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    Studies and Writings on the History and Geography of Northwest China by Qing Scholars
    Shi Nianhai, Wang Shuanghuai
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 1-17.  
    Abstract582)   HTML2526)    PDF (25226KB)(944)      

    After the outbreak of the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression in 1937, borderland issues became increasingly serious. Shi Nianhai and his tutor Gu Jiegang were concerned with the historical material of China's borderland issues, especially those of northwest China. They examined voluminous historical materials to write this article, so as to reveal the process of formation and historical variations of China's frontier, and to bolster the national spirit against Japanese aggression. Shi thought that as early as the period of Qianlong and Jiaqing of the Qing dynasty, scholars had studied the history and geography of northwest China. After that period, instability of the northeast borderland attracted the attention of even more scholars. They collected documents, wrote monographs, and recorded the imperial court's military attainments in the northwest as well as its conducts in frontier affairs with Russia. Their works are still of great value.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 46-57.  
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 114-131.  
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 1-22.  
    Abstract659)   HTML97)    PDF (5588KB)(661)      
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    Clarifications on the Evolution of Ancient City Sites of Jiangling, Nanjun, and Jingzhou
    Wang Hongxing, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 52-62.  
    Abstract550)   HTML45)    PDF (2579KB)(617)      

    Based on new materials, this paper argues that the City of Ying was rebuilt alongside the old Jiangling City, after the Qin general Bai Qi's taken-over of Ying. Afterwards, both the Nanjun Prefecture and Jiangling County used this city as their seats. During the middle Western Han, the Nanjun Prefecture and Jiangling County relocated their seats to the newly built Xi'eshan City, and Ying City became the seat of Ying County. Since the end of Western Han, the Ying County was canceled and the city became a courier station, which lasted until the last era of Eastern Han. Later on, Guan Yu, Huan Wen, and Wang Chen, successively rebuilt the Jiangling City on the basis of the old Xi'eshan City. It is only after Huan Wen rebuilt the Jiangling City that the two cities Jiangling and Jingzhou merged. During the reign of Wude in the Tang, Nanjun Prefecture was canceled. At around the fourteenth year of the Tianbao reign, the Yangtze River changed its course to the south of modern Jingzhou City, therefore the Jiangling City was moved from Xi'eshan City to modern Jingzhou City and remained in the same place to this day.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 15-29.  
    Abstract444)   HTML54)    PDF (7161KB)(592)      
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    Dialectical Feedbacks of Disaster, Environment, and Charity: Case Study of Rural Social Security System Establishment in Zhili Province During the Reign of Emperor Qianlong
    Wang Daxue
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 31-43.  
    Abstract373)   HTML45)    PDF (3354KB)(583)      

    The reason caused Emperor Qianlong to establish a system of local public welfare granary was the failure of his grain policy. Unsatisfied with the Ever-Normal Granary System or the Community Granary System, he wanted to set up a Public Granary System to attract local storage of grain. The transition from dependence upon official granaries to civil granaries reflected Emperor Qianlong's policy being tightened. His method was to educate people rather than nourish people. Stability of the Zhili (the area surrounding the capital) Province was the priority to Emperor Qianlong and the Public Granary System brought out a good match between relief and regulation for him. Under the broader background of abolishing the Liuyang Zisong policy, the Public Granary System could bring a stable environment because it would reduce the number of refugees staying in the capital city. The setup of Liuyang Ju System meant a compromise and concession to reality for Emperor Qianlong. The distribution of Liuyang Ju was determined by accessibility and physical environment conditions. Overall, the scenario of policy shifts in the 13th year of Qianlong's reign and the establishment of the Public Granary System and the Liuyang Ju System in Zhili Province were the dialectical effects of disaster, environment, and charity taken together.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 95-114.  
    Abstract1027)   HTML51)    PDF (3145KB)(548)      
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    The Transformation of the Hong Temple and the Construction of Urban Social Space in Modern Shanghai
    Chen Yunxia
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 133-143.  
    Abstract220)   HTML24)    PDF (4476KB)(440)      

    After the port opening of Shanghai city, social condition experienced great changes. A founding was that the main worshipers of Hong Temple became the prostitute group. The main reasons of such transformation were the prosperity of prostitution thereby and the policy change for sacrificial ceremonies. Newspapers and modern novels accelerated the transformation of traditional folk beliefs in modern Shanghai as well.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 72-82.  
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 70-85.  
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    Multiple Perspectives on Document and Fieldwork: Studies on the Investigation of the Location of Counties in the Middle Ages Using Changzhou and Jingnan as Examples
    Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 96-108.  
    Abstract340)   HTML43)    PDF (2517KB)(411)      

