Table of Content

    20 February 2023, Volume 43 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Evolution of Lake Distribution and Drainage Pattern in the Lixia River Plain (1570-1938)
    Yang Xiao
    2023, 43 (1):  1-10. 
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    The Lixia River Plain, consisting of a great number of small lakes and swamps, spread widely in the north of Jiangsu Province in history. After 1570, the flood of Huaihe River entering Lixia River Plain continued to increase, which caused great changes in the distribution of lakes and drainage pattern in the region. After 1596, the flood from the Jinghe River and the Ziyinggou River entered into the Guangyang Lake, and then flowed through the Sheyang Lake into the sea. The waters in the southeast of Gaoyou all converge in the Luyang Lake. After 1681, due to the southward shift of the Guihai Dams, floods converged in the middle of the Lixia River Plain and overflowed from the south to the north. As a result, the Dazong Lake and other lakes were connected and merged as a whole. Due to the decrease of flood, the Guangyang Lake was divided into several scattered lakes. Whether the Guihai Dams were opened or not, it would directly affect the hydrological environment of the Lixia River Plain, and thus form two completely different lake distribution and drainage patterns in the flood period and normal period.

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    Drought and Climatic Background in the Yangtze River Delta in the 46th Year of Kangxi Period in Qing Dynasty
    Niu Lang
    2023, 43 (1):  11-22. 
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    From June to August in the 46th year of Kangxi (1707), there was no continuous precipitation in the Yangtze River Delta, which caused a large-scale drought. Based on the quantified scores of the hazard at county level, the spread of the drought was restored. It was mainly distributed between 30°-33°N, formed a serious disaster center in the Taihu Lake Basin.The daily precipitation sequence from May to August in the Yangtze River Delta was reconstructed by using Yang Dapiao diary. Through the analysis, it is concluded that the reason for the drought is that the subtropical high pressure is stronger than usual in that year, and the its northward movement is also coming earlier, resulting in the rapid northward movement of the rain belt and the abnormality in the Meiyu period. In addition, the drought is strongly related with solar activity and ENSO events.

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    Settlement Pattern and Function of the Zhengzhou Shang City Area in Han Dynasties
    Liu Yifang
    2023, 43 (1):  23-34. 
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    The inner city of the Zhengzhou was also where the center of ancient Zhengzhou Shang City had been located. In the past, researchers thought that when Guan Xian (管县) was set up in Han dynasties, a new northern city wall was added. However, it did not accord with the historical records. Within the limit of the inner wall of the Zhengzhou Shang City, ordinary residential remains of Han periods showed no obvious rural-urban distinction. The new city wall was built during the Tang Dynasty rather than Han periods. The settlements in the Zhengzhou Shang City area in Han dynasties were under the control of the Xian level, playing an important role in the regional transport network. This study is also of interest to understanding the historical changes of the urban form of ancient Zhengzhou.

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    Discussion on the Location, Layout and Function of Shaoyangyuan in the Daming Palace City during the Tang Dynasty
    Jia Hongyuan
    2023, 43 (1):  35-46. 
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    During the Tang Dynasty, there are two Shaoyang yards within the Daming Palace city and both are located in the vicinity of the inner court where the emperors reside. The West Shaoyang Yard is not in line with the tradition of the location of the crown prince’s palace, which prioritize the East, but it can receive the attention from emperor, empress and eunuchs because of its better location. In the period of the Late Tang, the eunuchs find it easier to control the West Shaoyang Yard, hence the emperor and crown prince, because it is close to Neishibiesheng and the barracks of the imperial guards just outside the Jiuxian Gate. The East Shaoyang Yard not only includes the eastern part of the Menxiasheng, but also a quarter inside the Chongming Gate, and the later is the real abode for the crown prince. The Eastern location and the fact that most of the successions of the throne are not from father to son contribute to ascending status of the East Shaoyang Yard as an important ritual space for the crown prince before taking up the throne.

