin Shi and other documents refers not only to the capital prefecture Lu (诸京路). Depending on the administrative status of the authorities they host, the various prefectural governments can be divided into the capital prefecture Lu's town, general prefecture Lu's town and non-general prefecture Lu or third rank Sanfu's town. There is no direct correlation between the aforementioned order and the upper, middle and lower tier system, which is mainly composed of demographic factors, and they are independent from each other. It is helpful in understanding the actual practice of the administrative divisions in the Yuan Dynasty and revealing the great turning point of the development of the Lu system during Jin and Yuan Dynasties.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 1-4.  
    Abstract420)   HTML115)    PDF (427KB)(230)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 5-10.  
    Abstract401)   HTML70)    PDF (431KB)(237)      
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    The Inlandization of Frontier Administrative Divisions in Republican China: Taking Dengkou County as an Example
    Yu Hao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 79-90.  
    Abstract399)   HTML29)    PDF (3454KB)(312)      

    Dengkou County, now under the jurisdiction of Bayan Nur City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is located in the west part of Hetao Plain and agro-pastoral ecotone in northwestern China. The area was the fiefdom of Alxa Lord in the Qing Dynasty. Due to the convenient conditions of irrigation and water transportation along the Yellow River, the Catholic Church established a Catholic society in Dengkou area by reclaiming land, constructing irrigation canals, and attracting the poor farmers of the Han population in Shaanxi and Gansu since the late Qing Dynasty. During the period of the Republic of China, along with the gradual increasing of Han immigrants in Dengkou area, Gansu Province and Ningxia Province separated from Gansu tried to continue the policy of “The Mongols are governed by Qi, while the Han are governed by counties”, which from Qing period and based on the principle of personal jurisdiction. At the same time, Gansu and Ningxia Province tried to extend the political power to Dengkou and establish the county administration. The political competition and the benefit struggle in Dengkou area reflected the frontier policy of the central government during the Republic of China, and also reflected the influence on the administrative divisions of different groups and various forces in frontier areas.

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    A Different Viewpoint on the Ancient Fortress Site of Haiyan County from Qin Dynasty to the Early Western Han Dynasty
    Wang Bin, Chen Ji
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 101-110.  
    Abstract397)   HTML24)    PDF (3573KB)(186)      

    There have been three different viewpoints on the ancient fortress site of Haiyan County from Qin Dynasty to the early Western Han Dynasty: the north foot of Dajinshan, Qijiadun, and Dianshan. While each of them is reasonable in its own right, they are not correct and true in all details. The archaeological excavations of Zhashan ancient cultural site in 1973, 2008, 2017 (Block N) and 2018 (Block L) provide us with new clues and ideas, that is, the fortress site of Haiyan County during the said period maybe located on the east side of Zhashan. This paper takes the story of Gongbeimen stone tablet, which was popular in the Jinshanwei region, as the point of departure, and makes full use of the remains collected from the surface of the area, the existing archaeological work reports, the multidisciplinary data or research results of historical philology and meteorological geology as well to test the new hypothesis. It is hoped that this discussion will benefit future site exploration and accurate positioning of the Haiyan fortress.

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    An Analysis of the Classification of Counties Under the Official Rank System of the Liang Dynasty
    Yao Le
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 31-41.  
    Abstract390)   HTML37)    PDF (725KB)(230)      

    Analyzing the cases of selection and transfer of county officials in the Liang Dynasty (502-557 AD), the system can be characterized by the rules of “Counties divide into seven classes” and “Officials of large counties equal those at the sixth class” existed at that time. In the actual operation of the system, many county officials were employed below the proper class, i.e. it was common for the seniority of the county officials to exceed the rank of the county. The counties of high rank seen in the official history were all located within the territory of Yangzhou, Nanxuzhou, and mainly belonged to the prefectures of Danyang, Wu, Wuxing and Kuaiji, which were the heartland of the empire. This is not only a result of the bias of history books, but also a direct reflection of the political conditions in the above-mentioned areas. The most important factor influencing the official’s rank of each county is its population. Taking other factors into consideration, it is believed that the highest-ranking counties which were at the sixth class may have been classified by the criterion of having 5 000 households. The analysis of the rank of each county can also improve our knowledge of the population distribution at that time.