    Taking the change of location of the capital of Changzhou prefecture and administrative area of the Jingnan county in Tang dynasty as examples, this study points out that researchers should make use of historical documents from multiple perspectives in locating counties in the Middle Ages. We find that the position of Jingnan county in Tang dynasty is at the Taihe dam of Zhangjia dam, in Gaosheng town of Dazu county, which was called Jingnan dam and 50 miles west of Dazu county, other than Longshui town or Sanxi town in Dazu counry. The capital of Changzhou prefecture was firstly set in Changyuan county in 758, and then to Rongchang county in 769, and eventually in Jingnan county in 892. We also find that in order to ensure the reliability of research, one must make use of local historical memory, actual geographical situation and cultural relics to correct historical documents, because historical researches are prone to four types of inaccuracies, namely the sensibility of mileage calculation, the rigidity of azimuth coordinates, the fuzziness of azimuth direction and the obvious simplification and derivation in geographical cognition of historical documents.

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    Changes of the River System Structure and Water Environment in the Convergence Region of Yellow River, Huai River and Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty
    Wang Jiange
    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (1): 7-25.  
    Abstract577)   HTML84)    PDF (4535KB)(409)      

    The region where Yellow and Huai Rivers met the Grand Canal became a key location for water regulation because of the opening of Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty. Regulation procedures implemented by the government, aiming to keep the Grand Canal unimpeded to navigation, facilitated the evolution of river system structures and water regimen. In early Ming Dynasty, the configuration of river channels was similar to that in Yuan Dynasty, following a pattern of parallel flows with interchangeable main and tributary channels. As the Grand Canal, Huai River and Yellow River were under regulation, and especially as levees were constructed, channels of Yellow River went through a concentration process. They firstly merged from a regional network pattern into a linear pattern, and then continued converging towards a point at Qingkou. The first stage of this process was the abandonment of the northern branch of Yellow River, while the second stage was lining the Xu-Pi segment of Yellow River up with the upper stream. After flow directions of channels were fixed into the Xu-Pi segment, most levee failure events during the Reign of Jiajing Emperor occurred upstream to Xuzhou, but after the 44th year of Reign of Jiajing Emperor, most of such events occurred downstream to Xuzhou. The channel regulation near where Yellow River and Grand Canal meet started with a broader, fan-shaped target region extended from south to north, and then reduced to the southern half of the fan-shaped region, and then concentrated to a linear belt and eventually to Qingkou. The regulation generally served for maintaining the navigational condition of channels. From a regional channel network to a point, or from a broader region to a smaller region and eventually to a single point, such kind of engineering process marked the characteristic of how Ming Dynasty conducted hydrological regulation projects in the region where Yellow and Huai Rivers met the Grand Canal. This hydrological regulation process that follows the change of water environment accordingly fully reflected the wisdom of ancient people in utilizing the aquatic environment on a large regional scale. It has remarkable ecological characteristics.

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    Studies on the Changes of the Yunnan-Burma Border in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Dong Jiayu, Yang Weibing
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 29-46.  
    Abstract579)   HTML42)    PDF (1791KB)(401)      

    Negotiations over the demarcation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty was an important stage of China-Burma border changes in modern times. With the help of diplomatic archives, treaties and maps, this paper makes a detailed restoration of the process of delimitation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the Sino-British negotiations. The signing of Convention Giving Effect to Article Ⅲ of the Convention Relative to Burma and Thibet between China and Great Britain and Agreement Modifying the Burma-China Frontier and Trade Convention between China and Great Britain during the reign of Guangxu basically delineated the middle section of Yunnan-Burma border. The contradiction in the geographical cognition of the “watershed” between China and Britain had an important impact on the negotiation of the undefined boundary in the north of Jiangao Mountain. As a result, China had actually lost the territorial sovereignty of Xiaojiang River Basin north of the Jiangao Mountain and west of Balada-Gaolianggong Mountains. In the southern section of the undefined boundary, China and Britain have many disagreements over the basis of the boundary survey, and it was difficult to reach a consensus. The results of the Sino-British negotiations over the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty basically shaped the course of the Sino-Myanmar border, and had an important impact on the border negotiations and final delineation between China and Myanmar in the Republic of China period and the 1960s.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 115-134.  
    Abstract505)   HTML43)    PDF (4817KB)(394)      
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    A Research on the Temporospatial Changes of Modern Inland Harbors Opening to Steamship in Yangtze River: Based on Inland Places Open to Steam Navigation under I.W.S.N. Rules
    Cheng Jun
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 119-131.  
    Abstract363)   HTML25)    PDF (5399KB)(391)      

