Table of Content

    20 February 2022, Volume 42 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Supplementary Study on Further Textual Research on Tang-Dynasty Provisional Prefectures and Provisional Counties
    Hu Axiang, Lei Xinghe
    2022, 42 (1):  1-16. 
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    Provisional prefectures and provisional counties in the Tang Dynasty consist of a special form of administrative division that derived from regular prefectures and counties with their governing centers locatedelsewhere. Based on Shengbo Guo’s study and my own textual research, the Tang court set up at least 37 provisional prefectures and 42 provisional counties, especially in the early and mid-late period of the dynasty, and many of them were in Jiannan, Guannei, Hebei and Longyou Circuits (Dao). These provisional prefectures and provisional counties were set up in strategic sites, indicating their political and military value. Setting up provisional administrative units inside regular administrative divisions would create frictions on local governance. The provisional units led by indigenous leaders may undermine the imperial court’s influence on the frontier region and hence impede their developments into regular administrative units. The dislocation of provisional administrative units could also create misunderstandings on toponyms. These are all negative effects of the Tang-dynasty provisional prefectures and provisional counties.

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    Research on Qinzhou’s Migration and Governance Affairs in Tang and Song Dynasties
    Meng Zhangwang, Chen Qiliu
    2022, 42 (1):  17-24. 
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    Qinzhou got its name in the 18th year of Emperor Kaihuang in the Sui Dynasty. During Tang Dynasty, it was either named Qinzhou or Ningyue Prefecture. Since Song Dynasty till today, Qinzhou’s name has not changed. Throughout the historical-geographic evolutions of Qinzhou, there have been four administrative seats, namely Qinjiang, Lingshan, Nanbin, and Anyuan, with three movements took place during Tang and Song dynasties. There are nearly ten different viewpoints in historical records on those three movements of Qinzhou’s seat of governance. Through differentiating and analyzing the different statements, it could be inferred that between the first year of Tianbao in Tang Dynasty and the fifth year of Kaibao of Song Dynasty, Qinzhou moved from Qinjiang County to Lingshan County, and its seat was Jiuzhou Town in Lingshan County. In the first year of Tiansheng in Song Dynasty, it moved from Lingshan County to Nanbinzhai, where it was located in Lingcheng Town of Lingshan County. In the sixth year of Jiayou in Song Dynasty, it moved from Nanbinzhai to Anyuan County, which was the Qinzhou City today.

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    Research on Selection Mechanism of Bingbei Dao’s Station in Ming Dynasty, Taking Chengui Bingbei Dao as an Example
    Zhao Wentao
    2022, 42 (1):  25-34. 
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    The Bingbei Dao was set up to pacify turmoils in Ming Dynasty. It is of obvious military characteristics. After the mid-Ming, the Ming court made Bingbei Dao to merge with Shouxun Dao so as to strengthen its control over the provinces. This move resulted the Bingbei Dao gaining civil administrative and supervising responsibilities. At present, historians tend to attribute Bingbei Dao station’s strategic location to its military function. It is however a misreading and has ignored the fact that essentially the Bingbei Dao is not simply a military unit, but also an important category of government organizations. Taking the Chengui Bingbei Dao as an example, this article aims to work out the process from its establishment to merger with the Shanghunan Dao in the period of Jiajing, and then to the period of Wanli when its station was determined. It could be seen that the selection of Bingbei Dao’s station is part and parcel of the governing strategy of the Ming court. As the strategy changed, both the expansion of Bingbei Dao’s responsibilities and the interplay between provincial governors exerted influences on determining Chengui Bingbei Dao’s station.

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    Changes of the Jurisdiction and Authorities of the Nan Gan Governor During the Middle and Late Ming Dynasty
    Ruan Ge
    2022, 42 (1):  35-47. 
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    During the Hongzhi reign of Ming Dynasty, the central government set up the Nan Gan Governor to strengthen its management of the Nanling Mountainous Area. The Nan Gan Governor was allocated a vast area encompassing four provinces under its jurisdiction. While it seemed that the jurisdiction of the Nan Gan Governor was vast, its actual authority of office was rather limited by the central government and, consequently, its administration often hindered. At the end of the Jiajing reign, in order to strengthen its governance and expand its jurisdiction area, Nan Gan Governor proposed to set up a new county in neighboring Guangdong province and transfer it to Ganzhou-fu, Jiangxi Province. This action immediately aroused the collective opposition of Guangdong officials. After that, the two sides competed for the establishment of Pingyuan County. Focusing on the dispute over the establishment of counties, this paper discusses the evolution of the governor’s jurisdiction and authorities by combing various efforts from the Nan Gan Governor in order to break the governance dilemma in the middle and late Ming Dynasty.

