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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 132-142.  
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 114-131.  
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    Clarifications on the Evolution of Ancient City Sites of Jiangling, Nanjun, and Jingzhou
    Wang Hongxing, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 52-62.  
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    Based on new materials, this paper argues that the City of Ying was rebuilt alongside the old Jiangling City, after the Qin general Bai Qi's taken-over of Ying. Afterwards, both the Nanjun Prefecture and Jiangling County used this city as their seats. During the middle Western Han, the Nanjun Prefecture and Jiangling County relocated their seats to the newly built Xi'eshan City, and Ying City became the seat of Ying County. Since the end of Western Han, the Ying County was canceled and the city became a courier station, which lasted until the last era of Eastern Han. Later on, Guan Yu, Huan Wen, and Wang Chen, successively rebuilt the Jiangling City on the basis of the old Xi'eshan City. It is only after Huan Wen rebuilt the Jiangling City that the two cities Jiangling and Jingzhou merged. During the reign of Wude in the Tang, Nanjun Prefecture was canceled. At around the fourteenth year of the Tianbao reign, the Yangtze River changed its course to the south of modern Jingzhou City, therefore the Jiangling City was moved from Xi'eshan City to modern Jingzhou City and remained in the same place to this day.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 1-22.  
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    Studies on the Changes of the Yunnan-Burma Border in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Dong Jiayu, Yang Weibing
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 29-46.  
    Abstract992)   HTML59)    PDF (1791KB)(756)      

    Negotiations over the demarcation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty was an important stage of China-Burma border changes in modern times. With the help of diplomatic archives, treaties and maps, this paper makes a detailed restoration of the process of delimitation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the Sino-British negotiations. The signing of Convention Giving Effect to Article Ⅲ of the Convention Relative to Burma and Thibet between China and Great Britain and Agreement Modifying the Burma-China Frontier and Trade Convention between China and Great Britain during the reign of Guangxu basically delineated the middle section of Yunnan-Burma border. The contradiction in the geographical cognition of the “watershed” between China and Britain had an important impact on the negotiation of the undefined boundary in the north of Jiangao Mountain. As a result, China had actually lost the territorial sovereignty of Xiaojiang River Basin north of the Jiangao Mountain and west of Balada-Gaolianggong Mountains. In the southern section of the undefined boundary, China and Britain have many disagreements over the basis of the boundary survey, and it was difficult to reach a consensus. The results of the Sino-British negotiations over the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty basically shaped the course of the Sino-Myanmar border, and had an important impact on the border negotiations and final delineation between China and Myanmar in the Republic of China period and the 1960s.

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    A Study of the Governance of Longxi, Beidi and Shang Commanderies in the Early Western Han Dynasty: Centered on the Rank of the Counties as Seen in the Statutes on Salaries ( Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips
    Ma Menglong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 16-30.  
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    This paper compares the surviving and excavated documents and points out that the commandery’s capital county was the highest-ranking among the counties belonging to the same commandery in the Han Dynasty. Based on the rank and order of a commandery’s counties recorded in the Statutes on Salaries (Er Nian Lü Ling: Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips, we can analyze the governance of some commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty. According to the Statutes on Salaries, the capital of Longxi Commandery in the early Western Han Dynasty was Shangli County; Shang Commandery’s capital was Gaonu County, and the capital of Beidi Commandery was Panyang County. Besides, the capital of Hanzhong, Hedong, and Hainai Commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty can also be further inferred by the Statutes on Salaries. This document’s value in the study of capital counties in the early Western Han Dynasty needs to be emphasized.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 99-113.  
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 33-48.  
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    Textual Research on the Administrative Areas of the Yingtian Governor in the Ming Dynasty, also Discussing the Belonging of the Chengtian Enclave
    Song Keda
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 91-104.  
    Abstract703)   HTML34)    PDF (2164KB)(257)      

    The office of the Yingtian Governor originated directly from the Governor of Nanzhili and Zhejiang Province, both of which were set up in the first year of Hongxi. When it was officially set up in the fifth year of Xuande, its governing areas should be Yingtian and other ten prefectures rather than only the three prefectures of Suzhou, Songjiang and Changzhou as considered in traditional researches. During the period of Zhengtong, due to the abolishment of the Zhejiang Governor, as well as the need of supervising grain tax collection and water conservancy in the Taihu Lake Basin, the administrative areas of the Yingtian Governor was extended to Western Zhejiang for a long time. Thus, a total of fourteen prefectures were under its administration. As for the prefecture of Chengtian, it had been under the administration of the Huguang Governor after the fourteenth year of Jiajing, but never taken over by the Yingtian Governor. The opinion that Chengtian had been a detached enclave of the Yingtian Governor from the fourteenth year of Jiajing to the beginning of Longqing is not credible. Researchers holding this opinion might be misled by the related records in the current version of the Records of Emperor Shizong of the Ming Dynasty.