    After the Inland Waters Steam Navigation Rules was promulgated by the Qing government in 1898, the inland shipping along the Yangtze River underwent a sudden growth. By 1929, there were more than 418 inland harbors opening to steamship in Yangtze river basin. In terms of distribution, the inner harbors open to steam ships in the Yangtze River basin are spatially concentrated in the lower reaches, less in the middle reaches, and very rare in the upper reaches. In terms of temporal changes, the inland harbors opening to steamship spreaded from lower reaches to upper reaches, and from trunk stream to tributaries. The trend of time and space changes of inner harbor reflects the development of the modern shipping industry in the Yangtze river basin.

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    A Research on the Mountains and Rivers of He-Luo Region in the Chapter Zhongshan Jing of Shan Hai Jing
    Yang Xiaoyang
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 44-62.  
    Abstract630)   HTML71)    PDF (5142KB)(384)      

    The chapter Zhongshan Jing (Classic of the Mountains: Central) of Shan Hai Jing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) presented the mountains and rivers of He-Luo Region in detail, basically from the middle reaches of the Yellow River to the Luo River and the Yi River. The earliest pieces of Shan Hai Jing were thought to have appeared since as early as the pre-Qin period, and many placenames had been lost in Han and Wei dynasties. Generations of scholars consecutively studied the geography and toponomy of these areas, but the results were barely precise or satisfying. Usually, an incorrect location assigned to a mountain or a river would mislead the naming of its surrounding areas. On the basis of previous work and documents, this article presents seven explanations of mountain and river positions in the He-Luo area and discusses the environmental consciousness of people in the time of Shan Hai Jing.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 59-69.  
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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 58-71.  
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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 1-5.  
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    Study on the Ying Xun System of Xiangxi Miaojiang in Qing Dynasty
    Zhou Ni
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 91-103.  
    Abstract288)   HTML35)    PDF (3376KB)(372)      

    The Ying Xun system was the grassroots military system of local governance in Qing Dynasty, important to the local governance of Xiangxi Miaojiang. Although it was relatively stable after its formation, due to the ethnic population, natural and social environment, its establishment, withdrawal, improvement, and adjustment often transformed through the history. Thus, the characteristics of the Ying Xun system could be “changing by the trend”, which also reflected the integrating process of Xiangxi Miaojiang into the National “inland border”.

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    Deng Chengxiu and the Qing-France Negotiations: A Brief Introduction to the Maps and Treaty on the Boundary Between Guangxi Province and Vietnam Collected in the Taipei Palace Museum
    Chen Weixin
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 15-28.  
    Abstract258)   HTML23)    PDF (919KB)(370)      

    International boundary demarcation is a trouble-causing problem between countries. Before the middle Qing Dynasty, Vietnam was regarded as a vassal state of the Qing empire, thus the boundary demarcation between two governments had not been conducted, and the southwest boundary of the Qing empire was not clearly defined. After the Sino-French war (1883—1885), the Qing and French governments concluded on the Ten Treaties Between Qing and French Government on Vietnam, which ended the vassal relationship between Vietnam and the Qing, thus giving rise to the discussion over the related demarcation issues. In the 11th year of the Guangxu Reign (1885), the Qing government sent Deng Chengxiu to negotiate with French officials on demarcation issues. After long lasting seesaw debates, the two governments finally signed the boundary treaty and drew the boundary maps. The treaty, boundary maps and related files signed by Deng Chengxiu and French officials collected in the Taipei Palace Museum are important materials for the recovery of the boundary negotiations.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 33-48.  
    Abstract462)   HTML62)    PDF (1462KB)(369)      
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    A Geographic Study of Epidemic Disasters in the Jiangnan Area in China (1912-1949)
    Gong Shengsheng, Shi Guoning, Li Zimo
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 18-30.  
    Abstract445)   HTML57)    PDF (13077KB)(360)      