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    Planning of New District and Separation of Religion from Politics:the Arrangement of Heicuo County (1943-1945)
    Wang Zhitong
    2022, 42 (1):  48-62. 
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    Heicuo was a township under Xiahe County of Gansu Province during the period of Nationalist Government. During the Anti-Japanese War, the Gansu Provincial Government proposed to set up a new administration division out of the territory of Xiahe, Lintan and Zhuoni counties and sent staff to Gannan (southern Gansu,甘南) three times successively to do field survey for the new administration region. The area, however, has a complex political and religious systems, diverse ethnic and religious cultures and indented administrative boundaries. The idea was not only about dividing the old and establishing a new administrative area, but also promoting the separation of the religion from politics in the new county, signifying the modern turn of the frontier governance strategy. However, the officials’ idea of planning and pushing forward the adjustment of administrative districts had been met with unanimous opposition from the natives, who expressed their voices through various strategies. Coupled with the fiscal difficulties during the Anti-Japanese War and the officials’ fear of local turmoil, the administrative setup of Heicuo was eventually aborted. This case indicates that the alteration of administrative divisions in the borderland needs to take local cultural factors into full consideration.

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    Spatial-Temporal Distribution and Transformation Characteristics of Administrative Divisions in the 19th Century Vietnam
    Han Zhoujing
    2022, 42 (1):  63-72. 
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    The Nguyên court’s reform in the 19th Century led to changes in the temporal and spatial distribution of administrative divisions in Vietnam. The number of administrative divisions reached its peak in 1840, among which the number of high-level administrative districts was most stable, whereas the number of administrative districts at the county and county-level changed dramatically. Quantitative change has affected the density of administrative divisions, as do their jurisdiction ranges, and alleviated the imbalance in administrative divisions between highland and lowland regions. The Gia Long reform was characterized by downplaying the military functions of administrative division, while the Minh Mbng reform was characterized by the introduction and localization of the provincial system from the Qing Dynasty. After that, the Nguyên court implemented no further large-scale reform, except for slight adjustments.

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    The Operation of the Quota System in Qing Dynasty: Focus on Ting, Feixian, Sub-Counties and Sub-Prefectures
    Liang Zhiping
    2022, 42 (1):  73-89. 
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    In the Qing Dynasty, the imperial examinations were carried out through schools. The allocation of the quota was also the allocation of the state’s political resources and power in county-level administrative regions. There were various local administrative divisions, including not only prefectures and counties, but also Ting, Feixian (abolished county), sub-counties and sub-prefectures. However, according to the regulation, non-prefecture or non-county area was not allowed to set up schools. Through statistics and case analysis, this paper points out that in order to ensure a certain number of grassroots gentlemen and to reduce the over quota in different regions, a modified policy of establishing schools at the level of Ting and townships in former Feixian, as well as sub-counties and sub-prefectures, was adopted. To conclude, the Quota System seemed to be rigid but flexible in operation at the local level. Through appropriate adaptations, the effective distribution of national political resources and power in local areas was ensured.

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    Institutional Development and Spatio-Temporal Evolution of “The Post in Yanzhang Land” in Qing Dynasty
    Dai Longhui
    2022, 42 (1):  90-103. 
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    In response to the special natural environment of the Frontier Yanzhang Land and Frontier governance needs, the Qing court created “The Post in Yanzhang Land” in the Kangxi period, according to the institutional principles of “Governor’s nomination” and “promotion priority” and taking into consideration of the “mutual adaption between officers and the frontier areas” in selecting officials to serve in the Yanzhang Land. The Posts in Yanzhang Land were mainly located in Frontier areas with the poor water and soil resources. In the process of deepening Frontier governance, unique spatial and temporal distribution characteristics are formed according to the characteristics of each region: Guangxi presents dual governance structure, which is the prelude and foundation of governance integration process; whereas in Yunnan the trend of distribution is along the border, which is the guarantee for the central administrative power to promote to the border. Hainan’s is a circular gradient distribution, which is a manifestation of national governance in response to the insular environment. From the perspective of officials to protect the Frontier Yanzhang Land governance system, the creation of The Post in Yanzhang Land enhanced local governance capacity.