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    Changes of the Distribution Pattern of the Xining-Lhasa Road (Qinghai Section) from the Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China: Analysis Based on Digitized Ancient Maps
    Li Zhende, Zhang Ping
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 120-132.  
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    Against the background of modernization, the distribution pattern of roads in Qinghai changed significantly from the beginning of Qing Dynasty to the founding of People's Republic of China. The Xining-Lhasa road was the main line of the traffic network of Qinghai. The changes of the distribution pattern in modern times epitomize the road network distribution patterns of those in the history. Based on a set of old maps from 1935 in the National Library of China, the changing process of the distribution pattern of Xining-Lhasa road in Qinghai were restored. Three driving forces led to road network changes in modern Qinghai: the abolition of the postal system, which led to the collapse of the official road system in last Qing Dynasty, the new transportation system brought by new vehicles, and the developing activities in the period of Republic of China in Qinghai. The changes of the distribution pattern of Xining-Lhasa Road showed the road network pattern in ecologically vulnerable area was prone to the influences from ever changing human factors in the historical period. The restoration of modern roads based on richly surveyed map data was a preliminary work towards accurate restoration of ancient roads.

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    Exploration and Analysis on the Criteria of County Tier Designation in Song Dynasty
    Qi Zitong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 57-66.  
    Abstract680)   HTML28)    PDF (803KB)(366)      

    The county system of Song Dynasty basically inherited that of Tang Dynasty, when counties were designated according to the double standards of “political status” and “registered residents”. However, it existed many differences in the county system between Tang and Song Dynasties, and the Later Zhou Dynasty played an important role in this historical evolution. In the Later Zhou Dynasty, Wang county and Jin county lost the qualification to be classified by “political status” but using registered household standard, which was inherited by Song Dynasty. Basically, it was influenced by the impact of Ci Chi county, Ci Ji county. In the early Song Dynasty, the counties under Fu (superior prefecture) were strictly classified according to their political statuses, which was in contrast with counties under Zhou (prefecture) in Later Zhou, designated by registered households. By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the clear-cut division pattern was broken that the counties subordinate to Ci Fu were classified according to the registered households. Also, the meanings of “registered household” was different between Tang and Song Dynasties. It meant the number of households in Tang Dynasty but the number of “main households” that paid two taxes in Song Dynasty. This was also impacted by the policies of Later Zhou Dynasty. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, the policy of county tier designation was dynamic. Till the late Northern Song Dynasty, it gave rise to the mismatch of counties with more registered households but lower county levels. Therefore, a practical solution of disparity between county tier and household registration was to raise the threshold of registered households.

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    Reclamation and Management of the East Taihu Lake in Modern Times Centering on Wujiang Region,1890-1937
    Fang Zhilong
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 68-82.  
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    The East Taihu Lake is the main drainage region of the Taihu Lake and an environment sensitive region. After 1890s, immigrants from Henan Province moved into Wujiang County, and they started reclamation in the East Taihu Lake area. From then to the breaking of the Anti-Japanese War, related management policy went through three stages, namely, immigrant recruitment and lift of the ban in the middle and late period of the Guangxu Reign, prohibition of new private ownership and reclamation in 1914, and limited reclamation in 1925. The core concerns of these changing policies seemed to be following a progressive process from focusing on financial needs to water conservancy, and then to a well-balanced development. However, after 1914, due to the financial needs and the fact that the lake conservancy fund had to rely on the sale of marsh land ownership, the authorities not only failed to restrict and guide reclamation activities, but also stimulated its disorderly development by setting up the bureau selling marsh lands ownership with a reduced price, which increasingly deteriorated the water conservancy situations. After the large-scale illegal reclamation in 1935, the authorities had to destroy the dikes of the marsh lands reclaimed privately in order to avoid the extreme consequences and make a rehabilitation plan. All in all, in the process of modern transformation, although technologies and concepts of governance were advanced, they failed to play an effective role in environment governance. The financial capacity was a critical factor affecting the implementation of such policies.

