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    Eastern Main Road in the Sichuan Basin and the Vicissitude of the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”
    Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 1-17.  
    Abstract235)   HTML157)    PDF (869KB)(234)      

    During the Tang and Song Dynasties, two ancient highways were formed in the Sichuan Basin, known as the Northern and Southern Roads respectively. The Southern Road was less prominent. Yet, it was the predecessor of the Eastern Main Road in later times. Against the background that the political and economic center of the Sichuan Basin moved eastward and southward in Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chongqing ascended in importance and could rival Chengdu. The Eastern Main Road gradually took shape and flourished. In the Ming Dynasty, there were 12 post stations along the Eastern Main Road, which were largely inherited in the Qing Dynasty. Along the road were also a large number of shops and posts. The total mileage of the Eastern Main Road was about 1 000 li (500 meters) comprising in total of 10 stages, which would take 11 to 12 days to travel. The western section was often travelled by boat on the Tuojiang River. The Eastern Main Road took shape in the early Ming Dynasty. At the beginning, it was called the “Southeast road”, the “East Road of Sichuan”, or the “East road”. The name “Eastern Main Road” was formed in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. It has natural and cultural advantages such as connecting Chengdu and Chongqing, low terrain agriculture, abundant water resource, access to the rivers and sea, and close to the salt mines. It was the primary road in the Sichuan Basin and it gave birth to the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”. Since the 1990s, the status of “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt” has declined, but the strategy of “Chengdu-Chongqing Double-city Economic Circle” has brought opportunities for the revitalization of the ancient Eastern Main Road.

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    Overview of Westerners-drawn Beijing City Maps in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Cao Xinning, Yin Wenjuan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 104-123.  
    Abstract201)   HTML27)    PDF (46549KB)(89)      

    Diplomatic staff of the Western powers were permitted to reside in Beijing after 1860. The number of city maps of Beijing drawn by Westerners increased and their accuracy improved significantly. The types and uses of maps were also greatly enriched. This paper first systematically organizes the historical material of these maps, and then classifies them into three categories according to their uses and modes of publication. By taking the perspective of the history of cultural exchanges and using the method of textual analysis in literary studies, we look at these maps as a reflection of Sino-foreign relations in the late Qing Dynasty and the image of Beijing perceived by Westerners.

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    A Study on Dry and Wet Conditions in the Western Part of the Jianghuai Region During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Liu Yuqing, Chen Yexin
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 18-30.  
    Abstract184)   HTML141)    PDF (2792KB)(114)      

    In this paper, the historical data about drought and flood in the western part of the Jianghuai (江淮) region in Ming and Qing dynasties are sorted out, and quantified hierarchically by year and county. Then, by calculating the average grade value of drought and flood and the 10-year moving average value, the time series of dry-wet change in this area from 1450 to 1911 are reconstructed. The results show that there were six dry-wet phases in this area. From 1450 to 1490, the drought was mainly mild. From 1491 to 1545, drought and flood disasters occurred frequently, and the fluctuation of dry and wet climate was obvious. From 1546 to 1625, there were few droughts and floods, and the dry and wet conditions were relatively stable. From 1626 to 1710, moderate drought events were dominant, and the frequency of extreme drought events increased significantly. From 1711 to 1860, wetness dominated. From 1861 to 1911, dry-wet trend fluctuated and tended to be wet. Lakes in this region were also affected in dry and wet stages.

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    The Resurrection and Spreading of Caodong School(曹洞宗) During Northern Song Dynasty: Based on Furong Daokai's Activities
    Shen Guoguang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 138-152.  
    Abstract376)   HTML34)    PDF (4864KB)(175)      

    Abstract: In the middle and late Northern Song Dynasty, Caodong school as one of the Zen began to revive. Furong Daokai (芙蓉道楷) was a monk of importance in Caodong School (曹洞宗) during Northern Song Dynasty. This essay, based on the inscription of Daokai and relevant materials, restores Daokai's history of life and the basic process of his preaching Buddism. The region from Suizhou(随州) up north to the surroundings of Dongjing (东京) became a significant area for Daokai and his dharma heirs. Owing to Daokai's influence, his followers took up the positions of numerous famous monasteries and mountains, which was a turning point in the trend of Caodong School. Although Daokai was demoted when in Dongjing, this was due to his personal clash with Tan Zhen. Because of the relationship between Daokai and monks and laymen in Dongjing, Daokai's relegation exerted no negative influence on the promotion of Caodong School in Dongjing immediately. But in the long run, the monks from Dahongshang were no longer appointed abbots of the monasteries in Dongjing. The Caodong school lost the Dongjing as their preaching area, and turned to preach in south of the Yangtze River.

