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  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 114-131.

    政区沿革数据库可以利用GIS作为辅助手段搭建,这样的数据库有两种描述方式,一是时间截面描述法,一是生存期记录描述法。1934年版《中华民国新地图》是民国时期民用地图最高质量的代表,将其扫描、配准之后提取图上的政区信息,即为某一时间截面的政区数据库。但研究发现,该地图所反映的政区时间断限不严,政区信息准确性上也有不少疏漏。地图反映的时间大致集中在1928—1933年。省级行政单位方面漏绘上海、青岛和西京3个院辖市,威海卫行政区和东省特别行政区;误标琼崖特别行政区;未标示广西省省会。县级行政单位方面漏绘10个省辖市、3个县、2个设治局、1个对汛督办;误绘7个县级行政单位;另有10个县级治所符号绘制有误。所以,时间截面政区数据库的真正实现,需要在数据库中更正上述错漏,辅以历史政区地理的研究手段,将所有政区的时间断限统一到一个年份。

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 132-142.

    《中国大陆五万分之一地图集成》于20世纪80—90年代在日本出版,其影印的图幅内容为民国时期中国大陆的大比例尺军事地图,其中夹杂有中国和日本的混合信息,测绘主体不明。通过对《集成》地图的测图、制版、发行、注记、等高线等信息和地形图图表的分析,再与台北所藏的民国时期同比例尺军事地图进行比较,可以发现《集成》地图主要为中国政府测绘,被日本窃取之后加以改制和发行。《集成》地图中也有极少部分为日本测绘。

  • Tian Hai
    Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(1): 83-98.

    Xunjiansi (Department of Touring and Inspection) was an important organization in charge of keeping order and public security of base-level communities in Ming Dynasty. Shuntian-fu covered not only the capital city and its vicinity, but served as a border stronghold with strategic importance as well. There were 22 Xunjiansi ever set under Shuntian-fu in different periods. By studying the timing of their establishment and revocation, location of their seats, and their relocation history in detail, we noticed that most Xunjiansi clustered near important passes and fortresses along the Great Wall or near important intersections along the Grand Canal. Two most significant clusters of Xunjiansi were on the flank of the capital city. They were located in the mountainous region to the west of Beijing and along the Grand Canal to the east of Beijing respectively. These two lines had great significance for the public safety in western Beijing and river transportation in eastern Beijing, so they received constant high attention from the court. Xunjiansi along these two lines were relatively evenly distributed and stable in long run. The number of Xunjiansi in Shuntian-fu was low during the reign of Hongwu Emperor of early Ming Dynasty. The number began to increase in the reign of Yongle Emperor and the overall distribution pattern of Xunjiansi in Shuntian-fu was thence established. During the late reign of Hongzhi Emperor and early reign of Zhengde Emperor, the number of Xunjiansi in Shuntian-fu reached its peak. After that, the number of Xunjiansi in Shuntian-fu remarkably declined during the reign of Jiajing Emperor because of the empire’s financial difficulties. This led to the gradually weakening control over base-level communities from Xunjiansi.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 95-114.

    南宋时温州进士人数高居浙江第一、全国第二,入元后其进士人数迅速下滑至浙江中下水平。本文通过详尽的进士人数统计,发现明前期六十多年间温州进士涌现率一度居浙江中上水平,但正统年间之后其科举迅速转弱,延至明末,已成为浙江科举最落后的地区。通过统计举人数量后发现,导致温州籍进士人数偏少的直接原因是温州籍读书人在历届乡试中不能取得佳绩,并且越来越差。在此基础上,本文全面分析了导致明代温州科举衰落的深层次原因。

  • Zhang Renkang
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(1): 154-156.

    Xincheng County in Sui Dynasty has its origin in the old county set up during the Song Dynasty, one of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. It is generally believed to be located in Santai County. Based on literature critiques on the Memorial and Preface of Xiao Pingzhong, by Chen Ziliang in the Daye 9th year of Sui Dynasty(613 AD), and other historical documents, combining with historical background, geographical location, mountains and rivers shape and folk survey, etc., it can be determined that the site of Xincheng County should be at present-day Xincheng Dam(Xincheng Village, Wanfu Village), Xiangshan Town, Shehong County.

  • Yang Xiao
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(1): 1-10.

    The Lixia River Plain, consisting of a great number of small lakes and swamps, spread widely in the north of Jiangsu Province in history. After 1570, the flood of Huaihe River entering Lixia River Plain continued to increase, which caused great changes in the distribution of lakes and drainage pattern in the region. After 1596, the flood from the Jinghe River and the Ziyinggou River entered into the Guangyang Lake, and then flowed through the Sheyang Lake into the sea. The waters in the southeast of Gaoyou all converge in the Luyang Lake. After 1681, due to the southward shift of the Guihai Dams, floods converged in the middle of the Lixia River Plain and overflowed from the south to the north. As a result, the Dazong Lake and other lakes were connected and merged as a whole. Due to the decrease of flood, the Guangyang Lake was divided into several scattered lakes. Whether the Guihai Dams were opened or not, it would directly affect the hydrological environment of the Lixia River Plain, and thus form two completely different lake distribution and drainage patterns in the flood period and normal period.