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    Historical Geographical Observations on the Heishui General Government in Tang Dynasty
    Wang Yulang, Wang Junzheng
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 54-67.  
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    During the period of Kaiyuan’s reign in Tang Dynasty, Boli Prefecture, Heishui Army Arca, and Heishui Genaral Government were consecutively set up on the northern border, where were the later Bohai Kingdom and the district of Heishui-mohe. Using documents and archeological materials, combing with related studies of Boli Prefecture (Bozhou), Heishui-mohe Roadway, Bohai Genaral Government, Anjing Genaral Government, and Simu Tribe of Heishui-mohe, the Jiang’an ancient city of presentd-day Luobei County should be the seat of Heishui General Government in history. The inference also considered the historical background of the military confrontation between the Bohai Kingdom and Heishui-mohe, which caused Heishui-mohe to move northward from the middle and lower reaches of the Mudanjiang River. As a regional strategic center and a geographically significant military and political town, Heishui General Government guarded the north front of the Shangjing (Upper Capital) of Bohai and ran through Heishui-mohe along the line of traffic tunnels; at the same time, it was in accordance with the relative positional relationship between the Bohai Genaral Government, Anjing Genaral Government’s jurisdiction and Simu Tribe of Heishui-mohe. These also proved the Jiangan ancient city being seat of the Heishui Genaral Government set up during the Kaiyuan period of Tang Dynasty.

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    A Research on the Temporospatial Changes of Modern Inland Harbors Opening to Steamship in Yangtze River: Based on Inland Places Open to Steam Navigation under I.W.S.N. Rules
    Cheng Jun
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 119-131.  
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    After the Inland Waters Steam Navigation Rules was promulgated by the Qing government in 1898, the inland shipping along the Yangtze River underwent a sudden growth. By 1929, there were more than 418 inland harbors opening to steamship in Yangtze river basin. In terms of distribution, the inner harbors open to steam ships in the Yangtze River basin are spatially concentrated in the lower reaches, less in the middle reaches, and very rare in the upper reaches. In terms of temporal changes, the inland harbors opening to steamship spreaded from lower reaches to upper reaches, and from trunk stream to tributaries. The trend of time and space changes of inner harbor reflects the development of the modern shipping industry in the Yangtze river basin.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 86-98.  
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    A Study of “E”, West “E” and East “E”—on the origin “E” as the abbreviation of Hubei Province
    Wang Hongxing, Lu Chuan, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 91-100.  
    Abstract617)   HTML25)    PDF (6530KB)(358)      

    This paper clarifies the location changes of several different E's at Xiangning, Qinyang, Suizhou and Nanyang and their relationship between each other based on archaeological material and previous scholarship. The earliest E State was established at modern Suizhou by the court of the Western Zhou in order to control the nearby Huai and Jing Barbarians. During king Yi's reign, it was moved to the West E located in modern Xindian township of Nanyang city, marking the shrinking of the southern defensive line. In the early Spring and Autumn Period, the West E State was extincted and the Nanyang Basin was incorporated into the Chu State. Around the mid-Warring States Period, this place became the fief of the Lord of E. It was not until the War at Chuisha that the Lord of E moved eastward to the capital city of Daye, which was the beginning of the East E. In the Qin and early Western Han Dynasty, the central court established E County at the place of former East E, and later established another county in the Nanyang Basin, the West E, so as to distinguish from the East E. As for E being Hubei's abbreviation, it was not directly related to the E State in Western Zhou or the West E in the Nanyang Basin, but rather to the provincial capital. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Jiangxia (in modern Wuchang of Wuhan) was an important transportation hub. Since Wuchang was also named as E, the later eventually became the abbreviation of modern Hubei Province.