    Epidemics have always been a great threat to people's health and life security throughout history. To analyze the temporal and spatial variation of epidemic disasters that occurred in the Jiangnan area during 1912-1949, we compiled a list of the epidemic data, and made use of different methods such as historical document review, mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis. The results show that: (1)The incidence rate of epidemics was 100% annually and 94.70% quarterly in the time interval. Autumn, summer and spring were usually epidemic seasons, especially in the autumn and summer time. The affected area enlarged year by year, but the fluctuation curve reflected that there were 6 peaks in 38 years. Considering a longer period, i.e. from the Ming Dynasty to the establishment of the People's Republic of China (582 years in total), the return period of epidemic disasters gradually shortened and the number of affected counties increased. It indicates that the epidemic severity in the study period was the highest in the Jiangnan's history. (2)The affected area of epidemics basically spreaded along the Grand Canal and the Nanjing-Shanghai-Hangzhou railway, and the area to their east. Suzhou-Wuxi area and a section of Shanghai adjacent to Suzhou were the hot spots of epidemic disasters, while the mountainous area of Western Zhejiang Province was rarely affected. (3)The general characteristics of epidemic disaster's distributions during 1912-1949 in the Jiangnan area indicate that the hot spots were usually the regions along transportation lines, with a higher population density, or lately suffered severe floods or droughts. Moreover, epidemics spread in plain areas more often and severe than in mountainous areas.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 6-14.  
    Abstract447)   HTML33)    PDF (2415KB)(348)      
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    Study on Human Activities and Environmental Effects in the Upper Reaches of Lijiang River During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Liu Xiangxue
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 12-14.  
    Abstract315)   HTML43)    PDF (4167KB)(346)      

    The formation of sandbanks in the Lijiang River was a result of the interactions between natural environment and human activities. Since the Ming and Qing dynasties, people continuously flowed into the upper reaches of the Lijiang River to engage in agricultural work and land reclamation. They also reshaped the natural environment of the mountainous upstream area. The soil unearthed left from agricultural work and those carried by rainwater were then swept out into the Lijiang River, resulted in sediment, which accelerated the formation and development of sandbank, and shaped the appearance of the Lijiang river bed in Guilin city. The settlements were also transferred from the sandbars to sandbanks. The relationship between man and land in Lijiang River basin changed as thus.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 83-94.  
    Abstract492)   HTML56)    PDF (4303KB)(342)      
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    On Regional Classification in Song Dynasty: The Boundary and Demarcation Principles of Township
    Wang Xu
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 63-71.  
    Abstract337)   HTML22)    PDF (2072KB)(339)      

    Before the Yuanfeng's reign of the Northern Song Dynasty, the number and size of the townships changed with the growth and decline of the population, so the boundary was not stable. After Wang Anshi's reform, the administrative function of the township was hugely diminished, along with disappearance of the function of “township household”, and the boundary of township gradually stabilized. Rather than crossing boundary, the basic reforms like the Baojia law and the boundary law were completed within townships. Such policy provisions strengthened the integrity of the township, making the boundaries of rural areas clearer. According to the differences among the neighboring entities, the boundaries can be divided into four categories: boundary between the townships; demarcation of the administrative district between the town and the state army county; boundary between the township and the administrative office; and demarcation of a township and a town. The analyses based on existing material show that the demarcation of the townships generally follows the principle of “Shan Chuan Xing Bian”(mountain and river form), which is not only for the administrative convenience of grassroots officials, but also in line with the law of the formation of natural settlements.

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    Corresponding Cities and Place Names with Salt Resources in Tang Dynasty Which Recorded in The Resources of the World ( Hudud Al-Alam) as Bughshur
    Wang Changming
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 145-152.  
    Abstract304)   HTML24)    PDF (1985KB)(338)      

    The Middle Persian (pahlavi) geographical book The Regions of the World (Hudud al-alam) records two important salt resources both named Bughshur in Tang dynasty based on regional differentiation. The former lies in the drainage area of the Upper Yangtze River, the latter lies in the drainage area of the Yellow River. We could identify the former as salt well named Fuyi near prefecture Lu in the region of Jiannan Dao, the latter as salt lake near the prefecture Hezhong in the region of Hedong Dao. There is a hall in the city of Hezhong which bears the name “Lü sha” (Persian as “rusa”), and means scarf in English. Based on literature study, we can conclude there was a Persian man Li Jingshen, wore scarf in hall occasionally, who had been a leader of local militia for almost twenty years. With his assistance, Persian merchants came to Hezhong to attend to the state monopoly of Hezhong crystal salt.

