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    A Textual Research on the Old Site of Xincheng County of Sichuan in Sui Dynasty
    Zhang Renkang
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 154-156.  
    Abstract1428)   HTML96)    PDF (455KB)(517)      

    Xincheng County in Sui Dynasty has its origin in the old county set up during the Song Dynasty, one of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. It is generally believed to be located in Santai County. Based on literature critiques on the Memorial and Preface of Xiao Pingzhong, by Chen Ziliang in the Daye 9th year of Sui Dynasty(613 AD), and other historical documents, combining with historical background, geographical location, mountains and rivers shape and folk survey, etc., it can be determined that the site of Xincheng County should be at present-day Xincheng Dam(Xincheng Village, Wanfu Village), Xiangshan Town, Shehong County.

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    A Study of the Governance of Longxi, Beidi and Shang Commanderies in the Early Western Han Dynasty: Centered on the Rank of the Counties as Seen in the Statutes on Salaries ( Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips
    Ma Menglong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 16-30.  
    Abstract1238)   HTML82)    PDF (3380KB)(601)      

    This paper compares the surviving and excavated documents and points out that the commandery’s capital county was the highest-ranking among the counties belonging to the same commandery in the Han Dynasty. Based on the rank and order of a commandery’s counties recorded in the Statutes on Salaries (Er Nian Lü Ling: Zhi lü) from Zhangjiashan Han Slips, we can analyze the governance of some commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty. According to the Statutes on Salaries, the capital of Longxi Commandery in the early Western Han Dynasty was Shangli County; Shang Commandery’s capital was Gaonu County, and the capital of Beidi Commandery was Panyang County. Besides, the capital of Hanzhong, Hedong, and Hainai Commanderies in the early Western Han Dynasty can also be further inferred by the Statutes on Salaries. This document’s value in the study of capital counties in the early Western Han Dynasty needs to be emphasized.

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    Textual Research on the Administrative Areas of the Yingtian Governor in the Ming Dynasty, also Discussing the Belonging of the Chengtian Enclave
    Song Keda
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 91-104.  
    Abstract1235)   HTML36)    PDF (2164KB)(491)      

    The office of the Yingtian Governor originated directly from the Governor of Nanzhili and Zhejiang Province, both of which were set up in the first year of Hongxi. When it was officially set up in the fifth year of Xuande, its governing areas should be Yingtian and other ten prefectures rather than only the three prefectures of Suzhou, Songjiang and Changzhou as considered in traditional researches. During the period of Zhengtong, due to the abolishment of the Zhejiang Governor, as well as the need of supervising grain tax collection and water conservancy in the Taihu Lake Basin, the administrative areas of the Yingtian Governor was extended to Western Zhejiang for a long time. Thus, a total of fourteen prefectures were under its administration. As for the prefecture of Chengtian, it had been under the administration of the Huguang Governor after the fourteenth year of Jiajing, but never taken over by the Yingtian Governor. The opinion that Chengtian had been a detached enclave of the Yingtian Governor from the fourteenth year of Jiajing to the beginning of Longqing is not credible. Researchers holding this opinion might be misled by the related records in the current version of the Records of Emperor Shizong of the Ming Dynasty.

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    Evolution of Lake Distribution and Drainage Pattern in the Lixia River Plain (1570-1938)
    Yang Xiao
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (1): 1-10.  
    Abstract978)   HTML169)    PDF (4607KB)(590)      

    The Lixia River Plain, consisting of a great number of small lakes and swamps, spread widely in the north of Jiangsu Province in history. After 1570, the flood of Huaihe River entering Lixia River Plain continued to increase, which caused great changes in the distribution of lakes and drainage pattern in the region. After 1596, the flood from the Jinghe River and the Ziyinggou River entered into the Guangyang Lake, and then flowed through the Sheyang Lake into the sea. The waters in the southeast of Gaoyou all converge in the Luyang Lake. After 1681, due to the southward shift of the Guihai Dams, floods converged in the middle of the Lixia River Plain and overflowed from the south to the north. As a result, the Dazong Lake and other lakes were connected and merged as a whole. Due to the decrease of flood, the Guangyang Lake was divided into several scattered lakes. Whether the Guihai Dams were opened or not, it would directly affect the hydrological environment of the Lixia River Plain, and thus form two completely different lake distribution and drainage patterns in the flood period and normal period.