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    The Separation and Merging of Military Defence Circuit in Anqing and Huizhou Areas in Ming Dynasty
    Qi Chuangye, Huang Zhongxin
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 72-90.  
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    The Military Defence Circuit was an important local management institution in the Ming Dynasty. In order to contain the intrusion of “River thieves”, “Wokou” (Japanese pirates) and “Mining thief”, as well as to consolidate the local farming system, water conservancy, and other affairs, the Ming court successively established five Military Defence Circuits in Fengyang, Jiujiang, Taicang, Yingtian and Huirao from Hongzhi to Jiajing Reigns. Their scope of the jurisdiction cover both Anqing and Huizhou. During this period, the Military Defence Circuit's jurisdiction unit gradually changed from Wei to Fu (prefecture). In the sixth year of the Longqing Reign, out of the consideration of unifying administrative divisions, the Ming court set up the Huining Military Defence Circuit, which put Fu and Wei in Anqing and Huizhou under the same Military Defence Circuit's management, while remained under the jurisdiction of South Zhili. Later, due to changes in local situations, the Ming court made a series of differentiations and adjustments to the Huining Military Defence Circuit in order to keep it militarily advantageous. The evolution of the division and integration of the Military Defence Circuit shows the importance of local governance in Anqing, Huizhou areas. It would become one of the precursors to the formation of Anhui Province in the Qing Dynasty.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 70-85.  
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    A Comparative Study on the Contents of Guangdong Area Depicted on Huangyu Quanlan Tu in Kangxi Reign and Shisanpai Tu in Qianlong Reign, and Also a Comparison to Guangxi Area
    Li Liting, Han Zhaoqing
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 141-151.  
    Abstract594)   HTML51)    PDF (3544KB)(317)      

    Huangyu Quanlan Tu in Kangxi Reign (an overview map of imperial territories in Kangxi Reign) is an official surveyed map with coordinates accomplished in early Qing dynasty, which deeply affected the drawing of maps until early Republic of China. Digitizing the map contributes to the historical geographic data collection of this time section, and then to ascertain the absolute positions of locations on the map, is in favor of the research on natural and human element changes. Taking Guangdong Area as an example, with different georeferencing methods and historical literature, compare Shisanpai Tu in Qianlong Reign (a map with thirteen rows in Qianlong Reign) with Huangyu Quanlan Tu for the inheritance and development of this area. There is also a comparation of changes between Guangdong and Guangxi Area. The study shows that Shisanpai Tu is based on the Huangyu Quanlan Tu. The coordinate system of two maps should be the same, but there is offset. The difference may be relative with the registration method. The contents of two maps changed as well, which reflects the degree of development of the two regions in early Qing Dynasty.

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    The Resurrection and Spreading of Caodong School(曹洞宗) During Northern Song Dynasty: Based on Furong Daokai's Activities
    Shen Guoguang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 138-152.  
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    Abstract: In the middle and late Northern Song Dynasty, Caodong school as one of the Zen began to revive. Furong Daokai (芙蓉道楷) was a monk of importance in Caodong School (曹洞宗) during Northern Song Dynasty. This essay, based on the inscription of Daokai and relevant materials, restores Daokai's history of life and the basic process of his preaching Buddism. The region from Suizhou(随州) up north to the surroundings of Dongjing (东京) became a significant area for Daokai and his dharma heirs. Owing to Daokai's influence, his followers took up the positions of numerous famous monasteries and mountains, which was a turning point in the trend of Caodong School. Although Daokai was demoted when in Dongjing, this was due to his personal clash with Tan Zhen. Because of the relationship between Daokai and monks and laymen in Dongjing, Daokai's relegation exerted no negative influence on the promotion of Caodong School in Dongjing immediately. But in the long run, the monks from Dahongshang were no longer appointed abbots of the monasteries in Dongjing. The Caodong school lost the Dongjing as their preaching area, and turned to preach in south of the Yangtze River.

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    Discussions on Three Issues on the Administrative Regions in Henan Province in General History of Chinese Administrative Regions: The Sui Dynasty Volume
    Feng Bowen
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 143-146.  
    Abstract551)   HTML24)    PDF (1638KB)(424)      

    This paper discusses three flaws in General History of Chinese Administrative RegionsThe Sui Dynasty Volume. Yanyang county in Luozhou relocated its government in 598 and 605. The relations between Neimou county, Putian county and Jiacheng county in Zhengzhou is complicated because of the relocations of their government seats. The merger of Wenxiang conuty and Hucheng County in Shaanzhou in 596 was also accompanied by a government seat relocation.