  • Wang Hongxing, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(2): 52-62.

    Based on new materials, this paper argues that the City of Ying was rebuilt alongside the old Jiangling City, after the Qin general Bai Qi's taken-over of Ying. Afterwards, both the Nanjun Prefecture and Jiangling County used this city as their seats. During the middle Western Han, the Nanjun Prefecture and Jiangling County relocated their seats to the newly built Xi'eshan City, and Ying City became the seat of Ying County. Since the end of Western Han, the Ying County was canceled and the city became a courier station, which lasted until the last era of Eastern Han. Later on, Guan Yu, Huan Wen, and Wang Chen, successively rebuilt the Jiangling City on the basis of the old Xi'eshan City. It is only after Huan Wen rebuilt the Jiangling City that the two cities Jiangling and Jingzhou merged. During the reign of Wude in the Tang, Nanjun Prefecture was canceled. At around the fourteenth year of the Tianbao reign, the Yangtze River changed its course to the south of modern Jingzhou City, therefore the Jiangling City was moved from Xi'eshan City to modern Jingzhou City and remained in the same place to this day.

  • Yang Xiaoyang
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 44-62.

    The chapter Zhongshan Jing (Classic of the Mountains: Central) of Shan Hai Jing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) presented the mountains and rivers of He-Luo Region in detail, basically from the middle reaches of the Yellow River to the Luo River and the Yi River. The earliest pieces of Shan Hai Jing were thought to have appeared since as early as the pre-Qin period, and many placenames had been lost in Han and Wei dynasties. Generations of scholars consecutively studied the geography and toponomy of these areas, but the results were barely precise or satisfying. Usually, an incorrect location assigned to a mountain or a river would mislead the naming of its surrounding areas. On the basis of previous work and documents, this article presents seven explanations of mountain and river positions in the He-Luo area and discusses the environmental consciousness of people in the time of Shan Hai Jing.

  • Dong Jiayu, Yang Weibing
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 29-46.

    Negotiations over the demarcation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty was an important stage of China-Burma border changes in modern times. With the help of diplomatic archives, treaties and maps, this paper makes a detailed restoration of the process of delimitation of the Yunnan-Burma border in the Sino-British negotiations. The signing of Convention Giving Effect to Article Ⅲ of the Convention Relative to Burma and Thibet between China and Great Britain and Agreement Modifying the Burma-China Frontier and Trade Convention between China and Great Britain during the reign of Guangxu basically delineated the middle section of Yunnan-Burma border. The contradiction in the geographical cognition of the “watershed” between China and Britain had an important impact on the negotiation of the undefined boundary in the north of Jiangao Mountain. As a result, China had actually lost the territorial sovereignty of Xiaojiang River Basin north of the Jiangao Mountain and west of Balada-Gaolianggong Mountains. In the southern section of the undefined boundary, China and Britain have many disagreements over the basis of the boundary survey, and it was difficult to reach a consensus. The results of the Sino-British negotiations over the Yunnan-Burma border in the late Qing Dynasty basically shaped the course of the Sino-Myanmar border, and had an important impact on the border negotiations and final delineation between China and Myanmar in the Republic of China period and the 1960s.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 1-22.

    《水经注》是我国古代以水道为纲记载地理信息的著名典籍,对于研究中古时期及其以前的水道分布和政区变迁有着极为重要的意义。以往对《水经注》的研究主要集中在版本流传与郦学史方面的探讨,对郦注本文尚缺乏深入而细致的地理学方面的探究。因此,在文本校勘与史源探求工作的基础之上,选取《水经注》卷十五《洛水篇》作为研究对象,并利用相关文献和考古资料对郦注所记载的洛水相关水道与城邑进行全面的考释与系统的复原,不失为在《水经注》本体研究方面所进行的一次有益尝试。此外,以古今对照的形式绘制出的《水经·洛水注图》,不仅可以直观而形象地展现研究的结论,同时,也可为相关研究者研读《水经注》提供便利。上篇研究范围为洛水源头至宜阳县段。

  • Song Keda
    Historical Geography Research. 2021, 41(2): 91-104.