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    Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed Prefectures in the Five Dynasties
    Qu Kale
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 43-61.  
    Abstract377)   HTML176)    PDF (4579KB)(314)      

    On the basis of the existing system in late Tang Dynasty, regimes of the Five Dynasties continued to set up Tuanlianshi-governed and Fangyushi-governed prefectures. By the end of the Later Zhou, there were 19 Fangyushi-governed prefectures and 10 Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures. In the meantime, the conglomeration of Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures gradually moved eastward from Guanzhong and the west of Central Plain to the Central Plain, with Luoyang and Bianzhou as the center. Towards the end of Later Zhou Dynasty, Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures were concentrated in the Central Plain, Huainan, Southern Hebei, and showed a trend of continuous integration. Furthermore, Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures had become an important measure of the central government to weaken the power of the Fangzhen. After setting up Fangyushi-governed or Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures, Fangzhen with jurisdiction over more than three prefectures tended dissolve and became similar to those with two prefectures, which greatly strengthened the central government’s control over local military affairs.

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    “The State Advances as the Private Sector Retreats” in Modern Chinese Postal Space
    Wang Zhe
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 119-138.  
    Abstract360)   HTML32)    PDF (9127KB)(266)      

    Postal network was a modern element with the characteristic of “spatiality”. For modern China, it was mainly composed of various corporate entities such as Minxin (native postal services), owned by small private capital, and state-run postal services. After its establishment, the Chinese Imperial Post began to encroach on the operating space of Minxin. Based on the digitization work of the 1936 Postal Atlas, published by the Post of Republic of China, it was found that after nearly 40 years, the state-run post had basically completed the integration and construction of a nationwide postal space. In this process, the state-run postal service prudently imitated the operation modes of the Minxin and adopted a variety of innovative business strategies. In addition to building a convenient and fast postal network within and between large and medium-sized cities, the state-run postal service also adopted new business strategies such as “postal agency” in rural areas that could not be covered by railway and road at a very low cost, and completed the coupling with the traditional rural grassroots “periodical market” network. Basically, it has achieved the effect wherever there was commerce, there was postal service. The “postal agglomeration” formed by the state-run postal network and the concentration of postal points have also become a prominent external spatial representation of modernization and a good macro-external indicator for defining the so-called “core” and “peripheral” spaces.

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    A Study on Dry and Wet Conditions in the Western Part of the Jianghuai Region During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Liu Yuqing, Chen Yexin
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 18-30.  
    Abstract354)   HTML185)    PDF (2792KB)(254)      

    In this paper, the historical data about drought and flood in the western part of the Jianghuai (江淮) region in Ming and Qing dynasties are sorted out, and quantified hierarchically by year and county. Then, by calculating the average grade value of drought and flood and the 10-year moving average value, the time series of dry-wet change in this area from 1450 to 1911 are reconstructed. The results show that there were six dry-wet phases in this area. From 1450 to 1490, the drought was mainly mild. From 1491 to 1545, drought and flood disasters occurred frequently, and the fluctuation of dry and wet climate was obvious. From 1546 to 1625, there were few droughts and floods, and the dry and wet conditions were relatively stable. From 1626 to 1710, moderate drought events were dominant, and the frequency of extreme drought events increased significantly. From 1711 to 1860, wetness dominated. From 1861 to 1911, dry-wet trend fluctuated and tended to be wet. Lakes in this region were also affected in dry and wet stages.

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    Three Use and Three Break: Study on the Use of Narin Road in Qing Dynasty
    Wang Qiming
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 111-124.  
    Abstract352)   HTML26)    PDF (3947KB)(224)      

    After reading the Manchu and Chinese records in Beijing and Taibei's archives, the article firstly discovers that the Qing army used the Narin Road to relocate the Ili troops to Kashgar and patrolled on the Burut's border in three stages from the end of the eighteenth century to the 1830s, to achieve the dual effect of incorporating borderland inspection into the rotation of troops. Secondly, the article discusses the origin of the use of this road, the rotation process and its evolution, the reason of deserting the road, and the final influences and so forth. Lastly, the article argues that the map with the description “from Ili to Kashgar by Narin meadow road” is an attachment with annotation of the Ili General Deyingga's memorial to the emperor on September fourteenth of the seventh year of Daoguang.