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    A Study of “E”, West “E” and East “E”—on the origin “E” as the abbreviation of Hubei Province
    Wang Hongxing, Lu Chuan, Zhu Jiangsong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 91-100.  
    Abstract910)   HTML29)    PDF (6530KB)(610)      

    This paper clarifies the location changes of several different E's at Xiangning, Qinyang, Suizhou and Nanyang and their relationship between each other based on archaeological material and previous scholarship. The earliest E State was established at modern Suizhou by the court of the Western Zhou in order to control the nearby Huai and Jing Barbarians. During king Yi's reign, it was moved to the West E located in modern Xindian township of Nanyang city, marking the shrinking of the southern defensive line. In the early Spring and Autumn Period, the West E State was extincted and the Nanyang Basin was incorporated into the Chu State. Around the mid-Warring States Period, this place became the fief of the Lord of E. It was not until the War at Chuisha that the Lord of E moved eastward to the capital city of Daye, which was the beginning of the East E. In the Qin and early Western Han Dynasty, the central court established E County at the place of former East E, and later established another county in the Nanyang Basin, the West E, so as to distinguish from the East E. As for E being Hubei's abbreviation, it was not directly related to the E State in Western Zhou or the West E in the Nanyang Basin, but rather to the provincial capital. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Jiangxia (in modern Wuchang of Wuhan) was an important transportation hub. Since Wuchang was also named as E, the later eventually became the abbreviation of modern Hubei Province.

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    Exploration and Analysis on the Criteria of County Tier Designation in Song Dynasty
    Qi Zitong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 57-66.  
    Abstract887)   HTML28)    PDF (803KB)(504)      

    The county system of Song Dynasty basically inherited that of Tang Dynasty, when counties were designated according to the double standards of “political status” and “registered residents”. However, it existed many differences in the county system between Tang and Song Dynasties, and the Later Zhou Dynasty played an important role in this historical evolution. In the Later Zhou Dynasty, Wang county and Jin county lost the qualification to be classified by “political status” but using registered household standard, which was inherited by Song Dynasty. Basically, it was influenced by the impact of Ci Chi county, Ci Ji county. In the early Song Dynasty, the counties under Fu (superior prefecture) were strictly classified according to their political statuses, which was in contrast with counties under Zhou (prefecture) in Later Zhou, designated by registered households. By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the clear-cut division pattern was broken that the counties subordinate to Ci Fu were classified according to the registered households. Also, the meanings of “registered household” was different between Tang and Song Dynasties. It meant the number of households in Tang Dynasty but the number of “main households” that paid two taxes in Song Dynasty. This was also impacted by the policies of Later Zhou Dynasty. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, the policy of county tier designation was dynamic. Till the late Northern Song Dynasty, it gave rise to the mismatch of counties with more registered households but lower county levels. Therefore, a practical solution of disparity between county tier and household registration was to raise the threshold of registered households.

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    The Literature Sources of Jin Shi Di Li Zhi
    Zhang Liang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 94-103.  
    Abstract844)   HTML41)    PDF (773KB)(395)      

    When the Geographical Records of the History of Jin Dynasty (Jin Shi Di Li Zhi, 《金史·地理志》) was being compiled, its authors didn’t have access to the original texts of the Guo Shi (《国史》) of the Jin Dynasty. The foundation of this work was laid by Wang E (王鹗) at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, and it was not completed until its end. Its contents were divided according to the conquered territories formerly belonged to Liao and Song, and the source material used can be easily distinguished. Specifically, the part on the former Liao territory was based on Chen Daren’s Liao Shi (《辽史》), and the Song part was formulated on the basis of Jiu Yu Zhi (《九域志》), and then supplemented years later with the Royal History of the Song Dynasty. As for the administrative system of Jin, miscellaneous geographical documents, such as Da Ding Zhi Fang Zhi (《大定职方志》), were used.