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    A Geographic Study of Epidemic Disasters During Qianlong’s Reign (1736-1795) in Qing Dynasty
    Li Zimo
    2022, 42 (1):  104-115. 
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    The Qing Dynasty was the peak of epidemics in Chinese history, and the Qianlong era was one of the important periods. The study achieves several results. (1) There were 58 years out of the entire Qianlong era recorded with epidemic disasters, which produces a frequency of 96.67%. Among the disasters, three large-scale epidemics in 1748, 1756 and 1786 were superimposed to form a fluctuating upward epidemic trend. Epidemics mainly took place in summer, followed by spring and autumn, and much less in winter. (2) At the provincial level, there were two separate zones of high epidemic index in the South and the North, and the epidemic index gradually increased from West to East. Jiangsu Province (including Shanghai) was the most badly affected. At the county level, the distribution of epidemic disasters had stage characteristics, and the scope of affected areas was expanding. The distribution pattern of epidemic disasters has the characteristics of agglomeration, and its degree tends to increase. It also has regional variance, but the epicenter is always in the South (3) The distribution pattern of epidemic disaster during the Qianlong era correlates with population distribution pattern, regional development intensity and natural disasters, which shows a significant positive correlation with epidemic disaster intensity at provincial level, with R values of 0.886, 0.664 and 0.685 respectively (P=0.01).

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    Textual Research on the Old Map of Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu Collected in Germany Library
    Sun Jingchao
    2022, 42 (1):  116-128. 
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    The old map Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu collected in Germany library, showing mountain peaks, rivers, lakes, settlements, traffic lines and so on, is a valuable historical material. The map was drawn under the background of immigration and reclamation in the eastern Jilin Province in the late Qing Dynasty. It reflected the regional development in the frontier crisis. By interpreting the features on the piece of map, combining with the historical background outside of the map, it is helpful to understand the historical process of Jilin border area in the late Qing Dynasty.

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    Three Corrections to the Qinfeng Lu Map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China
    Yuan Fang
    2022, 42 (1):  129-134. 
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    There are two places in the Qinfeng Lu map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China that had been mistakenly placed, and one missing from the map. Laiyuan Zhai is in fact located in Donghanping, to southwest of Peijiazhuang, Luomen Town, Wushan County, Tianshui City, rather than Yuanhe Village, Mali Town. Weiyuan Zhai is not Zhenxing Fortress in Tan’ge Town, but near Liaoyang Village and Waner Village in Luomen Town. Meanwhile, Daluomen Zhai is located along the Da’nan River in the north of Simen Town. The three forts, Laiyuan, Daluomen and Weiyuan, jointly controlled the Luomen Valley and were vital to the defense of the Weihe River valley in the west of Qinzhou.

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    Two Mistakes on the Map of Earlier Yuan Dynasty from The Historical Atlas of China
    Zhang Wenming
    2022, 42 (1):  135-137. 
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    In The Historical Atlas of China, the earlier map of Yuan Dynasty is drawn in accordance with the administrative divisions in the seventeenth year of the Zhiyuan Period. However, it turns out that the historical evidence doesn’t support the existence of “Kai Cheng Fu” and “Jing Nan Lu”. As a matter of fact, “Kai Cheng Lu” and “Jiang Ling Lu” are their respective accurate names.

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    Incorrect Name of the Military Station “Edala Wei” in The Historical Atlas of China
    Xia Boyu
    2022, 42 (1):  138-139. 
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    There is an incorrect place name in the map “Nurgan Regional Military Commission” in the seventh volume of The Historical Atlas of China, edited by Tan Qixiang that has not been corrected so far. “The Historical Atlas of China Northeast Region Source Literature Compilation” and “The Historical Atlas of China Notes and Interpretations of Northeast Region Volume” also lack the explanation of the origin and positioning of the “Edala Wei”. Based on literature research, it is concluded that “Edala Wei” should have been “Dalahe Wei”. This analysis and clarification on the mistake of “Edala Wei” could provide a reference for related researches.

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    Four New Textual Researches on the Boundaries and Administrative Centers of Qing Dynasty Yunnan Map in The Historical Atlas of China
    Shen Kaxiang
    2022, 42 (1):  140-147. 
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    On the basis of literature critique and field surveys, this paper shows there are several errors in the drawing of some prefecture boundaries and administrative centers in the Yunnan Map in the Qing Dynasty volune of The Historical Atlas of China. Among them, the drawing of the Southern boundary between Yongchang Fu and Shunning Fu, and the prefecture boundary between Shunning Fu and Jingdong Zhili Ting were all incorrect. The locations of administrative centers of Langqu Tuzhou and Nandian Tusi were also incorrect and need to be corrected.

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