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    Deciding Boundaries: Division and Demarcation of County-level Administrative Divisions in Qing Dynasty
    Zhao Yicai
    2023, 43 (1):  47-62. 
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    Boundary and jurisdiction are important geographical elements of the administrative division. In Qing Dynasty, a total of 203 county-level administrative divisions were split, most of which resulted in creation of new counties, while a few produced Zhili Ting (Para-county under the direct jurisdiction of the central government). As the number of county-level administrative divisions increased, the cultural and geographical elements such as the gathering point or the wicker edge had become important basis for deciding boundaries. The areas with more intensive adjustment of county boundaries were Fengtian, southern Jiangsu, southern Shaanxi, eastern Sichuan, and the junction between Fujian and Guangdong. More county-level administrative divisions had been added in these regions, reflecting their regional development process in the Qing Dynasty. As an administrative means of balancing local governance, dividing the border operated and evolved under the factors such as rectifying upheavals, grass-roots governance and responding to the border crisis. The spatial form of the county boundary was generally formed according to the principles of natural features including mountains and rivers, shaping a reasonable jurisdiction area, and adjusting the distance from the administrative center.

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    Mount Kunlun as the Center of Ancient Chinese Cosmological World
    Deng Hui
    2023, 43 (1):  63-77. 
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    The Sacred Mountain and Holy Lakes located in the grand Yarlung Tsanpo Valley in the southern part of Ali Region, Tibet, that have been listed in the Preparation List of World Heritage Sites of Natural and Cultural Heritage include the Mount Gang Rinpoche, the Lake Mapam Yutso, the Lake Lana Tso. The four rivers originated in the vicinity are the Senge Kabab (the lion river), the langchen Kabab (the elephant river), the Macha Kabab (the peacock river), and the Tsangpo Kabab (the horse river), all which are the source of several world-famous rivers, such as the Indus River, the Ganges River, the Yarlung Tsanpo River and the Brahmaputra River.

    In the ancient tradition of China and India, the Gang Renboqi mountain and its surrounding lakes and rivers had extremely important symbolic meanings, and they were the geographical landmarks indicating the center of the cosmological world. In the historical period, there were four ancient divine worldviews being formed around the Sacred Mountain and Holy Lakes in Ali, Tibet.

    The first one is recognized by the local Bon religion of Zhangzhung culture in Ali area; the second one is the cosmological world center of anavatapta, which is recognized by Buddhism; the third one is the cosmological world center of Kunlun Mountain and Yao-chi, which is recognized by the ancient Chinese Book of Mountains and Seas; and the fourth one is the cosmological world center of Kailash (Kailasa), which was recognized by Hinduism. The four cosmography systems originated independently, formed their own special cognitive systems, and communicated and merged with other systems in history.

    The integration of the Kunlun Mountain cosmological world view and the Buddhist Anavatapta cosmological world view happened around 1 500 years ago, and the new world view had a wide range of impact on ancient Chinese cosmography. In 1720, this world view was projected on the surveyed map, and the ancient subjective cognition was finally located into the concrete geographical objects of the Sacred Mountains and Lakes.

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    Regional Integration and the Construction of Anhui Local Identity Since Qing Dynasty
    He Jianhua
    2023, 43 (1):  78-92. 
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    Anhui province spans over the Yangtze River and the Huai River, and its local cultures are detached from each other. How to form a unified regional identity in the tide of modern regionalism is one of the main issues facing Anhui in modern times. On the basis of regional integration of man and land, Anhui’s provincial consciousness and identity were formed and strengthened by a series of events such as the establishment of province, compilation of provincial annals, the rise of the Huai Army, re-compilation of provincial annals, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, etc. In the seemingly monotonous history of linear identity construction, multiple sub-themes, such as administrative level adjustment, social class, regional difference, special groups, etc., all played a role in the tortuous process that included construction, deconstruction and reconstruction of a common provincial identity. Due to the special geographical location and historical context, the local history of Anhui and the history of the whole country are widely connected and share many similar experiences. Anhui provincial identity has multiple connotations at the levels of place, nation and state.

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    A Study of Sources of Notes on Rivers in the Hanshu Dilizhi
    Yang Zhiyu
    2023, 43 (1):  93-105. 
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    Ban Gu’s notes in Hanshu Dilizhi contain extremely rich geographical information, recording more than 300 rivers. The main sources of these notes on rivers come from Book of Rivers written in the period of Emperor Ming in Han Dynasties as well as statistical documents submitted by various administrative divisions. At the same time, regarding the various viewpoints in Confucian classics, Ban Gu researched the rivers recorded in Shangshu Yugong and Zhouli Zhifangshi and made excerpts to be included in Hanshu Dilizhi. In addition, a few of notes by other scholars were incerted into the notes in the centuries to follow when the text was widely disseminated.