    The office of the Yingtian Governor originated directly from the Governor of Nanzhili and Zhejiang Province, both of which were set up in the first year of Hongxi. When it was officially set up in the fifth year of Xuande, its governing areas should be Yingtian and other ten prefectures rather than only the three prefectures of Suzhou, Songjiang and Changzhou as considered in traditional researches. During the period of Zhengtong, due to the abolishment of the Zhejiang Governor, as well as the need of supervising grain tax collection and water conservancy in the Taihu Lake Basin, the administrative areas of the Yingtian Governor was extended to Western Zhejiang for a long time. Thus, a total of fourteen prefectures were under its administration. As for the prefecture of Chengtian, it had been under the administration of the Huguang Governor after the fourteenth year of Jiajing, but never taken over by the Yingtian Governor. The opinion that Chengtian had been a detached enclave of the Yingtian Governor from the fourteenth year of Jiajing to the beginning of Longqing is not credible. Researchers holding this opinion might be misled by the related records in the current version of the Records of Emperor Shizong of the Ming Dynasty.

  • Ma Menglong
    Historical Geography Research. 2021, 41(2): 16-30.

    This paper compares the surviving and excavated documents and points out that the commandery’s capital county was the highest-ranking among the counties belonging to the same commandery in the Han Dynasty. Based on the rank and order of a commandery’s counties recorded in the Statutes on Salaries (Er Nian Lü Ling: Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips, we can analyze the governance of some commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty. According to the Statutes on Salaries, the capital of Longxi Commandery in the early Western Han Dynasty was Shangli County; Shang Commandery’s capital was Gaonu County, and the capital of Beidi Commandery was Panyang County. Besides, the capital of Hanzhong, Hedong, and Hainai Commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty can also be further inferred by the Statutes on Salaries. This document’s value in the study of capital counties in the early Western Han Dynasty needs to be emphasized.

  • Li Xiaojie, Huang Xuechao, Yang Xiaoyang, Yang Zhiyu, Gong Yingjun, Yan Weiguang
    Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(1): 32-49.

    Shui Jing Zhu(Notes to the Book of Rivers) is a well-known classic work from ancient China on geographical features arranged by river channels. It has considerable significance in studies on earlier changes of river channels and administrative divisions. In this paper, we study Commentary on Sushui River, the sixth volume of Shui Jing Zhu. Based on previous studies, we utilize related textural and archaeological evidences to conduct a comprehensive analysis on this volume. Components of our study include the collating on original texts, locating historical sources, and reconstructing the distribution of river channels and settlements. To intuitively visualize results of our study, we also generate a map that compares ancient features with modern ones.

  • Luo Kai
    Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(1): 58-67.

    The North Army was the city defense force set up with the construction of Chang’an during the later period of the Emperor Hui’s reign, and was an important armed force in Han Dynasty. In the early stage of Han Dynasty, there were mainly two palaces lying in southern Chang’an and the leader of the palace defense army (Weiwei) was in charge of the palace defense issues. The city defense army could only be stationed in northern Chang’an. Accordingly, the palace defense army was known as the South Army and the city defense army was known as the North Army. Based on Law of the 2nd Year: the Payroll Law discovered on bamboo slips from Zhangjiashan, the chief officer of North Army was Guard General (Wei jiangjun). Secretary of Guard General (Wei jiangjun zhangshi), Chief Assistant (Houcheng), Chief Colonel (Xiaozhang) and lower-ranked civilian officers were also in the administrative system of North Army. At that time, Guard General was the only permanent General in the entire bureaucratic hierarchy of Han Dynasty. After Emperor Wen ascended the throne, Guard General obtained more power by taking command of the South Army in addition to the original North Army. After that, the North Army had been dismissed and reestablished for several times. The position of Gurad General was eventually abolished and the North Army became subordinates to the Imperial Guard Officer (Zhongwei).

  • Lei Chinhau
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 63-82.

    Three contradictory theories have been proposed so far about the geography of the Battle of Wu Conquest of Ying in 506 BC. Combining paleographical sources, transmitted classics, and data collected from field trips, this article argues for a reinvestigation of this issue. Firstly, it probes into Huairei and Yuzhang, two controversial place names recorded in classical texts crucial for locating the war. Based on a precise understanding of place names, it reconstructs the geography of the battle by contextualizing it into the land and water transportation network in Central China. The result is explicit. The Wu State maneuvered its troops through the waterway of the Huai River during advancement and retreat, while land combats took place back and forth in the Suizao Corridor. As opposed to previous theories, this reconstruction of the war is not only textually solid but also topographically interconnected.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 99-113.