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    A Study on the Text of the Luo River in Notes on the Book of Rivers and Reconstruction of the River Courses and the Administrative Divisions (Ⅱ)
    Li Xiaojie, Yang Zhiyu, Huang Xuechao, Yang Xiaoyang, Zhao Hailong, Yuan Fang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 1-24.  
    Abstract549)   HTML115)    PDF (7069KB)(405)      

    Notes on the Book of Rivers, one of the masterpieces that focuses on describing rivers and records geographical elements in ancient China, is crucial for researching ancient rivers and changes in administrative divisions. Earlier studies on the Notes on the Book of Rivers mostly concentrated on the dissemination of its various versions or on the history of Li Xue, i.e., the study on the classics and its author Li Daoyuan. However, an intensive geographical examination on the text of Li’s notes per se is missing. On the basis of previous researches of related scholars, Luo River, described in the 15th volume of Notes on the Book of Rivers, is selected and analyzed in conjunction with historical documents and archaeological sources in this paper. Hopefully this paper will serve as a useful trial for the study on Li’s notes. Methodologically, it applies texts collation, historical source tracing, reconstruction of the river courses and administrative divisions, and so on. A reconstructed map with ancient-modern place names and a form with ancient-modern river names are also made to demonstrate the results of this study, which will be of convenience for researchers of the Notes on the Book of Rivers. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part has already been published. The second part covers the region from the San Pass to the junction of Luo river and the Yellow River.

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    A Textual Study on the Tao River Recorded in the Volume of Zhuozhang River of Shui Jing Zhu ( Notes to the Book of Rivers)
    Ge Shaoqi
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 1-11.  
    Abstract543)   HTML51)    PDF (2932KB)(457)      

    Tao River, which is recorded in the volume of Zhuozhang River of Notes to the Book of Rivers, was thought to be the current Tao River by many scholars through history, while Yan Gengwang argued that it should be Guguan River. However, there are discrepancies between the two opinions. Actually, the watercourse of the ancient Tao River include the watercourse of present Gantao River, Ye River and the ancient watercourse of Ye River. We thought the reason the current Tao River bears the name is that Cai Gui misunderstood Notes to the Book of Rivers.

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    On Regional Classification in Song Dynasty: The Boundary and Demarcation Principles of Township
    Wang Xu
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 63-71.  
    Abstract534)   HTML28)    PDF (2072KB)(435)      

    Before the Yuanfeng's reign of the Northern Song Dynasty, the number and size of the townships changed with the growth and decline of the population, so the boundary was not stable. After Wang Anshi's reform, the administrative function of the township was hugely diminished, along with disappearance of the function of “township household”, and the boundary of township gradually stabilized. Rather than crossing boundary, the basic reforms like the Baojia law and the boundary law were completed within townships. Such policy provisions strengthened the integrity of the township, making the boundaries of rural areas clearer. According to the differences among the neighboring entities, the boundaries can be divided into four categories: boundary between the townships; demarcation of the administrative district between the town and the state army county; boundary between the township and the administrative office; and demarcation of a township and a town. The analyses based on existing material show that the demarcation of the townships generally follows the principle of “Shan Chuan Xing Bian”(mountain and river form), which is not only for the administrative convenience of grassroots officials, but also in line with the law of the formation of natural settlements.

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    New Analysis on the Ranking System of Counties During the Qing Dynasty
    Hu Heng
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 67-90.  
    Abstract529)   HTML45)    PDF (3852KB)(369)      

    The ranking system of counties first emerged during Yongzheng’s reign, and was generally founded in the 12th year of Qianlong. However, up to 124 adjustments of descriptions and ranks on counties ranks still occurred during the 12th and 43rd year of Qianlong, most of which happened on lower-ranked counties changing into a Zuiyao (most significant) or Yao (significant) ranked ones. In the 43rd year of Qianlong, a new regulation on standardized adjustments of descriptions and ranks was promulgated. Although implemented strictly, many exceptional adjustments were still allowed down to Daoguang’s reign. Changes to description hardly happened during the reigns of Xianfeng and Tongzhi, only to emerge again from the end of Guangxu’s reign to Xuantong’s reign. Provinces had different modes of county distribution, including anti core-edge distribution, core-edge double centered distribution, linear distribution along a river, coastline or transit lines, similar distribution to developed towns, etc. Fuguo(附郭)counties were generally ranked higher than others in 1911, except for only 48 cases non-conformative to the rule. Moreover, as Hunan province showcases, ranks of counties were not in accordance with commercial benefits for the county magistrate.