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    Probing-into Geographical Information contained in The Northwest Frontiers Military and Political Documents from the Song Dynasty
    Yang Rui
    2023, 43 (1):  106-116. 
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    The Northwest Frontiers Military and Political Documents from the Song Dynasty is an important Heishuicheng document of Chinese secular literature collected in Russia. It has 109 pages, covering topics including grain and grass loan, Immigration, personal lawsuit, military supplies application, etc. Some of the geographical information contained in this document are not to be found in traditional historical records of the Song and Tangut (West Xia) frontiers. Based on analyzing the relevant geographic terms and information, the author finds out the new situation and new problems including the administrative system, crop transmission, traffics, city-village system and so on, in this paper. They are further used to enact the mutual confirmation between excavated documents and traditional historical records, to complete the missing parts in traditional historical records, and to enhance the understanding of the historical geography and social conditions of the Song and Tangut frontiers.

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    Maps Cited in the Zi Zhi Tong Jian Annotated by Hu Sanxing
    Chen Zhihong
    2023, 43 (1):  117-127. 
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    Hu Sanxing used maps as proof when annotating the geography of Zi Zhi Tong Jian. Jinren Jiangyu Tu (Territorial Map of the Jin People) is derived from the geographical records of the period from Dading to Taihe, and reflects the information of the administrative system in the mid-Jin Dynasty. It is the only existent general map of the territory of the Jin Dynasty, which can supplement the insufficient records in Jinshi Dilizhi (Jin History, Geographical Records). Huayi Duijing Tu (Map of Hua-Yi Boundary), Huarong Duijing Tu (Map of Hua-Rong Boundary) and Nanbei Duijing Tu (Map of North-South Boundary) are maps of the border area during the confrontation between Song and Jin Dynasties, showing important prefectural cities, army towns, ferry crossings and rivers, etc., in large scale and hence highly practical in military use.

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    Textual Research on the Source of the Yellow River in Qing Dynasty and Discussion on Historical Map Marking
    Miao Pengju
    2023, 43 (1):  128-140. 
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    Qing Dynasty officials organized several expeditions to explore the source of the Yellow River. In the late Qing Dynasty, Westerners also did a lot of explorations. The results of the source explorations reflected the understanding of the very question in the Qing Dynasty. Constrainted by surveying and mapping conditions, the water system of the source area of the Yellow River was not fully understood. Therefore, the conclusion drawn from current textual researches on the basis of the source of the Yellow River as explored in the Qing Dynasty might be problematic. Similarly, the historical maps compiled and drawn on the same basisare also worth examing. In this paper I argue that it is appropriate to take a fuzzy approach to the labeling of the river sources in Qing Dynasty.

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    Path to a Modern Academic Paradigm Between the Disciplines of History and Geography: A Comparative Study on the Early Developments of Historical Geography in China and Japan
    Xing Yun
    2023, 43 (1):  141-153. 
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    The establishment of modern geography in China and Japan co-relate with each other and have many comparable characteristics, especially in terms of the early development of historical geography. Historical geography was introduced to Japan from Europe during the middle and late Meiji Period (1868-1911). The discussion on historical geography was mainly carried out by historians, contending on its subject attribution as well as focusing on the scientific traits. However, it was not until the end of Meiji Era when the modern transformation of geography was completed and historical geography gained notable development. Historical geography in China, on the other hand, was imported twice during the first quarter of 20th Century from Japan and the West respectively. The absorption was performed by two generations of Chinese geographers, one under the paradigm of traditional geography and the other under the modern subject of history or geography. The main factor influencing the early development of historical geography in Japan was the maturity of theories in geography since the modern system of academic geographical study had already been established. However, in China, the development of historical geography is influenced by dual factors: the modernization of traditional academic study and the paradigm shift in both disciplines of modern history and modern geography.

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    A Textual Research on the Old Site of Xincheng County of Sichuan in Sui Dynasty
    Zhang Renkang
    2023, 43 (1):  154-156. 
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    Xincheng County in Sui Dynasty has its origin in the old county set up during the Song Dynasty, one of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. It is generally believed to be located in Santai County. Based on literature critiques on the Memorial and Preface of Xiao Pingzhong, by Chen Ziliang in the Daye 9th year of Sui Dynasty(613 AD), and other historical documents, combining with historical background, geographical location, mountains and rivers shape and folk survey, etc., it can be determined that the site of Xincheng County should be at present-day Xincheng Dam(Xincheng Village, Wanfu Village), Xiangshan Town, Shehong County.

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