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    On Huairui and Yuzhang: Reconstructing the Geography of the Battle of Wu Conquest of Ying
    Lei Chinhau
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 63-82.  
    Abstract524)   HTML52)    PDF (14264KB)(338)      

    Three contradictory theories have been proposed so far about the geography of the Battle of Wu Conquest of Ying in 506 BC. Combining paleographical sources, transmitted classics, and data collected from field trips, this article argues for a reinvestigation of this issue. Firstly, it probes into Huairei and Yuzhang, two controversial place names recorded in classical texts crucial for locating the war. Based on a precise understanding of place names, it reconstructs the geography of the battle by contextualizing it into the land and water transportation network in Central China. The result is explicit. The Wu State maneuvered its troops through the waterway of the Huai River during advancement and retreat, while land combats took place back and forth in the Suizao Corridor. As opposed to previous theories, this reconstruction of the war is not only textually solid but also topographically interconnected.

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    A Study on the Text of the Luo River in Notes on the Book of Rivers and Reconstruction of the River Courses and the Administrative Divisions (Ⅱ)
    Li Xiaojie, Yang Zhiyu, Huang Xuechao, Yang Xiaoyang, Zhao Hailong, Yuan Fang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 1-24.  
    Abstract367)   HTML105)    PDF (7069KB)(338)      

    Notes on the Book of Rivers, one of the masterpieces that focuses on describing rivers and records geographical elements in ancient China, is crucial for researching ancient rivers and changes in administrative divisions. Earlier studies on the Notes on the Book of Rivers mostly concentrated on the dissemination of its various versions or on the history of Li Xue, i.e., the study on the classics and its author Li Daoyuan. However, an intensive geographical examination on the text of Li’s notes per se is missing. On the basis of previous researches of related scholars, Luo River, described in the 15th volume of Notes on the Book of Rivers, is selected and analyzed in conjunction with historical documents and archaeological sources in this paper. Hopefully this paper will serve as a useful trial for the study on Li’s notes. Methodologically, it applies texts collation, historical source tracing, reconstruction of the river courses and administrative divisions, and so on. A reconstructed map with ancient-modern place names and a form with ancient-modern river names are also made to demonstrate the results of this study, which will be of convenience for researchers of the Notes on the Book of Rivers. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part has already been published. The second part covers the region from the San Pass to the junction of Luo river and the Yellow River.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 132-142.  
    Abstract782)   HTML75)    PDF (7406KB)(332)      
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    The Mountain-Flood Canals on the Loess Plateau in Northern China and Water Conservancy Relation In-Between Villages: A Field Survey Centered on Tongzhi Pingyao Water Conservancy Map Tablet
    Zhang Junfeng
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 26-37.  
    Abstract273)   HTML35)    PDF (8341KB)(329)      

    Water conservancy map tablet is a special form of water conservancy materials. The spatial distribution of such tablets is quite dispersive though with a small amount overall. To some extent, the water conservancy monument reflects the history of a regional society, especially in areas where water resources are scarce. It is not only the epitomized expression of water right consciousness, but also the reflection of people's attitude towards water resources. It is also the result of people's consultation, negotiation, and confliction under water stress. Taking the water conservancy map tablets as clues, this paper further excavates the history of related people and events, with the aim to deepen and expand the existing social history researches of water conservancy. It will help to gain a deeper understanding of the role and influence of water in the historical changes of traditional Chinese rural society.

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    Discussions on Three Issues on the Administrative Regions in Henan Province in General History of Chinese Administrative Regions: The Sui Dynasty Volume
    Feng Bowen
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 143-146.  
    Abstract312)   HTML20)    PDF (1638KB)(326)      

    This paper discusses three flaws in General History of Chinese Administrative RegionsThe Sui Dynasty Volume. Yanyang county in Luozhou relocated its government in 598 and 605. The relations between Neimou county, Putian county and Jiacheng county in Zhengzhou is complicated because of the relocations of their government seats. The merger of Wenxiang conuty and Hucheng County in Shaanzhou in 596 was also accompanied by a government seat relocation.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 30-45.  
    Abstract291)   HTML36)    PDF (3791KB)(320)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 49-58.  
    Abstract266)   HTML52)    PDF (706KB)(319)      
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    The City Defense of Chang’an and the Establishment of the North Army in the Early Stage of Han Dynasty
    Luo Kai
    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (1): 58-67.  
    Abstract519)   HTML47)    PDF (2469KB)(310)      