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    The Technological, Environmental and Political Elements Behind Institution: The Case Study of the Special Annual Repair Funds of Chai'tang During the Qing Dynasty
    Wang Daxue
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 22-33.  
    Abstract208)   HTML37)    PDF (2699KB)(129)      

    The large-scale reconstruct from Chai'tang (seawalls which built with firewoods) to Shi'tang (stone sewalls) in Zhejiang Province began with the fifth Southern Tour of the Qianlong Emperor. Qianlong hoped to achieve monumental feats through the Grand Canal engineering and seawall projects, so he ordered to wait for an opportunity to change the Chai'tang into Shi'tang, which need not rebuilt. He stressed that the Chai'tang should be used as the water tank and it need not paired annually as this practice violated the technical requirements of Shi'tang revetment project. Qianlong was well aware that if the indirect embankment protect works was still needed to be constructed and maintained for the new Shi'tang, it would undoubtedly show that his decision was wrong. When the courtiers talked about the need to build apron or repair the Chai'tang annually, which acted as an external protection for Shi'tang, his reaction was as follows: he repeatedly claimed that Chai'tang as an external protection for Shi'tang did not need to be repaired. He passed the blame for the decision-making mistakes on to the relevant courtiers, and vaguely or explicitly ordered the imperial commissioner to pass the responsibilities to local stakeholders. Even though the emperor tried his best to maintain that his decisions were correct, the objective technical requirements eventually convinced him to approve the special silver system of Chai'tang Annual Repairing, which also explained the initial decision was improper. The whole process shows that technology and environment often take a back seat to politics when it comes to the institutional issues of large public water projects in ancient times.The complexity of history is highlighted by the interweaving of institutional, technological, environmental and political factors.

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    The Operation of Yuze Reporting System in Counties in the Late Qing Dynasty: A Case Study Based on Xunhua Archives
    Liu Bingtao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 34-45.  
    Abstract202)   HTML22)    PDF (2837KB)(146)      

    In historical periods, Chinese emperors paid great attention to local precipitation and required local government to report precipitation to the central government regularly. This paper mainly uses the Xunhua (循化) archives to investigate the practice of Yuze (***) reporting system in counties in the late Qing Dynasty. There were reports every ten days and monthly ones. Both are required to record daily information including the weather condition, precipitation, begin-and-end time of rainfall. What's more, there was a special report to record rain in summer and snow in winter. It is an important guarantee to ensure the accuracy of Yuze (雨泽) reports to check the record format, time, clients and information of local government by sensior officials from prefectures, provinces, and ministries. In addition, the report from agrarian officials was also one of the sources of reports of rainfall and harvest.

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    New Study on the Administrative Rank of Prefectures in the Jin Dynasty
    Li Dahai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 65-78.  
    Abstract283)   HTML22)    PDF (2736KB)(132)      

    It's generally accepted in academia that the various prefectural governments, were divided, top-down, into capital prefecture, general prefecture and the third class Sanfu (散府) in the Jin Dynasty. This paper holds that, from the point of view of administrative division, the above division blurs the difference between the general office of administrative organization and the general prefecture's capital town. It also conceals the fact that “Jingfu” (the Capital prefecture) in Jin Shi and other documents refers not only to the capital prefecture Lu (诸京路). Depending on the administrative status of the authorities they host, the various prefectural governments can be divided into the capital prefecture Lu's town, general prefecture Lu's town and non-general prefecture Lu or third rank Sanfu's town. There is no direct correlation between the aforementioned order and the upper, middle and lower tier system, which is mainly composed of demographic factors, and they are independent from each other. It is helpful in understanding the actual practice of the administrative divisions in the Yuan Dynasty and revealing the great turning point of the development of the Lu system during Jin and Yuan Dynasties.

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    A Study of the Governance of Longxi, Beidi and Shang Commanderies in the Early Western Han Dynasty: Centered on the Rank of the Counties as Seen in the Statutes on Salaries ( Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips
    Ma Menglong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 16-30.  
    Abstract635)   HTML76)    PDF (3380KB)(313)      

    This paper compares the surviving and excavated documents and points out that the commandery’s capital county was the highest-ranking among the counties belonging to the same commandery in the Han Dynasty. Based on the rank and order of a commandery’s counties recorded in the Statutes on Salaries (Er Nian Lü Ling: Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips, we can analyze the governance of some commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty. According to the Statutes on Salaries, the capital of Longxi Commandery in the early Western Han Dynasty was Shangli County; Shang Commandery’s capital was Gaonu County, and the capital of Beidi Commandery was Panyang County. Besides, the capital of Hanzhong, Hedong, and Hainai Commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty can also be further inferred by the Statutes on Salaries. This document’s value in the study of capital counties in the early Western Han Dynasty needs to be emphasized.