    利玛窦于1608年“木刻墨印+彩色摹绘”的纸质本《坤舆万国全图》,在1922年被发现并入藏北京历史博物馆,1933—1936年间转藏于南京中央博物院,即今南京博物院。从公展记录、摹本比较、现有刊版、图幅尺寸、成图形式、成图底版、摹绘底本、独特价值8个方面可以发现: (1) “南博本”的发现与公展,开启了中国学术界对利氏世界地图研究的现代新篇章; (2) 新发现了有关“南博本”的中外史料; (3) “南博本”的成图形式为“木刻墨印+彩色摹绘”的纸质本; (4) “南博本”与“理格本”有差异; (5) 1602年的原刻版与私刻版有差异。

  • Wang Jiange
    Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(1): 7-25.

    The region where Yellow and Huai Rivers met the Grand Canal became a key location for water regulation because of the opening of Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty. Regulation procedures implemented by the government, aiming to keep the Grand Canal unimpeded to navigation, facilitated the evolution of river system structures and water regimen. In early Ming Dynasty, the configuration of river channels was similar to that in Yuan Dynasty, following a pattern of parallel flows with interchangeable main and tributary channels. As the Grand Canal, Huai River and Yellow River were under regulation, and especially as levees were constructed, channels of Yellow River went through a concentration process. They firstly merged from a regional network pattern into a linear pattern, and then continued converging towards a point at Qingkou. The first stage of this process was the abandonment of the northern branch of Yellow River, while the second stage was lining the Xu-Pi segment of Yellow River up with the upper stream. After flow directions of channels were fixed into the Xu-Pi segment, most levee failure events during the Reign of Jiajing Emperor occurred upstream to Xuzhou, but after the 44th year of Reign of Jiajing Emperor, most of such events occurred downstream to Xuzhou. The channel regulation near where Yellow River and Grand Canal meet started with a broader, fan-shaped target region extended from south to north, and then reduced to the southern half of the fan-shaped region, and then concentrated to a linear belt and eventually to Qingkou. The regulation generally served for maintaining the navigational condition of channels. From a regional channel network to a point, or from a broader region to a smaller region and eventually to a single point, such kind of engineering process marked the characteristic of how Ming Dynasty conducted hydrological regulation projects in the region where Yellow and Huai Rivers met the Grand Canal. This hydrological regulation process that follows the change of water environment accordingly fully reflected the wisdom of ancient people in utilizing the aquatic environment on a large regional scale. It has remarkable ecological characteristics.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 135-144.

    对于公元395年燕魏参合陂之战的具体发生地,学界一直存在争议,往往将其与西汉代郡参合县、北魏凉城郡参合县混同起来。本文以考古调查成果为基础,结合史料记载,认为参合陂实为叁合陂,与西汉代郡参合县、北魏凉城郡参合县或参合陉均非同一地名,而是指今天内蒙古乌兰察布市境内的黄旗海。参合陂之战的发生地,在黄旗海东侧、孤山山前的万亩滩。

  • Tan Qixiang (posthumously edited by Zou Yilin)
    Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(1): 1-6.

    Since Shang Dynasty, during which the earliest textural records emerged, capital cities of various dynasties have served as national centers of politics, economy and culture. Evolutions of planning and management of capital cities have been a significant aspect in the historical research, because they can reflect changes in economic and cultural characteristics in a corresponding period. More than ten cities were designated as the capital city of China at some points in the history. To address the representativeness of capital cities, in 1920s, the academia listed Xi’an, Luoyang, Beijing, Nanjing and Kaifeng as Five Ancient Capitals. Hangzhou was added to this list in 1930s, making the list into Six Ancient Capitals. In 1980s, Tan Qixiang proposed to add Anyang (known as Yin or Ye) to the list, which would turn the list into Seven Ancient Capitals. At that time, this proposal triggered intense discussions in the academia. It was eventually approved by the academia and became a consensus among mainstream historians. These three letters, presented here, were written in late 1980s. They were exchange letters addressing the proposal mentioned above between Tan Qixiang and local scholars in Anyang. Through these letters, we could also notice the professional attitude and scientific spirit that scholars in the earlier generation used to carry.

  • Li Zhende, Zhang Ping
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(2): 120-132.

    Against the background of modernization, the distribution pattern of roads in Qinghai changed significantly from the beginning of Qing Dynasty to the founding of People's Republic of China. The Xining-Lhasa road was the main line of the traffic network of Qinghai. The changes of the distribution pattern in modern times epitomize the road network distribution patterns of those in the history. Based on a set of old maps from 1935 in the National Library of China, the changing process of the distribution pattern of Xining-Lhasa road in Qinghai were restored. Three driving forces led to road network changes in modern Qinghai: the abolition of the postal system, which led to the collapse of the official road system in last Qing Dynasty, the new transportation system brought by new vehicles, and the developing activities in the period of Republic of China in Qinghai. The changes of the distribution pattern of Xining-Lhasa Road showed the road network pattern in ecologically vulnerable area was prone to the influences from ever changing human factors in the historical period. The restoration of modern roads based on richly surveyed map data was a preliminary work towards accurate restoration of ancient roads.