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    Topography and River-Lake Environment along the Lower Yellow River After Tongwaxiang Breach (1855-1911)
    Gu Shuai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 46-64.  
    Abstract517)   HTML30)    PDF (7111KB)(345)      

    In 1855, the Yellow River moved northward in the aftermath of the Tongwaxiang breach, which had a great impact on the topography of the downstream area and the environment of rivers and lakes. In the Shandong plain to the west of the Great Canal, the sediment deposition resulted in the elevation of the terrain, while the flood flow of the Yellow River in this area even disturbed the original water system. In the lower reaches of Wenhe River and Sishui River, it was difficult to drain water because of the high riverbed of the Yellow River. The formation and expansion of Dongping Lake was the result of the increasing water accumulation in the area. In the plain area on the west side of the hills from Changqing to Qidong in the middle of Shandong Province, affected by the silting up of riverbed of the Yellow River or the back-flow of its water, it was difficult to discharge water into the Yellow River, which directly prompt the opening of the New Qinghe River. In the basin of Tuhai River, affected by the breach of the Yellow River, many tributaries of the Tuhai River were silted, while the Tuhai River was scoured wide and deep by the Yellow River. After the breach of the Yellow River in Lijin in 1907, the tail reach of Tuhai River was also silted up.

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    Eastern Main Road in the Sichuan Basin and the Vicissitude of the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”
    Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 1-17.  
    Abstract509)   HTML208)    PDF (869KB)(741)      

    During the Tang and Song Dynasties, two ancient highways were formed in the Sichuan Basin, known as the Northern and Southern Roads respectively. The Southern Road was less prominent. Yet, it was the predecessor of the Eastern Main Road in later times. Against the background that the political and economic center of the Sichuan Basin moved eastward and southward in Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chongqing ascended in importance and could rival Chengdu. The Eastern Main Road gradually took shape and flourished. In the Ming Dynasty, there were 12 post stations along the Eastern Main Road, which were largely inherited in the Qing Dynasty. Along the road were also a large number of shops and posts. The total mileage of the Eastern Main Road was about 1 000 li (500 meters) comprising in total of 10 stages, which would take 11 to 12 days to travel. The western section was often travelled by boat on the Tuojiang River. The Eastern Main Road took shape in the early Ming Dynasty. At the beginning, it was called the “Southeast road”, the “East Road of Sichuan”, or the “East road”. The name “Eastern Main Road” was formed in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. It has natural and cultural advantages such as connecting Chengdu and Chongqing, low terrain agriculture, abundant water resource, access to the rivers and sea, and close to the salt mines. It was the primary road in the Sichuan Basin and it gave birth to the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”. Since the 1990s, the status of “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt” has declined, but the strategy of “Chengdu-Chongqing Double-city Economic Circle” has brought opportunities for the revitalization of the ancient Eastern Main Road.

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    Study on Human Activities and Environmental Effects in the Upper Reaches of Lijiang River During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Liu Xiangxue
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 12-14.  
    Abstract500)   HTML48)    PDF (4167KB)(523)      

    The formation of sandbanks in the Lijiang River was a result of the interactions between natural environment and human activities. Since the Ming and Qing dynasties, people continuously flowed into the upper reaches of the Lijiang River to engage in agricultural work and land reclamation. They also reshaped the natural environment of the mountainous upstream area. The soil unearthed left from agricultural work and those carried by rainwater were then swept out into the Lijiang River, resulted in sediment, which accelerated the formation and development of sandbank, and shaped the appearance of the Lijiang river bed in Guilin city. The settlements were also transferred from the sandbars to sandbanks. The relationship between man and land in Lijiang River basin changed as thus.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 49-58.  
    Abstract488)   HTML59)    PDF (706KB)(532)      
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    Reconstruct Martino Martini’s Process of Reckoning the Coordinates in the Provincial Maps of the Working Edition of Guang Yu Ji
    Lin Hong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 117-140.  
    Abstract486)   HTML37)    PDF (9249KB)(262)      

    Novus Atlas Sinensis, the first printed provincial atlas of China in Europe, was published in Amsterdam in 1655. The Atlas had a great influence on European knowledge of China at that time. The maps and geographical descriptions were drawn and compiled by the Jesuit Martino Martini, mainly based on Guang Yu Ji, a Chinese geographical book published in late Ming Dynasty, which Martini brought back to Europe. By close reading the notes appended by Martini himself onto the “working edition” of Guang Yu Ji now held in the Vatican Apostolic Library, with the help of logical reasoning, the author tries to reconstruct the method and process through which he reckoned the coordinates in the provincial maps of the working edition. The author finds out that Martini completed reckoned the coordinates of more than 1 700 settlements based on only few measured or pre-set values of control points. This was the pivotal step of Martini’s map-making technique. Although the method was inaccurate in modern eyes, by applying it in transforming Chinese provincial maps and fit them into Western standards, Martini successfully produced an atlas which met the requirments of the European mapping industry.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 23-32.  
    Abstract485)   HTML55)    PDF (2061KB)(442)      
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    A Study on the Establishment of Lodged Wudu in Guanzhong During the Period of Wei, Jin, Sixteen Kingdoms and Northern Dynasties
    Zhou Ying
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 47-53.  
    Abstract477)   HTML14)    PDF (549KB)(359)      