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    Four New Textual Researches on the Boundaries and Administrative Centers of Qing Dynasty Yunnan Map in The Historical Atlas of China
    Shen Kaxiang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 140-147.  
    Abstract753)   HTML45)    PDF (1723KB)(356)      

    On the basis of literature critique and field surveys, this paper shows there are several errors in the drawing of some prefecture boundaries and administrative centers in the Yunnan Map in the Qing Dynasty volune of The Historical Atlas of China. Among them, the drawing of the Southern boundary between Yongchang Fu and Shunning Fu, and the prefecture boundary between Shunning Fu and Jingdong Zhili Ting were all incorrect. The locations of administrative centers of Langqu Tuzhou and Nandian Tusi were also incorrect and need to be corrected.

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    The Resurrection and Spreading of Caodong School(曹洞宗) During Northern Song Dynasty: Based on Furong Daokai's Activities
    Shen Guoguang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 138-152.  
    Abstract740)   HTML55)    PDF (4864KB)(530)      

    Abstract: In the middle and late Northern Song Dynasty, Caodong school as one of the Zen began to revive. Furong Daokai (芙蓉道楷) was a monk of importance in Caodong School (曹洞宗) during Northern Song Dynasty. This essay, based on the inscription of Daokai and relevant materials, restores Daokai's history of life and the basic process of his preaching Buddism. The region from Suizhou(随州) up north to the surroundings of Dongjing (东京) became a significant area for Daokai and his dharma heirs. Owing to Daokai's influence, his followers took up the positions of numerous famous monasteries and mountains, which was a turning point in the trend of Caodong School. Although Daokai was demoted when in Dongjing, this was due to his personal clash with Tan Zhen. Because of the relationship between Daokai and monks and laymen in Dongjing, Daokai's relegation exerted no negative influence on the promotion of Caodong School in Dongjing immediately. But in the long run, the monks from Dahongshang were no longer appointed abbots of the monasteries in Dongjing. The Caodong school lost the Dongjing as their preaching area, and turned to preach in south of the Yangtze River.

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    Topography and River-Lake Environment along the Lower Yellow River After Tongwaxiang Breach (1855-1911)
    Gu Shuai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 46-64.  
    Abstract737)   HTML31)    PDF (7111KB)(551)      

    In 1855, the Yellow River moved northward in the aftermath of the Tongwaxiang breach, which had a great impact on the topography of the downstream area and the environment of rivers and lakes. In the Shandong plain to the west of the Great Canal, the sediment deposition resulted in the elevation of the terrain, while the flood flow of the Yellow River in this area even disturbed the original water system. In the lower reaches of Wenhe River and Sishui River, it was difficult to drain water because of the high riverbed of the Yellow River. The formation and expansion of Dongping Lake was the result of the increasing water accumulation in the area. In the plain area on the west side of the hills from Changqing to Qidong in the middle of Shandong Province, affected by the silting up of riverbed of the Yellow River or the back-flow of its water, it was difficult to discharge water into the Yellow River, which directly prompt the opening of the New Qinghe River. In the basin of Tuhai River, affected by the breach of the Yellow River, many tributaries of the Tuhai River were silted, while the Tuhai River was scoured wide and deep by the Yellow River. After the breach of the Yellow River in Lijin in 1907, the tail reach of Tuhai River was also silted up.

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    New Analysis on the Ranking System of Counties During the Qing Dynasty
    Hu Heng
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 67-90.  
    Abstract729)   HTML51)    PDF (3852KB)(562)      

    The ranking system of counties first emerged during Yongzheng’s reign, and was generally founded in the 12th year of Qianlong. However, up to 124 adjustments of descriptions and ranks on counties ranks still occurred during the 12th and 43rd year of Qianlong, most of which happened on lower-ranked counties changing into a Zuiyao (most significant) or Yao (significant) ranked ones. In the 43rd year of Qianlong, a new regulation on standardized adjustments of descriptions and ranks was promulgated. Although implemented strictly, many exceptional adjustments were still allowed down to Daoguang’s reign. Changes to description hardly happened during the reigns of Xianfeng and Tongzhi, only to emerge again from the end of Guangxu’s reign to Xuantong’s reign. Provinces had different modes of county distribution, including anti core-edge distribution, core-edge double centered distribution, linear distribution along a river, coastline or transit lines, similar distribution to developed towns, etc. Fuguo(附郭)counties were generally ranked higher than others in 1911, except for only 48 cases non-conformative to the rule. Moreover, as Hunan province showcases, ranks of counties were not in accordance with commercial benefits for the county magistrate.