  • Wang Yulang, Wang Junzheng
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 54-67.

    During the period of Kaiyuan’s reign in Tang Dynasty, Boli Prefecture, Heishui Army Arca, and Heishui Genaral Government were consecutively set up on the northern border, where were the later Bohai Kingdom and the district of Heishui-mohe. Using documents and archeological materials, combing with related studies of Boli Prefecture (Bozhou), Heishui-mohe Roadway, Bohai Genaral Government, Anjing Genaral Government, and Simu Tribe of Heishui-mohe, the Jiang’an ancient city of presentd-day Luobei County should be the seat of Heishui General Government in history. The inference also considered the historical background of the military confrontation between the Bohai Kingdom and Heishui-mohe, which caused Heishui-mohe to move northward from the middle and lower reaches of the Mudanjiang River. As a regional strategic center and a geographically significant military and political town, Heishui General Government guarded the north front of the Shangjing (Upper Capital) of Bohai and ran through Heishui-mohe along the line of traffic tunnels; at the same time, it was in accordance with the relative positional relationship between the Bohai Genaral Government, Anjing Genaral Government’s jurisdiction and Simu Tribe of Heishui-mohe. These also proved the Jiangan ancient city being seat of the Heishui Genaral Government set up during the Kaiyuan period of Tang Dynasty.

  • Shi Nianhai, Wang Shuanghuai
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 1-17.

    After the outbreak of the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression in 1937, borderland issues became increasingly serious. Shi Nianhai and his tutor Gu Jiegang were concerned with the historical material of China's borderland issues, especially those of northwest China. They examined voluminous historical materials to write this article, so as to reveal the process of formation and historical variations of China's frontier, and to bolster the national spirit against Japanese aggression. Shi thought that as early as the period of Qianlong and Jiaqing of the Qing dynasty, scholars had studied the history and geography of northwest China. After that period, instability of the northeast borderland attracted the attention of even more scholars. They collected documents, wrote monographs, and recorded the imperial court's military attainments in the northwest as well as its conducts in frontier affairs with Russia. Their works are still of great value.

  • Han MaoLi
    Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(1): 114-124.

    Based on studies on the three major places of worldwide origin of agricultural crops, we propose in this paper that China’s most significant contribution to the development of world civilization is domesticating foxtail millet, broomcorn millet and rice. We pay special attention on environmental settings of agriculture’s places of origins and point out that physical environment at those places was not the best. Imperfect environment forces people to give up hunting and gathering and to obtain food through agricultural practices. The excellent natural environment of European plains once provided abundant fauna and flora resources, but it led to a long period of barbarism and impeded the development of civilization. With a geographical perspective, we can see that originations of human civilization were areas with fragile environmental settings.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 115-134.

    《舆地纪胜》是我国南宋时期著名的地理总志,刊刻于南宋理宗嘉熙四年至景定三年间。今可考该志的宋刻本有2种,即钱曾述古堂藏宋板足本和陆漻佳趣堂藏宋刻本,但皆下落不明;在明代,其主要传本有文渊阁藏“三十册”本、“十八册”本和由“三十册”本衍出的杨慎家抄秘阁本;至清代则有华希闵藏影宋抄本、何元锡藏影宋抄本以及由何元锡藏本衍出的18种传本,其中14种为抄本,4种为刻本。综观《舆地纪胜》的流传,在清嘉庆朝之前不绝如缕,至嘉庆朝及之后则版本众多、流传广泛,授受关系复杂,共同形成了其在历史上的版本流传。今若整理此志,当以精校的道光二十九年惧盈斋刻本或咸丰十年粤雅堂重刻本为底本,辅以今见最早的华希闵藏本,再以其他诸本为补充,当得最佳本。

  • Fang Zhilong
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 68-82.

    The East Taihu Lake is the main drainage region of the Taihu Lake and an environment sensitive region. After 1890s, immigrants from Henan Province moved into Wujiang County, and they started reclamation in the East Taihu Lake area. From then to the breaking of the Anti-Japanese War, related management policy went through three stages, namely, immigrant recruitment and lift of the ban in the middle and late period of the Guangxu Reign, prohibition of new private ownership and reclamation in 1914, and limited reclamation in 1925. The core concerns of these changing policies seemed to be following a progressive process from focusing on financial needs to water conservancy, and then to a well-balanced development. However, after 1914, due to the financial needs and the fact that the lake conservancy fund had to rely on the sale of marsh land ownership, the authorities not only failed to restrict and guide reclamation activities, but also stimulated its disorderly development by setting up the bureau selling marsh lands ownership with a reduced price, which increasingly deteriorated the water conservancy situations. After the large-scale illegal reclamation in 1935, the authorities had to destroy the dikes of the marsh lands reclaimed privately in order to avoid the extreme consequences and make a rehabilitation plan. All in all, in the process of modern transformation, although technologies and concepts of governance were advanced, they failed to play an effective role in environment governance. The financial capacity was a critical factor affecting the implementation of such policies.