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    An Analysis of the Classification of Counties Under the Official Rank System of the Liang Dynasty
    Yao Le
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 31-41.  
    Abstract248)   HTML35)    PDF (725KB)(120)      

    Analyzing the cases of selection and transfer of county officials in the Liang Dynasty (502-557 AD), the system can be characterized by the rules of “Counties divide into seven classes” and “Officials of large counties equal those at the sixth class” existed at that time. In the actual operation of the system, many county officials were employed below the proper class, i.e. it was common for the seniority of the county officials to exceed the rank of the county. The counties of high rank seen in the official history were all located within the territory of Yangzhou, Nanxuzhou, and mainly belonged to the prefectures of Danyang, Wu, Wuxing and Kuaiji, which were the heartland of the empire. This is not only a result of the bias of history books, but also a direct reflection of the political conditions in the above-mentioned areas. The most important factor influencing the official’s rank of each county is its population. Taking other factors into consideration, it is believed that the highest-ranking counties which were at the sixth class may have been classified by the criterion of having 5 000 households. The analysis of the rank of each county can also improve our knowledge of the population distribution at that time.

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    From Official Rank to Salary Rank: An Investigation on County Tiers in the Tang and Five Dynasties
    Luo Kai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 42-56.  
    Abstract290)   HTML33)    PDF (1043KB)(186)      

    Counties in Tang Dynasty were assigned into four, five, six, seven, eight, ten, etc. tiers according to household registration, official rank, salary rank, transfer order and other different standards. From a diachronic point of view, the county tiers were constantly increasing from six tiers in the early stage to ten tiers in the later stage. One exception was during the Tianbao years, the lowest tier of counties was cancelled. However, the designations of Wang (望), Jin (紧), Ci Chi (次赤) and Ci Ji (次畿) counties had no direct relationship with the number of registered permanent residents, but rather reflected more if the county was fertile or barren. Among them, the problem of Ci Chi county was particularly complicated, because it can be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses. However, a comprehensive analysis shows that the system of Ci Chi county had already appeared in the early years of Daizong Period at the latest. The salary rank formed from the late Daizong Period to the early Dezong Period had a new impact on the county tiers in the late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties. In Five Dynasties, the county tier was determined by the number of registered households, although different dynasties had different standards, either complicated or simple. In summary, in the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, the criteria for county tiers changed from official rank to salary rank.

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    Exploration and Analysis on the Criteria of County Tier Designation in Song Dynasty
    Qi Zitong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 57-66.  
    Abstract440)   HTML25)    PDF (803KB)(209)      

    The county system of Song Dynasty basically inherited that of Tang Dynasty, when counties were designated according to the double standards of “political status” and “registered residents”. However, it existed many differences in the county system between Tang and Song Dynasties, and the Later Zhou Dynasty played an important role in this historical evolution. In the Later Zhou Dynasty, Wang county and Jin county lost the qualification to be classified by “political status” but using registered household standard, which was inherited by Song Dynasty. Basically, it was influenced by the impact of Ci Chi county, Ci Ji county. In the early Song Dynasty, the counties under Fu (superior prefecture) were strictly classified according to their political statuses, which was in contrast with counties under Zhou (prefecture) in Later Zhou, designated by registered households. By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the clear-cut division pattern was broken that the counties subordinate to Ci Fu were classified according to the registered households. Also, the meanings of “registered household” was different between Tang and Song Dynasties. It meant the number of households in Tang Dynasty but the number of “main households” that paid two taxes in Song Dynasty. This was also impacted by the policies of Later Zhou Dynasty. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, the policy of county tier designation was dynamic. Till the late Northern Song Dynasty, it gave rise to the mismatch of counties with more registered households but lower county levels. Therefore, a practical solution of disparity between county tier and household registration was to raise the threshold of registered households.

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    New Analysis on the Ranking System of Counties During the Qing Dynasty
    Hu Heng
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 67-90.  
    Abstract361)   HTML40)    PDF (3852KB)(228)      

    The ranking system of counties first emerged during Yongzheng’s reign, and was generally founded in the 12th year of Qianlong. However, up to 124 adjustments of descriptions and ranks on counties ranks still occurred during the 12th and 43rd year of Qianlong, most of which happened on lower-ranked counties changing into a Zuiyao (most significant) or Yao (significant) ranked ones. In the 43rd year of Qianlong, a new regulation on standardized adjustments of descriptions and ranks was promulgated. Although implemented strictly, many exceptional adjustments were still allowed down to Daoguang’s reign. Changes to description hardly happened during the reigns of Xianfeng and Tongzhi, only to emerge again from the end of Guangxu’s reign to Xuantong’s reign. Provinces had different modes of county distribution, including anti core-edge distribution, core-edge double centered distribution, linear distribution along a river, coastline or transit lines, similar distribution to developed towns, etc. Fuguo(附郭)counties were generally ranked higher than others in 1911, except for only 48 cases non-conformative to the rule. Moreover, as Hunan province showcases, ranks of counties were not in accordance with commercial benefits for the county magistrate.