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    Eastern Main Road in the Sichuan Basin and the Vicissitude of the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”
    Lan Yong
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 1-17.  
    Abstract701)   HTML213)    PDF (869KB)(1255)      

    During the Tang and Song Dynasties, two ancient highways were formed in the Sichuan Basin, known as the Northern and Southern Roads respectively. The Southern Road was less prominent. Yet, it was the predecessor of the Eastern Main Road in later times. Against the background that the political and economic center of the Sichuan Basin moved eastward and southward in Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chongqing ascended in importance and could rival Chengdu. The Eastern Main Road gradually took shape and flourished. In the Ming Dynasty, there were 12 post stations along the Eastern Main Road, which were largely inherited in the Qing Dynasty. Along the road were also a large number of shops and posts. The total mileage of the Eastern Main Road was about 1 000 li (500 meters) comprising in total of 10 stages, which would take 11 to 12 days to travel. The western section was often travelled by boat on the Tuojiang River. The Eastern Main Road took shape in the early Ming Dynasty. At the beginning, it was called the “Southeast road”, the “East Road of Sichuan”, or the “East road”. The name “Eastern Main Road” was formed in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. It has natural and cultural advantages such as connecting Chengdu and Chongqing, low terrain agriculture, abundant water resource, access to the rivers and sea, and close to the salt mines. It was the primary road in the Sichuan Basin and it gave birth to the “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt”. Since the 1990s, the status of “Eastern Main Road Economic Belt” has declined, but the strategy of “Chengdu-Chongqing Double-city Economic Circle” has brought opportunities for the revitalization of the ancient Eastern Main Road.

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    Three Corrections to the Qinfeng Lu Map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China
    Yuan Fang
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 129-134.  
    Abstract680)   HTML37)    PDF (4986KB)(186)      

    There are two places in the Qinfeng Lu map of the Northern Song Dynasty in The Historical Atlas of China that had been mistakenly placed, and one missing from the map. Laiyuan Zhai is in fact located in Donghanping, to southwest of Peijiazhuang, Luomen Town, Wushan County, Tianshui City, rather than Yuanhe Village, Mali Town. Weiyuan Zhai is not Zhenxing Fortress in Tan’ge Town, but near Liaoyang Village and Waner Village in Luomen Town. Meanwhile, Daluomen Zhai is located along the Da’nan River in the north of Simen Town. The three forts, Laiyuan, Daluomen and Weiyuan, jointly controlled the Luomen Valley and were vital to the defense of the Weihe River valley in the west of Qinzhou.

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    Research on Zong Ze’s Hometown in Yiwu
    Zhu Haibin
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 77-93.  
    Abstract659)   HTML41)    PDF (1846KB)(582)      

    Since the middle and late Ming Dynasty, the legend that Zong Ze was born in Shibantang (石板塘) village and later moved to Niansanli Town is popular in Yiwu County. Textual research reveals that the related documents about Yiwu Zong’s genealogy descending from the Southern Song Dynasty were counterfeited in the late Ming Dynasty. On this basis and using the biographic chronicle of Zong Ze compiled by Qiao Xingjian, it is pointed out that Zongtang village is the birthplace of Zong Ze. Finally, the relevant geographical information from the epitaphs and poems written by Zong Ze, Chen Liang, Huang Jin, etc. is extracted. From the perspective of life circle, the geographical information proves that Zongtang village is the actual hometown of Zong Ze, while neither Shibantang village or Niansanli Town fit the geographical relationship as documented in Song and Yuan dynasties.

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    The Transition of the Penal Colony System in Song Dynasty and its Influence
    Cheng Tao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 125-137.  
    Abstract648)   HTML37)    PDF (4188KB)(316)      

    As the Cipei (literally, prick and expel) punishment was abused in judicatory practice of Song Dynasty, the number of fugitives convicted for expulsion increased significantly. Accordingly, the Song court transferred and dispersed the convicts from the capital and its environs to remote regions in the south. However, by the turn of the Southern Song, the exiled criminals gradually assembled in the Five Ridges, where they joined the forces of Yankou (salt bandits) and Dongkou (minority bandits), resulting in a chronic threat to the stability in the region and its surrounding areas.