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    Textual Research on the Old Map of Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu Collected in Germany Library
    Sun Jingchao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 116-128.  
    Abstract352)   HTML37)    PDF (18265KB)(321)      

    The old map Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu collected in Germany library, showing mountain peaks, rivers, lakes, settlements, traffic lines and so on, is a valuable historical material. The map was drawn under the background of immigration and reclamation in the eastern Jilin Province in the late Qing Dynasty. It reflected the regional development in the frontier crisis. By interpreting the features on the piece of map, combining with the historical background outside of the map, it is helpful to understand the historical process of Jilin border area in the late Qing Dynasty.

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    Research Notes on the Place Names Related to “the Nanhuai Zhi Xing” of King Ling of Chu
    Xiao Yang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 124-127.  
    Abstract351)   HTML46)    PDF (3930KB)(158)      

    The “Nanhuai Zhi Xing” (南怀之行) was recorded in the chapter of Xi Nian on the Tsinghua Bamboo Slips, which conformed to historical facts that King Ling of Chu led the troops to fight against Wu in the fourth and fifth year of Zhaogong in Zuo Zhuan. It can be inferred from the war that places named Zhufang, Ji, Li, Ma, Xiarui, Zhongli, Zhoulai, Chao, Fanyang, Suo, Quean, Luorui, Laishan, Nanhuai, Ruqing, Dijizhishan are around the region of Huai River.

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    The Technological, Environmental and Political Elements Behind Institution: The Case Study of the Special Annual Repair Funds of Chai'tang During the Qing Dynasty
    Wang Daxue
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 22-33.  
    Abstract351)   HTML41)    PDF (2699KB)(214)      

    The large-scale reconstruct from Chai'tang (seawalls which built with firewoods) to Shi'tang (stone sewalls) in Zhejiang Province began with the fifth Southern Tour of the Qianlong Emperor. Qianlong hoped to achieve monumental feats through the Grand Canal engineering and seawall projects, so he ordered to wait for an opportunity to change the Chai'tang into Shi'tang, which need not rebuilt. He stressed that the Chai'tang should be used as the water tank and it need not paired annually as this practice violated the technical requirements of Shi'tang revetment project. Qianlong was well aware that if the indirect embankment protect works was still needed to be constructed and maintained for the new Shi'tang, it would undoubtedly show that his decision was wrong. When the courtiers talked about the need to build apron or repair the Chai'tang annually, which acted as an external protection for Shi'tang, his reaction was as follows: he repeatedly claimed that Chai'tang as an external protection for Shi'tang did not need to be repaired. He passed the blame for the decision-making mistakes on to the relevant courtiers, and vaguely or explicitly ordered the imperial commissioner to pass the responsibilities to local stakeholders. Even though the emperor tried his best to maintain that his decisions were correct, the objective technical requirements eventually convinced him to approve the special silver system of Chai'tang Annual Repairing, which also explained the initial decision was improper. The whole process shows that technology and environment often take a back seat to politics when it comes to the institutional issues of large public water projects in ancient times.The complexity of history is highlighted by the interweaving of institutional, technological, environmental and political factors.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 14-21.  
    Abstract350)   HTML57)    PDF (1320KB)(279)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 6-9.  
    Abstract331)   HTML262)    PDF (711KB)(229)      
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    On the Multiple Attributes of the Lords of Chu Counties During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period
    Zheng Yifan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 31-42.  
    Abstract324)   HTML150)    PDF (858KB)(312)      

    The lords of Chu counties of the pre-Qin period were usually equated to the county level administers of the time after the Qin and Han dynasties. However, judging from their activities and the roles they played in history, the lords of Chu counties of this time shared obvious features with the enfeoffed nobilities, and not exactly like an administrative bureaucrat. Most of the lords of counties originated from the royal house or the most powerful noble families, and they had the power and influence that far exceeded those of local officials. They also spent a lot of time on the capital and participated in the making of state policies and leading military acts. At the same time, the lords of counties also had a stronger connection with the place they were named by, compared to the local administers of later times. A better understanding of the “xian gong” (lords of counties) group requires a more comprehensive knowledge of the nature of counties at this time and depends on a deep reflection on the limit of the dichotomy between the so called “feudalism” and the “prefecture-county” institutional system.