    In the Former Qin Dynasty (AD 351-394), the Wudu popularized by the Di people in Guanzhong refers to the Lodged Wudu. The establishment of Lodged Wudu began in the Wei Dynasty (AD 220-265). In order to fight for Longyou against Shu Han (AD 221-263), Cao Wei moved the Di people of Wudu to Guanzhong from Longyou, and set up Wudu Commandery in Xiaohuaili and then Meiyang. Jiang Tong’s Xirong Lun (AD 299) reflects that there was no Wudu Commandery in Guanzhong in the Western Jin Dynasty. The Liu tribe of Tuge and the Shi tribe of Jie ruled Guanzhong successively in the Sixteen Kingdoms. They moved a large number of Di and Qiang people to the Guandong area, so there was no condition to establish Wudu in Guanzhong. After Fu Jian established the regime in Guanzhong, he set up Wudu Commandery near Baoji, which was the embodiment of his Di people oriented policy. In the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Lodged Wudu Commandery was set and its territory expanded then before, which marked the localization of the Di people in Guanzhong. It was also a strategy of Taiwu emperor to divide the Di people in the southern area of Guanzhong when he suppressed the rebellion of Gai Wu (AD 445-446). In the Western Wei and Northern Zhou dynasties, the administrative divisions were overused, which cut off the number of counties in the Wudu Commandery. In the Kaihuang period (AD 581-600) of Sui Dynasty, the Lodged Wudu disappeared due to the policies.

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    The Literature Sources of Jin Shi Di Li Zhi
    Zhang Liang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 94-103.  
    Abstract473)   HTML41)    PDF (773KB)(194)      

    When the Geographical Records of the History of Jin Dynasty (Jin Shi Di Li Zhi, 《金史·地理志》) was being compiled, its authors didn’t have access to the original texts of the Guo Shi (《国史》) of the Jin Dynasty. The foundation of this work was laid by Wang E (王鹗) at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, and it was not completed until its end. Its contents were divided according to the conquered territories formerly belonged to Liao and Song, and the source material used can be easily distinguished. Specifically, the part on the former Liao territory was based on Chen Daren’s Liao Shi (《辽史》), and the Song part was formulated on the basis of Jiu Yu Zhi (《九域志》), and then supplemented years later with the Royal History of the Song Dynasty. As for the administrative system of Jin, miscellaneous geographical documents, such as Da Ding Zhi Fang Zhi (《大定职方志》), were used.

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    The Diversion of Puyang River and Water Conservancy Transformation of Xiao-Shao Plain in the Ming Dynasty
    Chen Tao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 25-36.  
    Abstract469)   HTML30)    PDF (4055KB)(447)      

    The diversion of Puyang River was key to the development of Xiao-Shao plain in eastern Zhejiang. The archaeological data of the lower Puyang River and the map of Guang Yu Tu (广舆图), which was made in the Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty (1522—1566), demonstrate the basic eastward flow of the Puyang river before its diversion in the middle of Ming Dynasty. The diversion led to the transformation of water affairs in Xiao-Shao plain, re-orienting from the interior of the plain to its edge, and the content of water affairs also changed from “irrigation works” to “flood containment”. The internal reserveoir-centered conservancy system turned to the river wall, sluice, dam and other water conservancy projects so as to resist the invasion of the external rivers and the sea. This transformation also made the rivers and lakes in the Xiao-Shao plain inter-connected into a complete water conservancy system. The establishment and maintenance of the main projects such as Sanjiang Sluice, West River Wall and Maxi Dam brought the three counties of Xiaoshan, Shanyin and Kuaiji in the same plain to form the “shan-kuai-xiao” regional community with water conservancy as the core.