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    Textual Research on the Old Map of Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu Collected in Germany Library
    Sun Jingchao
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 116-128.  
    Abstract622)   HTML38)    PDF (18265KB)(344)      

    The old map Fengmishan Zhaoken Sizhi Ditu collected in Germany library, showing mountain peaks, rivers, lakes, settlements, traffic lines and so on, is a valuable historical material. The map was drawn under the background of immigration and reclamation in the eastern Jilin Province in the late Qing Dynasty. It reflected the regional development in the frontier crisis. By interpreting the features on the piece of map, combining with the historical background outside of the map, it is helpful to understand the historical process of Jilin border area in the late Qing Dynasty.

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    Overview of Westerners-drawn Beijing City Maps in the Late Qing Dynasty
    Cao Xinning, Yin Wenjuan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 104-123.  
    Abstract621)   HTML74)    PDF (46549KB)(447)      

    Diplomatic staff of the Western powers were permitted to reside in Beijing after 1860. The number of city maps of Beijing drawn by Westerners increased and their accuracy improved significantly. The types and uses of maps were also greatly enriched. This paper first systematically organizes the historical material of these maps, and then classifies them into three categories according to their uses and modes of publication. By taking the perspective of the history of cultural exchanges and using the method of textual analysis in literary studies, we look at these maps as a reflection of Sino-foreign relations in the late Qing Dynasty and the image of Beijing perceived by Westerners.

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    From Official Rank to Salary Rank: An Investigation on County Tiers in the Tang and Five Dynasties
    Luo Kai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 42-56.  
    Abstract608)   HTML35)    PDF (1043KB)(458)      

    Counties in Tang Dynasty were assigned into four, five, six, seven, eight, ten, etc. tiers according to household registration, official rank, salary rank, transfer order and other different standards. From a diachronic point of view, the county tiers were constantly increasing from six tiers in the early stage to ten tiers in the later stage. One exception was during the Tianbao years, the lowest tier of counties was cancelled. However, the designations of Wang (望), Jin (紧), Ci Chi (次赤) and Ci Ji (次畿) counties had no direct relationship with the number of registered permanent residents, but rather reflected more if the county was fertile or barren. Among them, the problem of Ci Chi county was particularly complicated, because it can be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses. However, a comprehensive analysis shows that the system of Ci Chi county had already appeared in the early years of Daizong Period at the latest. The salary rank formed from the late Daizong Period to the early Dezong Period had a new impact on the county tiers in the late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties. In Five Dynasties, the county tier was determined by the number of registered households, although different dynasties had different standards, either complicated or simple. In summary, in the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, the criteria for county tiers changed from official rank to salary rank.

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    New Study on the Administrative Rank of Prefectures in the Jin Dynasty
    Li Dahai
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 65-78.  
    Abstract575)   HTML25)    PDF (2736KB)(408)      

    It's generally accepted in academia that the various prefectural governments, were divided, top-down, into capital prefecture, general prefecture and the third class Sanfu (散府) in the Jin Dynasty. This paper holds that, from the point of view of administrative division, the above division blurs the difference between the general office of administrative organization and the general prefecture's capital town. It also conceals the fact that “Jingfu” (the Capital prefecture) in Jin Shi and other documents refers not only to the capital prefecture Lu (诸京路). Depending on the administrative status of the authorities they host, the various prefectural governments can be divided into the capital prefecture Lu's town, general prefecture Lu's town and non-general prefecture Lu or third rank Sanfu's town. There is no direct correlation between the aforementioned order and the upper, middle and lower tier system, which is mainly composed of demographic factors, and they are independent from each other. It is helpful in understanding the actual practice of the administrative divisions in the Yuan Dynasty and revealing the great turning point of the development of the Lu system during Jin and Yuan Dynasties.