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    A Study on the Text of the Luo River in Notes on the Book of Rivers and Reconstruction of the River Courses and the Administrative Divisions (Ⅱ)
    Li Xiaojie, Yang Zhiyu, Huang Xuechao, Yang Xiaoyang, Zhao Hailong, Yuan Fang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 1-24.  
    Abstract429)   HTML110)    PDF (7069KB)(377)      

    Notes on the Book of Rivers, one of the masterpieces that focuses on describing rivers and records geographical elements in ancient China, is crucial for researching ancient rivers and changes in administrative divisions. Earlier studies on the Notes on the Book of Rivers mostly concentrated on the dissemination of its various versions or on the history of Li Xue, i.e., the study on the classics and its author Li Daoyuan. However, an intensive geographical examination on the text of Li’s notes per se is missing. On the basis of previous researches of related scholars, Luo River, described in the 15th volume of Notes on the Book of Rivers, is selected and analyzed in conjunction with historical documents and archaeological sources in this paper. Hopefully this paper will serve as a useful trial for the study on Li’s notes. Methodologically, it applies texts collation, historical source tracing, reconstruction of the river courses and administrative divisions, and so on. A reconstructed map with ancient-modern place names and a form with ancient-modern river names are also made to demonstrate the results of this study, which will be of convenience for researchers of the Notes on the Book of Rivers. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part has already been published. The second part covers the region from the San Pass to the junction of Luo river and the Yellow River.

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    Discussion on the Controversy of the Religion and Knowledge on An Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa
    Guo Man
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 105-116.  
    Abstract284)   HTML11)    PDF (1096KB)(395)      

    After the colonial rule of Dutch in Taiwan, the West’s concern for Taiwan has not been ended. On the contrary, there has always been a “Formosa complex”. In 1704, the publication of An Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa written by Psalmanazar, while satisfying the readers’ psychology, was also linked to serious religious and political issues, which led to Propriety Debates. Whether the author was a Taiwanese or not is always been confusing, the analysis of the differences between the different parties about this issue was not only reveals the spread of Taiwan’s knowledge in Europe in the early 18th century, but also the different attitudes of diverse countries to knowledge in different religious beliefs.

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    The Formation, Characteristics and Historical-Geographical Value of City Construction Inscriptions in the Northwest China of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Zhang Ping
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (1): 67-79.  
    Abstract284)   HTML32)    PDF (873KB)(218)      

    According to incomplete statistics, there are about 269 city construction inscriptions in Northwest China of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Among them, 32 original stelae still exist in the world, which are valuable first-hand materials for studying the history of cities. The city construction inscriptions of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai provinces are most distinctive among this type of inscriptions of the Ming dynasty, which retain a large number of Weisuo (military garrison units) and fortress building inscriptions. The state and county inscriptions mostly have several periods of successive records of city expansion, which are the overall narration of the expansion of city walls. Among all the contents of inscriptions, the state and county related are the most numerous, and the number of Weisuo and fortresses account for a certain proportion. Some other cities, such as post towns, fortress towns, are also preserved, even though the cases are very rare. As the first-hand materials, these inscriptions contain details of the process of city building, the time spent on the project, the amount of silver spent, and the number of donors, etc. These inscriptions are of great historical value for textual research on ancient city-building process, system restoration, social classes, and the expansion of urban functions and forms.

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    A Research on the Temporospatial Changes of Modern Inland Harbors Opening to Steamship in Yangtze River: Based on Inland Places Open to Steam Navigation under I.W.S.N. Rules
    Cheng Jun
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 119-131.  
    Abstract454)   HTML28)    PDF (5399KB)(441)      

    After the Inland Waters Steam Navigation Rules was promulgated by the Qing government in 1898, the inland shipping along the Yangtze River underwent a sudden growth. By 1929, there were more than 418 inland harbors opening to steamship in Yangtze river basin. In terms of distribution, the inner harbors open to steam ships in the Yangtze River basin are spatially concentrated in the lower reaches, less in the middle reaches, and very rare in the upper reaches. In terms of temporal changes, the inland harbors opening to steamship spreaded from lower reaches to upper reaches, and from trunk stream to tributaries. The trend of time and space changes of inner harbor reflects the development of the modern shipping industry in the Yangtze river basin.