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    Study on the Ying Xun System of Xiangxi Miaojiang in Qing Dynasty
    Zhou Ni
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 91-103.  
    Abstract466)   HTML38)    PDF (3376KB)(570)      

    The Ying Xun system was the grassroots military system of local governance in Qing Dynasty, important to the local governance of Xiangxi Miaojiang. Although it was relatively stable after its formation, due to the ethnic population, natural and social environment, its establishment, withdrawal, improvement, and adjustment often transformed through the history. Thus, the characteristics of the Ying Xun system could be “changing by the trend”, which also reflected the integrating process of Xiangxi Miaojiang into the National “inland border”.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 59-69.  
    Abstract465)   HTML52)    PDF (829KB)(496)      
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    Overview of Westerners-drawn Beijing City Maps in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Cao Xinning, Yin Wenjuan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 104-123.  
    Abstract464)   HTML73)    PDF (46549KB)(422)      

    Diplomatic staff of the Western powers were permitted to reside in Beijing after 1860. The number of city maps of Beijing drawn by Westerners increased and their accuracy improved significantly. The types and uses of maps were also greatly enriched. This paper first systematically organizes the historical material of these maps, and then classifies them into three categories according to their uses and modes of publication. By taking the perspective of the history of cultural exchanges and using the method of textual analysis in literary studies, we look at these maps as a reflection of Sino-foreign relations in the late Qing Dynasty and the image of Beijing perceived by Westerners.

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    A Study on Changes of Administrative Division of Wuyi Area in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Chen Guofei
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 37-50.  
    Abstract463)   HTML36)    PDF (3480KB)(454)      

    For a time, the Wuyi (five counties) Area was generally located inside the Tanjiang River Basin, a relatively detached geographical unit enclosed by mountains and rivers, when its borders went far beyond the limit of the basin intentionally. Till the Ming dynasty, in order to deal with the local political crisis and civil revolts, the government adjusted the administrative division of the area. Four counties were added or reset, namely Enping, Xinning, Kaiping and Heshan. New borders of these counties were basically in line with the range of Tanjiang River Basin. It was a realization of a geographical unit to affect the forming of administrative borders. In Yongzheng and Qianlong period of Qing Dynasty (1678—1796), the administrative division of this area was roughly accomplished. Xinhui county has become the core county. Along with other four counties in the basin, the Wuyi Area was firstly integrated into a prefecture-level region. The political-geographical changes of Tanjiang River Basin indicated that the geographical environment and local politics played an important role in the forming of political-geographical structure.

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    Traditional Technology, Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Adaptation: A Case Study of the Huainan Salt Industry During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Bao Junlin
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 38-51.  
    Abstract462)   HTML46)    PDF (4179KB)(453)      

    The evolution of traditional technology has complex socio-economic and environmental backgrounds. This paper aims to reveal the complexity of the evolution mechanism of sea salt production technology in ancient China, by discussing the development process of salt-making technology in Huainan saltworks and the influence of key restricting factors. In the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, methodologically, traditional decocted salt production of the sea saltworks in China were replaced with solar-salt production, while the traditional decocted salt way was kept in the Huainan saltworks of Jiangsu Province until early 20th century. This was a special phenomenon in the economic history of China's sea salt industry. It was due to sandy soil and less than 500 mm net evaporation in the central and southern Jiangsu coast, which limited the development of large-scale solar-salt production in this region. The policy support on marketing management policy made the Huainan traditional decocted salt production more consolidated in Qing Dynasty, and further restricted technological innovation. This study provides an example for the comparative study of pre-industrial technological evolution, and reflects the mechanism of indigenous technology development and local adaptability.

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    From Official Rank to Salary Rank: An Investigation on County Tiers in the Tang and Five Dynasties
    Luo Kai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 42-56.  
    Abstract459)   HTML35)    PDF (1043KB)(305)      

    Counties in Tang Dynasty were assigned into four, five, six, seven, eight, ten, etc. tiers according to household registration, official rank, salary rank, transfer order and other different standards. From a diachronic point of view, the county tiers were constantly increasing from six tiers in the early stage to ten tiers in the later stage. One exception was during the Tianbao years, the lowest tier of counties was cancelled. However, the designations of Wang (望), Jin (紧), Ci Chi (次赤) and Ci Ji (次畿) counties had no direct relationship with the number of registered permanent residents, but rather reflected more if the county was fertile or barren. Among them, the problem of Ci Chi county was particularly complicated, because it can be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses. However, a comprehensive analysis shows that the system of Ci Chi county had already appeared in the early years of Daizong Period at the latest. The salary rank formed from the late Daizong Period to the early Dezong Period had a new impact on the county tiers in the late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties. In Five Dynasties, the county tier was determined by the number of registered households, although different dynasties had different standards, either complicated or simple. In summary, in the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, the criteria for county tiers changed from official rank to salary rank.

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