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    Water Flow Dynamics and Lake Reclamation in Northwest Taihu Lake Area in Historical Period: A Case Study of Furong Lake
    Kang Yibo
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 81-93.  
    Abstract570)   HTML27)    PDF (16874KB)(376)      

    The flow direction of the mainstream shifted from southwards to northwards in the Chang-Xi-Cheng District, northwest of the Taihu Lake Basin, from pre-Han Dynasty to today. The turning point was approximately between the Tang and Song Dynasties. This was driven by the long-term external factors such as the advance and retreat of coastlines, the variation of tidal power and the water storage and drainage situations in the Taihu Lake Basin over historical periods. Influenced by the variation of mainstream flow directions, the reclamation process of Furong Lake can be divided into three stages. Before the Tang Dynasty, the reclamation attempts in the Furong Lake Area were mainly conducted in the east of Wuxi and the south of the primitive Grand Canal in Wuxi section to adapt to southward characteristics of the mainstream flow in this time. Such projects changed the original form of the south edge of the Furong lake, and shaped the boundary-con-bank between the Furong lake, primitive canal and Taihu Lake. In mid-Tang Dynasty, the south edge of the the Furong Lake retreated by nine li (traditional Chinese length units, one li equals 500 meters approximately) north of the Wuxi section of the Grand Canal. The overall hydrological pattern in the Song Dynasty made it hard for the long-lasting success of reclamations of the Furong lake. All the attempts in this time such as the dredging of river channels and the construction of weir and gate system were soon proved unsustainable. The variation of hydrological patterns in not only the Chang-Xi-Cheng District but also the entire Taihu Lake Basin since the Yuan and Ming Dynasties was the fundamental factor for the complete and final reclamation success of the Furong lake. The dynamic variation of water flows was not only affected the reclamation process of the Furong Lake, but also recorded in the writings of relevant historical material.

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    A Different Viewpoint on the Ancient Fortress Site of Haiyan County from Qin Dynasty to the Early Western Han Dynasty
    Wang Bin, Chen Ji
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 101-110.  
    Abstract569)   HTML25)    PDF (3573KB)(240)      

    There have been three different viewpoints on the ancient fortress site of Haiyan County from Qin Dynasty to the early Western Han Dynasty: the north foot of Dajinshan, Qijiadun, and Dianshan. While each of them is reasonable in its own right, they are not correct and true in all details. The archaeological excavations of Zhashan ancient cultural site in 1973, 2008, 2017 (Block N) and 2018 (Block L) provide us with new clues and ideas, that is, the fortress site of Haiyan County during the said period maybe located on the east side of Zhashan. This paper takes the story of Gongbeimen stone tablet, which was popular in the Jinshanwei region, as the point of departure, and makes full use of the remains collected from the surface of the area, the existing archaeological work reports, the multidisciplinary data or research results of historical philology and meteorological geology as well to test the new hypothesis. It is hoped that this discussion will benefit future site exploration and accurate positioning of the Haiyan fortress.

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    The Inlandization of Frontier Administrative Divisions in Republican China: Taking Dengkou County as an Example
    Yu Hao
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 79-90.  
    Abstract557)   HTML30)    PDF (3454KB)(414)      

    Dengkou County, now under the jurisdiction of Bayan Nur City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is located in the west part of Hetao Plain and agro-pastoral ecotone in northwestern China. The area was the fiefdom of Alxa Lord in the Qing Dynasty. Due to the convenient conditions of irrigation and water transportation along the Yellow River, the Catholic Church established a Catholic society in Dengkou area by reclaiming land, constructing irrigation canals, and attracting the poor farmers of the Han population in Shaanxi and Gansu since the late Qing Dynasty. During the period of the Republic of China, along with the gradual increasing of Han immigrants in Dengkou area, Gansu Province and Ningxia Province separated from Gansu tried to continue the policy of “The Mongols are governed by Qi, while the Han are governed by counties”, which from Qing period and based on the principle of personal jurisdiction. At the same time, Gansu and Ningxia Province tried to extend the political power to Dengkou and establish the county administration. The political competition and the benefit struggle in Dengkou area reflected the frontier policy of the central government during the Republic of China, and also reflected the influence on the administrative divisions of different groups and various forces in frontier areas.