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    Deng Chengxiu and the Qing-France Negotiations: A Brief Introduction to the Maps and Treaty on the Boundary Between Guangxi Province and Vietnam Collected in the Taipei Palace Museum
    Chen Weixin
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 15-28.  
    Abstract293)   HTML30)    PDF (919KB)(436)      

    International boundary demarcation is a trouble-causing problem between countries. Before the middle Qing Dynasty, Vietnam was regarded as a vassal state of the Qing empire, thus the boundary demarcation between two governments had not been conducted, and the southwest boundary of the Qing empire was not clearly defined. After the Sino-French war (1883—1885), the Qing and French governments concluded on the Ten Treaties Between Qing and French Government on Vietnam, which ended the vassal relationship between Vietnam and the Qing, thus giving rise to the discussion over the related demarcation issues. In the 11th year of the Guangxu Reign (1885), the Qing government sent Deng Chengxiu to negotiate with French officials on demarcation issues. After long lasting seesaw debates, the two governments finally signed the boundary treaty and drew the boundary maps. The treaty, boundary maps and related files signed by Deng Chengxiu and French officials collected in the Taipei Palace Museum are important materials for the recovery of the boundary negotiations.

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    Studies on the Changes of the Yunnan-Burma Border in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Dong Jiayu, Yang Weibing
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 29-46.  
    Abstract696)   HTML48)    PDF (1791KB)(477)      

    Negotiations over the demarcation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty was an important stage of China-Burma border changes in modern times. With the help of diplomatic archives, treaties and maps, this paper makes a detailed restoration of the process of delimitation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the Sino-British negotiations. The signing of Convention Giving Effect to Article Ⅲ of the Convention Relative to Burma and Thibet between China and Great Britain and Agreement Modifying the Burma-China Frontier and Trade Convention between China and Great Britain during the reign of Guangxu basically delineated the middle section of Yunnan-Burma border. The contradiction in the geographical cognition of the “watershed” between China and Britain had an important impact on the negotiation of the undefined boundary in the north of Jiangao Mountain. As a result, China had actually lost the territorial sovereignty of Xiaojiang River Basin north of the Jiangao Mountain and west of Balada-Gaolianggong Mountains. In the southern section of the undefined boundary, China and Britain have many disagreements over the basis of the boundary survey, and it was difficult to reach a consensus. The results of the Sino-British negotiations over the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty basically shaped the course of the Sino-Myanmar border, and had an important impact on the border negotiations and final delineation between China and Myanmar in the Republic of China period and the 1960s.

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    Local Governance and Conflicting Interests: A Research on Demarcation Disputes Between Shaanxi and Suiyuan in the Early Years of the Republic of China
    Wang Han
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 83-99.  
    Abstract321)   HTML19)    PDF (1299KB)(296)      

    The demarcation of Shaanxi and Suiyuan was an important political event in the adjustments of northwestern provincial boundaries in the early years of the Republic of China. In the course of the whole incident, from the central government and local governments at different levels in Shaanxi and Suiyuan, down to the Ikechao League princes and the local gentry in the disputed areas, the stake-holders made varying appeals from such as the perspectives of national decrees, border security, economic interests in the disputed areas, and decision-making power in grassroots social affairs, to to ask for their own interests. On the border of Mongolia and Shaanxi, the gentry owned the land in the disputed area through the land subscription in the end of Qing Dynasty. The core issue of the demarcation dispute is whether these ownership was still recognized in a new dynasty. In the process of disputes, which lasted for nearly eight years, the central government and local governments, local governments and local governments (both Shaanxi and Suiyuan), local forces and two levels of government competed for their own interests. In the end, the central government gave way to the fait accompli of the Shaanxi side, so the immigrants would not retreat. The local governments and gentry along the border in northern Shaanxi used their prestige and appealed to publicize and guide the people in the disputed area, formed a community of interests, and maintained the “legitimateness” of the right to speak in local social affairs.