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    The Operation of Yuze Reporting System in Counties in the Late Qing Dynasty: A Case Study Based on Xunhua Archives
    Liu Bingtao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 34-45.  
    Abstract320)   HTML22)    PDF (2837KB)(258)      

    In historical periods, Chinese emperors paid great attention to local precipitation and required local government to report precipitation to the central government regularly. This paper mainly uses the Xunhua (循化) archives to investigate the practice of Yuze (***) reporting system in counties in the late Qing Dynasty. There were reports every ten days and monthly ones. Both are required to record daily information including the weather condition, precipitation, begin-and-end time of rainfall. What's more, there was a special report to record rain in summer and snow in winter. It is an important guarantee to ensure the accuracy of Yuze (雨泽) reports to check the record format, time, clients and information of local government by sensior officials from prefectures, provinces, and ministries. In addition, the report from agrarian officials was also one of the sources of reports of rainfall and harvest.

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    Diary of a Field Trip for Old Watercourse of Yellow River from June 3rd to July 9th in 1977
    Zou Yilin, Zou Zhenhuan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 139-156.  
    Abstract317)   HTML24)    PDF (2447KB)(334)      

    Zou Yilin followed Tan Qixiang to Zhengzhou, Xingyang, Anyang, Xunxian, Huaxian, Puyang, Daming, Handan, Xinxiang, Yanjin, Kaifeng and Xuzhou from June 3rd to July 9th in 1977, making a field trip to investigate the old watercourses of Yellow River. During the trip, Zou Yilin wrote a diary of itinerary, experience and thoughts. The diary is meaningful for recorded the whole field work of Tan’s team, as well as for researchers to know more about the changes of Yellow River watercourses.

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    Research on the Desertification of Ancient Oases at the Lower Reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basin
    Li Bingcheng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 1-10.  
    Abstract316)   HTML51)    PDF (725KB)(157)      

    On the lower reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basis, there was a desertified area once an oasis, it was about 80 square kilometers. On the ancient oasis area, many relics were scattered, such as Huyangdun Buddha temple ruins, Tuopulukedun Buddha Temple ruins, Big Graveyard, Huyang Graveyard, Kalaqin Ancient City, and Sipier Ancient City. The textual research shows the Kalaqin Ancient City was Kanchengzhen (Kanzhou) in Tang Dynasty, also the Phema City. In those years, the Kalaqin Ancient City was of a large population, commercially developed, and prosperous for Buddhism, but abandoned and desertified after 790 A.D. The Sipier Ancient City was the former capital of Qule State in Han Dynasty, but also abandoned and desertified in late Wei and Jin dynastys. The author analyzed two stages of desertification in the ancient oases and its causes.

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    Three Corrections to the Qinfeng Lu Map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China
    Yuan Fang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 129-134.  
    Abstract310)   HTML36)    PDF (4986KB)(89)      

    There are two places in the Qinfeng Lu map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China that had been mistakenly placed, and one missing from the map. Laiyuan Zhai is in fact located in Donghanping, to southwest of Peijiazhuang, Luomen Town, Wushan County, Tianshui City, rather than Yuanhe Village, Mali Town. Weiyuan Zhai is not Zhenxing Fortress in Tan’ge Town, but near Liaoyang Village and Waner Village in Luomen Town. Meanwhile, Daluomen Zhai is located along the Da’nan River in the north of Simen Town. The three forts, Laiyuan, Daluomen and Weiyuan, jointly controlled the Luomen Valley and were vital to the defense of the Weihe River valley in the west of Qinzhou.

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    Four New Textual Researches on the Boundaries and Administrative Centers of Qing Dynasty Yunnan Map in The Historical Atlas of China
    Shen Kaxiang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 140-147.  
    Abstract301)   HTML42)    PDF (1723KB)(69)      

    On the basis of literature critique and field surveys, this paper shows there are several errors in the drawing of some prefecture boundaries and administrative centers in the Yunnan Map in the Qing Dynasty volune of The Historical Atlas of China. Among them, the drawing of the Southern boundary between Yongchang Fu and Shunning Fu, and the prefecture boundary between Shunning Fu and Jingdong Zhili Ting were all incorrect. The locations of administrative centers of Langqu Tuzhou and Nandian Tusi were also incorrect and need to be corrected.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 138-138.  
    Abstract292)   HTML24)    PDF (576KB)(153)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 128-139.  
    Abstract283)   HTML50)    PDF (802KB)(752)      
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    Huizhou Merchants’s Timber Industry Management in the Qiantang River Basin in Qing Dynasty as Seen in the Zuo Shanmu Fangpai Yaolan
    Wang Zhenzhong, Zhu Huimin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 61-76.  
    Abstract278)   HTML24)    PDF (2883KB)(113)      