  • Wang Xingzhen
    Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(1): 68-82.

    The establishment, development and transformation of garrison towns were deeply embedded in the political evolution of Northern Wei Dynasty. They interacted with prefectures and counties regarding geography of administrative divisions and local administrative systems. To meet the needs of local administrative regulation, Emperor Taiwu started to transform some garrison towns into prefectures and counties (Zhou-jun system). During the reign of Emperor Xiaowen, the reformation process of garrison towns towards ordinary prefectures and counties was fully activated in local administration (Zhou-jun prefectures and counties). However, the differences in the geography of administrative division among different garrison towns influenced the course and results of this transformation. Based on types of garrison towns and ways they transformed, we should subdivide this process into three categories, which are changing a garrison town into a prefecture. In first two methods, the administrative division of Northern Wei Dynasty was altered, and garrison towns were gradually removed from local administrative system. In the third method, however, changes were only applicable to policies rather than the geography of divisions. These three methods promoted the process of switching garrison towns into normal prefectures and counties, both geographically and institutionally, and triggered changes of local administrative system of Northern Wei Dynasty at a further level of the regime structure.

  • Wang Hongxing, Lu Chuan, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research. 2021, 41(3): 91-100.

    This paper clarifies the location changes of several different E's at Xiangning, Qinyang, Suizhou and Nanyang and their relationship between each other based on archaeological material and previous scholarship. The earliest E State was established at modern Suizhou by the court of the Western Zhou in order to control the nearby Huai and Jing Barbarians. During king Yi's reign, it was moved to the West E located in modern Xindian township of Nanyang city, marking the shrinking of the southern defensive line. In the early Spring and Autumn Period, the West E State was extincted and the Nanyang Basin was incorporated into the Chu State. Around the mid-Warring States Period, this place became the fief of the Lord of E. It was not until the War at Chuisha that the Lord of E moved eastward to the capital city of Daye, which was the beginning of the East E. In the Qin and early Western Han Dynasty, the central court established E County at the place of former East E, and later established another county in the Nanyang Basin, the West E, so as to distinguish from the East E. As for E being Hubei's abbreviation, it was not directly related to the E State in Western Zhou or the West E in the Nanyang Basin, but rather to the provincial capital. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Jiangxia (in modern Wuchang of Wuhan) was an important transportation hub. Since Wuchang was also named as E, the later eventually became the abbreviation of modern Hubei Province.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 33-48.

    唐后期的团练、防御州,即本州刺史兼任团练、防御使的州。在行政层级上,团练、防御州可分为高层政区和支郡两类。从军事属性上而言,州军敕额数一般数千,甚至可达万人,远超一般刺史州,防御州军队的主体为官健,团练州军队则由团结兵和官健组成。会昌五年,团练、防御州主要集中于上、东二都周边诸州,以及沿淮诸州。结合团练、防御州的属性和分布,可知中央设置团练、防御州主要有三个政治意图: 军事上拱卫京师;维护漕运安全;归还州刺史军权,限制方镇军权。

  • Gong Shengsheng, Shi Guoning, Li Zimo
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 18-30.

    Epidemics have always been a great threat to people's health and life security throughout history. To analyze the temporal and spatial variation of epidemic disasters that occurred in the Jiangnan area during 1912-1949, we compiled a list of the epidemic data, and made use of different methods such as historical document review, mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis. The results show that: (1)The incidence rate of epidemics was 100% annually and 94.70% quarterly in the time interval. Autumn, summer and spring were usually epidemic seasons, especially in the autumn and summer time. The affected area enlarged year by year, but the fluctuation curve reflected that there were 6 peaks in 38 years. Considering a longer period, i.e. from the Ming Dynasty to the establishment of the People's Republic of China (582 years in total), the return period of epidemic disasters gradually shortened and the number of affected counties increased. It indicates that the epidemic severity in the study period was the highest in the Jiangnan's history. (2)The affected area of epidemics basically spreaded along the Grand Canal and the Nanjing-Shanghai-Hangzhou railway, and the area to their east. Suzhou-Wuxi area and a section of Shanghai adjacent to Suzhou were the hot spots of epidemic disasters, while the mountainous area of Western Zhejiang Province was rarely affected. (3)The general characteristics of epidemic disaster's distributions during 1912-1949 in the Jiangnan area indicate that the hot spots were usually the regions along transportation lines, with a higher population density, or lately suffered severe floods or droughts. Moreover, epidemics spread in plain areas more often and severe than in mountainous areas.