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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 1-22.  
    Abstract796)   HTML105)    PDF (5588KB)(887)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 132-142.  
    Abstract993)   HTML84)    PDF (7406KB)(557)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 70-85.  
    Abstract464)   HTML72)    PDF (1408KB)(472)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (3): 99-113.  
    Abstract515)   HTML61)    PDF (20260KB)(190)      
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    Study on Human Activities and Environmental Effects in the Upper Reaches of Lijiang River During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Liu Xiangxue
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 12-14.  
    Abstract377)   HTML45)    PDF (4167KB)(389)      

    The formation of sandbanks in the Lijiang River was a result of the interactions between natural environment and human activities. Since the Ming and Qing dynasties, people continuously flowed into the upper reaches of the Lijiang River to engage in agricultural work and land reclamation. They also reshaped the natural environment of the mountainous upstream area. The soil unearthed left from agricultural work and those carried by rainwater were then swept out into the Lijiang River, resulted in sediment, which accelerated the formation and development of sandbank, and shaped the appearance of the Lijiang river bed in Guilin city. The settlements were also transferred from the sandbars to sandbanks. The relationship between man and land in Lijiang River basin changed as thus.

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    The Mountain-Flood Canals on the Loess Plateau in Northern China and Water Conservancy Relation In-Between Villages: A Field Survey Centered on Tongzhi Pingyao Water Conservancy Map Tablet
    Zhang Junfeng
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 26-37.  
    Abstract314)   HTML38)    PDF (8341KB)(385)      

    Water conservancy map tablet is a special form of water conservancy materials. The spatial distribution of such tablets is quite dispersive though with a small amount overall. To some extent, the water conservancy monument reflects the history of a regional society, especially in areas where water resources are scarce. It is not only the epitomized expression of water right consciousness, but also the reflection of people's attitude towards water resources. It is also the result of people's consultation, negotiation, and confliction under water stress. Taking the water conservancy map tablets as clues, this paper further excavates the history of related people and events, with the aim to deepen and expand the existing social history researches of water conservancy. It will help to gain a deeper understanding of the role and influence of water in the historical changes of traditional Chinese rural society.

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    Traditional Technology, Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Adaptation: A Case Study of the Huainan Salt Industry During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Bao Junlin
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 38-51.  
    Abstract351)   HTML46)    PDF (4179KB)(319)      

    The evolution of traditional technology has complex socio-economic and environmental backgrounds. This paper aims to reveal the complexity of the evolution mechanism of sea salt production technology in ancient China, by discussing the development process of salt-making technology in Huainan saltworks and the influence of key restricting factors. In the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, methodologically, traditional decocted salt production of the sea saltworks in China were replaced with solar-salt production, while the traditional decocted salt way was kept in the Huainan saltworks of Jiangsu Province until early 20th century. This was a special phenomenon in the economic history of China's sea salt industry. It was due to sandy soil and less than 500 mm net evaporation in the central and southern Jiangsu coast, which limited the development of large-scale solar-salt production in this region. The policy support on marketing management policy made the Huainan traditional decocted salt production more consolidated in Qing Dynasty, and further restricted technological innovation. This study provides an example for the comparative study of pre-industrial technological evolution, and reflects the mechanism of indigenous technology development and local adaptability.

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    Studies and Writings on the History and Geography of Northwest China by Qing Scholars
    Shi Nianhai, Wang Shuanghuai
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 1-17.  
    Abstract660)   HTML2535)    PDF (25226KB)(1043)      

    After the outbreak of the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression in 1937, borderland issues became increasingly serious. Shi Nianhai and his tutor Gu Jiegang were concerned with the historical material of China's borderland issues, especially those of northwest China. They examined voluminous historical materials to write this article, so as to reveal the process of formation and historical variations of China's frontier, and to bolster the national spirit against Japanese aggression. Shi thought that as early as the period of Qianlong and Jiaqing of the Qing dynasty, scholars had studied the history and geography of northwest China. After that period, instability of the northeast borderland attracted the attention of even more scholars. They collected documents, wrote monographs, and recorded the imperial court's military attainments in the northwest as well as its conducts in frontier affairs with Russia. Their works are still of great value.

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    A Study on the Water Management Officials in the Tang and Five Dynasties as Seen in the Dunhuang Manuscripts
    Li Bingcheng
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 109-119.  
    Abstract250)   HTML40)    PDF (2210KB)(324)      

    Many records are preserved in the Dunhuang Manuscripts concerning the hierarchy of officials in local water resources departments and their duties in the Tang and Five Dynasties. The Highest-ranking official was Dushuiling in Early Tang dynasty, whose job was to manage all the irrigation canals in Dunhuang. Shuiguan and Irrigation Supervisory Institutions were set up during the period of Tubo domination. By the time of Guiyi Troop in Late Tang and Five Dynasties, the irrigation organization was established. The senior official was called Duquboshi, who has several subordinates named Shuiguan. On the edges of Dunhuang Oasis and in the irrigation area of Shouchang, many positions were set for Pingshui, and their job was to fairly allocate water resource for the people. There were also Qutou (Ditch officers)appointed for each irrigation canal and Doumenzhang for each sluice gate. Different ranks of officials in this water resources system coordinated and collaborated with each other to guarantee smooth operation of the farmland irrigating work. At the same time, civil organizations such as the Quren Community were formed, which served as a useful supplement to the irrigation management system in Dunhuang. Study on this water management system in the history is enlightening for governing and managing the rivers and lakes today as it provides a reference for today's River Chief System.