    The anonymous Zuo Shanmu Fangpai Yaolan (Keys to Chinese Fir Wood Business and River Transportation) offers a slightly different view from previously discovered and rather common itinerary books on the Xin’an River-Qiantang River business journey. In addition to the place names and the distance along the way, it also includes many rules of wood business operation, which makes it a comprehensive business manual. Accordingly, we can explore the many facts of Huizhou merchants’ conducts in timber industry in the Qiantang River basin. The book contains business secrets of Hui-Xi merchants engaged in Qugang timber transportation and marketing, including five sections of continuous water routes along the way and a land route back to the hometown. On that basis, we can outline the route of Hui-Xi merchants engaged in Qugang wood business, and examine their related business norms more closely. From this point of view, the success of Hui merchants in the traditional times depended not only on their abundant wealth and higher cultural quality, but was also closely related to the relevant technologies and business norms they professed and spread.

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    Research on Process and Mechanism of Mianzhou City’s Relocation in Qing Dynasty
    Ma Jian, Zhang Yubo
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 105-118.  
    Abstract262)   HTML20)    PDF (1760KB)(207)      

    During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, the flood of Fujiang River seriously affected the integrity of Mianzhou city and the normal operation of local governmental institutions after the change of its course. Due to the impending war in Jinchuan and shortage of funds, the governor of Sichuan gave up repairing the walled-city and set Luojiang as the prefecture-leveled city instead. During the Jiaqing period, the local gentry and people jointly maneuvered for the return to the old Mianzhou, which regained its strategic importance during the White Lotus Uprising. The uniqueness of natural setting and historical inertia of human location, which reflected regional difference of flood environmental effect, are the reasons that lead to the relocation and return. The combination of the decision-making process of “actors” and the analysis of geographical mechanism in the study of city relocation is vital to the understanding on the causal relationship and primary or secondary factors, and the presentation of a vivid historical outlook and gaining in-depth historical cognition.

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    Low Field and Deepwater Rice Planting along Dianchi Lake from the 16th Century to the 1960s
    Geng Jin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 11-23.  
    Abstract258)   HTML22)    PDF (6401KB)(113)      

    The water area of Dianchi Lake is basically stable from Ming and Qing dynasties thanks to the annual dredging of the Haikou area. Still, seasonal change in water level is not completely solved due to frequent flood disasters. The deep rice was gradually planted systematically in Ming and Qing dynasties along the coast of Dianchi Lake to adapt to the seasonal changes in the waters in the Dianchi Lake, realizing the ecological coupling of low-field deepwater rice cultivation with seasonal changes in the water level. The situation changed completely in the late 1960s. With the construction of reservoirs and other water conservancy projects in the upper reaches of the Dianchi Lake, the lakeside and low fields were gradually drained, and the water environment for the deepwater rice was lost. From the point of view of the interactive relationship between the water environment of the Dianchi Lake and rice-growing ecology, if only the regional environment changes regularly for a long time, human beings may gradually turn “harm” into “benefit”, which is the proof of human wisdom to adapt to and make use of nature.

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    Governing Policies and Local Reactions: A Study on the Development of Ruoqiang During the Qing Dynasty
    Wang Pian
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 62-76.  
    Abstract254)   HTML46)    PDF (4022KB)(230)      

    This study casts light on the small-scale regional development and city-building in Ruoqiang during the Qing. The main material of the study includes Chinese historical records, English language reports of modern surveys and field investigations. The unparalleled advantageous location of Ruoqiang city in terms of transportation brought it prosperity. Ruoqiang is a nodal city on the passage from Xinjiang to Qinghai and Gansu, and the region is characterised by its dotted oases. However, the migrations and the local inhabitants held different reactions to the central government’s policies. The migrations to Ruoqiang clustered around Chaklik (Ruoqiang), and their cultivation activities held the pattern of discarding after poor harvest. Meanwhile, the native inhabitants, represented by the Lop people, moved to the Milan oasis and readapted to new lifestyles. This study shows that the opening-up of Ruoqiang, under the Qing’s policy of Systems the Same to That of Mainland, resulted in the behaviour readaptations of different social groups, while the dotted oases maintained a relative balance between them.

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