  • Qi Chuangye, Huang Zhongxin
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(2): 72-90.

    The Military Defence Circuit was an important local management institution in the Ming Dynasty. In order to contain the intrusion of “River thieves”, “Wokou” (Japanese pirates) and “Mining thief”, as well as to consolidate the local farming system, water conservancy, and other affairs, the Ming court successively established five Military Defence Circuits in Fengyang, Jiujiang, Taicang, Yingtian and Huirao from Hongzhi to Jiajing Reigns. Their scope of the jurisdiction cover both Anqing and Huizhou. During this period, the Military Defence Circuit's jurisdiction unit gradually changed from Wei to Fu (prefecture). In the sixth year of the Longqing Reign, out of the consideration of unifying administrative divisions, the Ming court set up the Huining Military Defence Circuit, which put Fu and Wei in Anqing and Huizhou under the same Military Defence Circuit's management, while remained under the jurisdiction of South Zhili. Later, due to changes in local situations, the Ming court made a series of differentiations and adjustments to the Huining Military Defence Circuit in order to keep it militarily advantageous. The evolution of the division and integration of the Military Defence Circuit shows the importance of local governance in Anqing, Huizhou areas. It would become one of the precursors to the formation of Anhui Province in the Qing Dynasty.

  • Qi Zitong
    Historical Geography Research. 2021, 41(2): 57-66.

    The county system of Song Dynasty basically inherited that of Tang Dynasty, when counties were designated according to the double standards of “political status” and “registered residents”. However, it existed many differences in the county system between Tang and Song Dynasties, and the Later Zhou Dynasty played an important role in this historical evolution. In the Later Zhou Dynasty, Wang county and Jin county lost the qualification to be classified by “political status” but using registered household standard, which was inherited by Song Dynasty. Basically, it was influenced by the impact of Ci Chi county, Ci Ji county. In the early Song Dynasty, the counties under Fu (superior prefecture) were strictly classified according to their political statuses, which was in contrast with counties under Zhou (prefecture) in Later Zhou, designated by registered households. By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the clear-cut division pattern was broken that the counties subordinate to Ci Fu were classified according to the registered households. Also, the meanings of “registered household” was different between Tang and Song Dynasties. It meant the number of households in Tang Dynasty but the number of “main households” that paid two taxes in Song Dynasty. This was also impacted by the policies of Later Zhou Dynasty. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, the policy of county tier designation was dynamic. Till the late Northern Song Dynasty, it gave rise to the mismatch of counties with more registered households but lower county levels. Therefore, a practical solution of disparity between county tier and household registration was to raise the threshold of registered households.

  • Gao Maobing
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(1): 120-136.

    In late Qing Dynasty, different levels of judicial bureaus were founded throughout China. To avoid duty conflict and to raise required funds, Jiangsu Province took the lead in cutting and merging administrative units at the level of Zhou (prefecture) and Xian (county). The saved funds and redundant government officers were utilized to set up judicial bureaus elsewhere. There was another administrative level called Fu, which was comparable to Zhou and one level higher than Xian. In most cases, the Xian administration was cancelled and merged with that of the Fu, or merged into another same-level Xian. After the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, the measure continued in the southern provinces, but the methods changed. After Hua Yi Ling was promulgated, the Fu was either downgraded to Xian or cancelled while its subsidiary Xian remained. Measures were also taken to set both Zhou/Fu and Xian governments in a same city. From late Qing Dynasty to early Republic of China, the scale and range of such adjustments for local governments kept expanding and were extended beyond Jiangsu Province to the whole country.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(3): 86-98.

    清朝乾隆年间统一新疆后,北路伊犁与东路乌鲁木齐两地军府体制逐步建立,随之而来的大量满汉官兵及外藩朝贡人员对口粮稻米大量需求,促使两地开展水稻种植。文章利用满汉文档案资料详细探讨了伊犁与乌鲁木齐等地的水稻种植始末,包括试种时间、稻种来源、种植形式与收获分成等内容,并指出两地水稻种植的总体特色(兵屯、民屯、旗屯与商屯并存,汉人、满人及维吾尔人均参与其中),这些特征正是清朝治理新疆期间当地人文政治地理、自然经济地理及族群分布格局的真实反映。

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 6-14.

    对上海冈身以西距今6000—4000年前后各个时期考古遗址的空间分布现象和变迁过程进行考察,可以发现在长达约2000年的时间里,这一区域人类活动空间向东扩展了约20千米,并形成了数条东扩线,直至冈身之上。结合最新考古成果,这一发现对上海地区成陆过程及其人地关系的研究大有帮助。

  • Zhang Liang
    Historical Geography Research. 2021, 41(4): 94-103.