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    A Geographic Study of Epidemic Disasters in the Jiangnan Area in China (1912-1949)
    Gong Shengsheng, Shi Guoning, Li Zimo
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 18-30.  
    Abstract533)   HTML69)    PDF (13077KB)(400)      

    Epidemics have always been a great threat to people's health and life security throughout history. To analyze the temporal and spatial variation of epidemic disasters that occurred in the Jiangnan area during 1912-1949, we compiled a list of the epidemic data, and made use of different methods such as historical document review, mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis. The results show that: (1)The incidence rate of epidemics was 100% annually and 94.70% quarterly in the time interval. Autumn, summer and spring were usually epidemic seasons, especially in the autumn and summer time. The affected area enlarged year by year, but the fluctuation curve reflected that there were 6 peaks in 38 years. Considering a longer period, i.e. from the Ming Dynasty to the establishment of the People's Republic of China (582 years in total), the return period of epidemic disasters gradually shortened and the number of affected counties increased. It indicates that the epidemic severity in the study period was the highest in the Jiangnan's history. (2)The affected area of epidemics basically spreaded along the Grand Canal and the Nanjing-Shanghai-Hangzhou railway, and the area to their east. Suzhou-Wuxi area and a section of Shanghai adjacent to Suzhou were the hot spots of epidemic disasters, while the mountainous area of Western Zhejiang Province was rarely affected. (3)The general characteristics of epidemic disaster's distributions during 1912-1949 in the Jiangnan area indicate that the hot spots were usually the regions along transportation lines, with a higher population density, or lately suffered severe floods or droughts. Moreover, epidemics spread in plain areas more often and severe than in mountainous areas.

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    Dialectical Feedbacks of Disaster, Environment, and Charity: Case Study of Rural Social Security System Establishment in Zhili Province During the Reign of Emperor Qianlong
    Wang Daxue
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 31-43.  
    Abstract422)   HTML50)    PDF (3354KB)(628)      

    The reason caused Emperor Qianlong to establish a system of local public welfare granary was the failure of his grain policy. Unsatisfied with the Ever-Normal Granary System or the Community Granary System, he wanted to set up a Public Granary System to attract local storage of grain. The transition from dependence upon official granaries to civil granaries reflected Emperor Qianlong's policy being tightened. His method was to educate people rather than nourish people. Stability of the Zhili (the area surrounding the capital) Province was the priority to Emperor Qianlong and the Public Granary System brought out a good match between relief and regulation for him. Under the broader background of abolishing the Liuyang Zisong policy, the Public Granary System could bring a stable environment because it would reduce the number of refugees staying in the capital city. The setup of Liuyang Ju System meant a compromise and concession to reality for Emperor Qianlong. The distribution of Liuyang Ju was determined by accessibility and physical environment conditions. Overall, the scenario of policy shifts in the 13th year of Qianlong's reign and the establishment of the Public Granary System and the Liuyang Ju System in Zhili Province were the dialectical effects of disaster, environment, and charity taken together.

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    Multiple Perspectives on Document and Fieldwork: Studies on the Investigation of the Location of Counties in the Middle Ages Using Changzhou and Jingnan as Examples
    Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (1): 96-108.  
    Abstract427)   HTML46)    PDF (2517KB)(451)      

    Taking the change of location of the capital of Changzhou prefecture and administrative area of the Jingnan county in Tang dynasty as examples, this study points out that researchers should make use of historical documents from multiple perspectives in locating counties in the Middle Ages. We find that the position of Jingnan county in Tang dynasty is at the Taihe dam of Zhangjia dam, in Gaosheng town of Dazu county, which was called Jingnan dam and 50 miles west of Dazu county, other than Longshui town or Sanxi town in Dazu counry. The capital of Changzhou prefecture was firstly set in Changyuan county in 758, and then to Rongchang county in 769, and eventually in Jingnan county in 892. We also find that in order to ensure the reliability of research, one must make use of local historical memory, actual geographical situation and cultural relics to correct historical documents, because historical researches are prone to four types of inaccuracies, namely the sensibility of mileage calculation, the rigidity of azimuth coordinates, the fuzziness of azimuth direction and the obvious simplification and derivation in geographical cognition of historical documents.