    The North Army was the city defense force set up with the construction of Chang’an during the later period of the Emperor Hui’s reign, and was an important armed force in Han Dynasty. In the early stage of Han Dynasty, there were mainly two palaces lying in southern Chang’an and the leader of the palace defense army (Weiwei) was in charge of the palace defense issues. The city defense army could only be stationed in northern Chang’an. Accordingly, the palace defense army was known as the South Army and the city defense army was known as the North Army. Based on Law of the 2nd Year: the Payroll Law discovered on bamboo slips from Zhangjiashan, the chief officer of North Army was Guard General (Wei jiangjun). Secretary of Guard General (Wei jiangjun zhangshi), Chief Assistant (Houcheng), Chief Colonel (Xiaozhang) and lower-ranked civilian officers were also in the administrative system of North Army. At that time, Guard General was the only permanent General in the entire bureaucratic hierarchy of Han Dynasty. After Emperor Wen ascended the throne, Guard General obtained more power by taking command of the South Army in addition to the original North Army. After that, the North Army had been dismissed and reestablished for several times. The position of Gurad General was eventually abolished and the North Army became subordinates to the Imperial Guard Officer (Zhongwei).

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    To Annotate the Text of the Sushui Drainage Area and Reconstruct the River Courses and the Administrative Division Recorded in Shui Jing Zhu ( Notes to the Book of Rivers)
    Li Xiaojie, Huang Xuechao, Yang Xiaoyang, Yang Zhiyu, Gong Yingjun, Yan Weiguang
    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (1): 32-49.  
    Abstract629)   HTML68)    PDF (4498KB)(303)      

    Shui Jing Zhu(Notes to the Book of Rivers) is a well-known classic work from ancient China on geographical features arranged by river channels. It has considerable significance in studies on earlier changes of river channels and administrative divisions. In this paper, we study Commentary on Sushui River, the sixth volume of Shui Jing Zhu. Based on previous studies, we utilize related textural and archaeological evidences to conduct a comprehensive analysis on this volume. Components of our study include the collating on original texts, locating historical sources, and reconstructing the distribution of river channels and settlements. To intuitively visualize results of our study, we also generate a map that compares ancient features with modern ones.

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    Changes of the Distribution Pattern of the Xining-Lhasa Road (Qinghai Section) from the Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China: Analysis Based on Digitized Ancient Maps
    Li Zhende, Zhang Ping
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 120-132.  
    Abstract397)   HTML32)    PDF (12961KB)(301)      

    Against the background of modernization, the distribution pattern of roads in Qinghai changed significantly from the beginning of Qing Dynasty to the founding of People's Republic of China. The Xining-Lhasa road was the main line of the traffic network of Qinghai. The changes of the distribution pattern in modern times epitomize the road network distribution patterns of those in the history. Based on a set of old maps from 1935 in the National Library of China, the changing process of the distribution pattern of Xining-Lhasa road in Qinghai were restored. Three driving forces led to road network changes in modern Qinghai: the abolition of the postal system, which led to the collapse of the official road system in last Qing Dynasty, the new transportation system brought by new vehicles, and the developing activities in the period of Republic of China in Qinghai. The changes of the distribution pattern of Xining-Lhasa Road showed the road network pattern in ecologically vulnerable area was prone to the influences from ever changing human factors in the historical period. The restoration of modern roads based on richly surveyed map data was a preliminary work towards accurate restoration of ancient roads.

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    On Anyang and Seven Ancient Capitals: Letters to Zhang Zhi and Wang Shien
    Tan Qixiang (posthumously edited by Zou Yilin)
    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (1): 1-6.  
    Abstract605)   HTML79)    PDF (3081KB)(299)      

    Since Shang Dynasty, during which the earliest textural records emerged, capital cities of various dynasties have served as national centers of politics, economy and culture. Evolutions of planning and management of capital cities have been a significant aspect in the historical research, because they can reflect changes in economic and cultural characteristics in a corresponding period. More than ten cities were designated as the capital city of China at some points in the history. To address the representativeness of capital cities, in 1920s, the academia listed Xi’an, Luoyang, Beijing, Nanjing and Kaifeng as Five Ancient Capitals. Hangzhou was added to this list in 1930s, making the list into Six Ancient Capitals. In 1980s, Tan Qixiang proposed to add Anyang (known as Yin or Ye) to the list, which would turn the list into Seven Ancient Capitals. At that time, this proposal triggered intense discussions in the academia. It was eventually approved by the academia and became a consensus among mainstream historians. These three letters, presented here, were written in late 1980s. They were exchange letters addressing the proposal mentioned above between Tan Qixiang and local scholars in Anyang. Through these letters, we could also notice the professional attitude and scientific spirit that scholars in the earlier generation used to carry.

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