    When the Geographical Records of the History of Jin Dynasty (Jin Shi Di Li Zhi, 《金史·地理志》) was being compiled, its authors didn’t have access to the original texts of the Guo Shi (《国史》) of the Jin Dynasty. The foundation of this work was laid by Wang E (王鹗) at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, and it was not completed until its end. Its contents were divided according to the conquered territories formerly belonged to Liao and Song, and the source material used can be easily distinguished. Specifically, the part on the former Liao territory was based on Chen Daren’s Liao Shi (《辽史》), and the Song part was formulated on the basis of Jiu Yu Zhi (《九域志》), and then supplemented years later with the Royal History of the Song Dynasty. As for the administrative system of Jin, miscellaneous geographical documents, such as Da Ding Zhi Fang Zhi (《大定职方志》), were used.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 83-94.

    宋代是中国古代科举精英和士大夫家族形成的时期,其产生的家族传统影响深远,具有重要研究意义。不同于前人以个案为基础的分析,本研究尝试了以更为宏观和定量化的方式进行考察。通过查询和整理中国历史人物传记数据库(CBDB)中北宋时期的官僚及其亲属关系数据,结合中国历史地理信息系统(CHGIS)和中华文明时空基础框架(CCTS)等地理数据库,构建了北宋官僚家族网络数据集。基于极大连通子图算法,发现北宋家族网络是由一个庞大但联系较为稀疏的核心子网络和其他大量较小的边缘子网络构成。基于地理信息系统(GIS)空间分析技术,从时空演化的角度发现北宋官僚网络不仅是由少数核心家族所主导,在地域上也高度集聚于中原、吴越等核心区域。通过进一步计算家族或者地理节点与核心节点、本地节点的关系,发现这种高度集聚、中心化的家族网络随着历史的演变也存在解构的趋势,但是在北宋末期趋势有所逆转。

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 15-29.

    元大德、泰定年间,任仁发先后在新泾、赵浦、潘家浜、乌泥泾等处各建两座水闸。通过对乌泥泾水闸废弃过程、《水利集》中的石闸施工规范的分析,可推测出这些水闸不是建在原有河道上,而是建在两侧新开分水河道上,之后再堰断原有河道。水闸建成后,淀山湖、长泖之水全部由六闸外泄,上海浦(黄浦)以西、吴淞江以南水系呈相对封闭形态,赵浦闸与潘家浜闸只有建在吴淞江“二道”(即明代的吴淞江与虬江)的分水河上,才能达到这种效果。在乌泥泾建闸,是因为淀山湖之水在元代改由曹港、东西横泖、乌泥泾入上海浦(黄浦),这一变化反映了宋元时期东太湖地区从吴淞江水系向黄浦江水系演变过程中的一个断面。

  • Cheng Jun
    Historical Geography Research. 2020, 40(4): 119-131.

    After the Inland Waters Steam Navigation Rules was promulgated by the Qing government in 1898, the inland shipping along the Yangtze River underwent a sudden growth. By 1929, there were more than 418 inland harbors opening to steamship in Yangtze river basin. In terms of distribution, the inner harbors open to steam ships in the Yangtze River basin are spatially concentrated in the lower reaches, less in the middle reaches, and very rare in the upper reaches. In terms of temporal changes, the inland harbors opening to steamship spreaded from lower reaches to upper reaches, and from trunk stream to tributaries. The trend of time and space changes of inner harbor reflects the development of the modern shipping industry in the Yangtze river basin.

  • Historical Geography Research. 2019, 39(2): 46-57.

    湖北荆州纪南城遗址,文献记载为楚郢都故址,但20世纪的考古发掘表明,纪南城的年代上限为战国早期或春秋晚期,近年来的考古发掘进一步确认纪南城的年代上限仅为战国中期早段,其使用时间为战国中期晚段至战国晚期早段。纪南城外的冯家冢可能为楚肃王墓,与纪南城的起始年代吻合。清华简和葛陵楚简记楚肃王徙鄩郢,因此纪南城当即鄩郢。楚肃王四年(前377年)至楚顷襄王二十一年(前278年),纪南城作为楚都历时99年。

  • Shen Kaxiang
    Historical Geography Research. 2022, 42(1): 140-147.

    On the basis of literature critique and field surveys, this paper shows there are several errors in the drawing of some prefecture boundaries and administrative centers in the Yunnan Map in the Qing Dynasty volune of The Historical Atlas of China. Among them, the drawing of the Southern boundary between Yongchang Fu and Shunning Fu, and the prefecture boundary between Shunning Fu and Jingdong Zhili Ting were all incorrect. The locations of administrative centers of Langqu Tuzhou and Nandian Tusi were also incorrect and need to be corrected.