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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 1-5.  
    Abstract463)   HTML65)    PDF (5541KB)(431)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 115-134.  
    Abstract590)   HTML55)    PDF (4817KB)(455)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 58-71.  
    Abstract392)   HTML43)    PDF (2994KB)(490)      
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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 83-94.  
    Abstract583)   HTML69)    PDF (4303KB)(390)      
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    On Anyang and Seven Ancient Capitals: Letters to Zhang Zhi and Wang Shien
    Tan Qixiang (posthumously edited by Zou Yilin)
    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (1): 1-6.  
    Abstract707)   HTML88)    PDF (3081KB)(322)      

    Since Shang Dynasty, during which the earliest textural records emerged, capital cities of various dynasties have served as national centers of politics, economy and culture. Evolutions of planning and management of capital cities have been a significant aspect in the historical research, because they can reflect changes in economic and cultural characteristics in a corresponding period. More than ten cities were designated as the capital city of China at some points in the history. To address the representativeness of capital cities, in 1920s, the academia listed Xi’an, Luoyang, Beijing, Nanjing and Kaifeng as Five Ancient Capitals. Hangzhou was added to this list in 1930s, making the list into Six Ancient Capitals. In 1980s, Tan Qixiang proposed to add Anyang (known as Yin or Ye) to the list, which would turn the list into Seven Ancient Capitals. At that time, this proposal triggered intense discussions in the academia. It was eventually approved by the academia and became a consensus among mainstream historians. These three letters, presented here, were written in late 1980s. They were exchange letters addressing the proposal mentioned above between Tan Qixiang and local scholars in Anyang. Through these letters, we could also notice the professional attitude and scientific spirit that scholars in the earlier generation used to carry.

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    To Annotate the Text of the Sushui Drainage Area and Reconstruct the River Courses and the Administrative Division Recorded in Shui Jing Zhu ( Notes to the Book of Rivers)
    Li Xiaojie, Huang Xuechao, Yang Xiaoyang, Yang Zhiyu, Gong Yingjun, Yan Weiguang
    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (1): 32-49.  
    Abstract711)   HTML75)    PDF (4498KB)(327)      

    Shui Jing Zhu(Notes to the Book of Rivers) is a well-known classic work from ancient China on geographical features arranged by river channels. It has considerable significance in studies on earlier changes of river channels and administrative divisions. In this paper, we study Commentary on Sushui River, the sixth volume of Shui Jing Zhu. Based on previous studies, we utilize related textural and archaeological evidences to conduct a comprehensive analysis on this volume. Components of our study include the collating on original texts, locating historical sources, and reconstructing the distribution of river channels and settlements. To intuitively visualize results of our study, we also generate a map that compares ancient features with modern ones.

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    Changes of the River System Structure and Water Environment in the Convergence Region of Yellow River, Huai River and Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty
    Wang Jiange
    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (1): 7-25.  
    Abstract704)   HTML93)    PDF (4535KB)(441)      

    The region where Yellow and Huai Rivers met the Grand Canal became a key location for water regulation because of the opening of Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty. Regulation procedures implemented by the government, aiming to keep the Grand Canal unimpeded to navigation, facilitated the evolution of river system structures and water regimen. In early Ming Dynasty, the configuration of river channels was similar to that in Yuan Dynasty, following a pattern of parallel flows with interchangeable main and tributary channels. As the Grand Canal, Huai River and Yellow River were under regulation, and especially as levees were constructed, channels of Yellow River went through a concentration process. They firstly merged from a regional network pattern into a linear pattern, and then continued converging towards a point at Qingkou. The first stage of this process was the abandonment of the northern branch of Yellow River, while the second stage was lining the Xu-Pi segment of Yellow River up with the upper stream. After flow directions of channels were fixed into the Xu-Pi segment, most levee failure events during the Reign of Jiajing Emperor occurred upstream to Xuzhou, but after the 44th year of Reign of Jiajing Emperor, most of such events occurred downstream to Xuzhou. The channel regulation near where Yellow River and Grand Canal meet started with a broader, fan-shaped target region extended from south to north, and then reduced to the southern half of the fan-shaped region, and then concentrated to a linear belt and eventually to Qingkou. The regulation generally served for maintaining the navigational condition of channels. From a regional channel network to a point, or from a broader region to a smaller region and eventually to a single point, such kind of engineering process marked the characteristic of how Ming Dynasty conducted hydrological regulation projects in the region where Yellow and Huai Rivers met the Grand Canal. This hydrological regulation process that follows the change of water environment accordingly fully reflected the wisdom of ancient people in utilizing the aquatic environment on a large regional scale. It has remarkable ecological characteristics.

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