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    Research on an Early Map of English Settlement Collected by the British Royal Geographical Society
    Mou Zhenyu
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 146-157.  
    Abstract554)   HTML9)    PDF (1138KB)(405)      

    A map of the English Settlement in Shanghai right after its port-opening collected by the British Royal Geographical Society did not mark its drawing time. One view holds the map was drawn in 1846-1847, another infers that in 1844-1847, but both are speculative. We reconsider its drawing time and try to evaluate the map based on the information on it. The results show the map should be drawn from October 1st to October 19th, 1846. It is the earliest map of English Settlement in Shanghai having found, and a very important source to study the developing process of English Settlement. Also, this map is of great value for the study of Land Deed.

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    Research Notes on the Place Names Related to “the Nanhuai Zhi Xing” of King Ling of Chu
    Xiao Yang
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 124-127.  
    Abstract543)   HTML48)    PDF (3930KB)(217)      

    The “Nanhuai Zhi Xing” (南怀之行) was recorded in the chapter of Xi Nian on the Tsinghua Bamboo Slips, which conformed to historical facts that King Ling of Chu led the troops to fight against Wu in the fourth and fifth year of Zhaogong in Zuo Zhuan. It can be inferred from the war that places named Zhufang, Ji, Li, Ma, Xiarui, Zhongli, Zhoulai, Chao, Fanyang, Suo, Quean, Luorui, Laishan, Nanhuai, Ruqing, Dijizhishan are around the region of Huai River.

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    The Location of Yumen Pass in Tang Dynasty and the Accurate Restoration of Xuanzang’s Smuggling Route
    Hou Yangfang, Jia Qiang, Yang Lin
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 101-109.  
    Abstract538)   HTML28)    PDF (3408KB)(609)      

    According to the narrate on Xuanzang’s smuggling out of the Yumen Pass from Guazhou recorded in “The Biography of Master Sanzang of the Daci’en Temple”, combined with studies on Soviet military maps and field investigations to carry out “accurate restoration”, it is determined that the site of Xiaowan City is the only possibility of the site of the Yumen Pass in the Tang Dynasty. A deserted beacon was discovered at the southern end of the Jieshanzi Valley, making it even more certain that this road was the route from Guazhou City to the Yumen Pass in the Tang Dynasty.

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    Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed Prefectures in the Five Dynasties
    Qu Kale
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 43-61.  
    Abstract529)   HTML178)    PDF (4579KB)(468)      

    On the basis of the existing system in late Tang Dynasty, regimes of the Five Dynasties continued to set up Tuanlianshi-governed and Fangyushi-governed prefectures. By the end of the Later Zhou, there were 19 Fangyushi-governed prefectures and 10 Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures. In the meantime, the conglomeration of Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures gradually moved eastward from Guanzhong and the west of Central Plain to the Central Plain, with Luoyang and Bianzhou as the center. Towards the end of Later Zhou Dynasty, Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures were concentrated in the Central Plain, Huainan, Southern Hebei, and showed a trend of continuous integration. Furthermore, Fangyushi-governed and Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures had become an important measure of the central government to weaken the power of the Fangzhen. After setting up Fangyushi-governed or Tuanlianshi-governed prefectures, Fangzhen with jurisdiction over more than three prefectures tended dissolve and became similar to those with two prefectures, which greatly strengthened the central government’s control over local military affairs.

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    Three Use and Three Break: Study on the Use of Narin Road in Qing Dynasty
    Wang Qiming
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 111-124.  
    Abstract516)   HTML26)    PDF (3947KB)(387)      

    After reading the Manchu and Chinese records in Beijing and Taibei's archives, the article firstly discovers that the Qing army used the Narin Road to relocate the Ili troops to Kashgar and patrolled on the Burut's border in three stages from the end of the eighteenth century to the 1830s, to achieve the dual effect of incorporating borderland inspection into the rotation of troops. Secondly, the article discusses the origin of the use of this road, the rotation process and its evolution, the reason of deserting the road, and the final influences and so forth. Lastly, the article argues that the map with the description “from Ili to Kashgar by Narin meadow road” is an attachment with annotation of the Ili General Deyingga's memorial to the emperor on September fourteenth of the seventh year of Daoguang.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 5-10.  
    Abstract516)   HTML71)    PDF (431KB)(321)      
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    An Analysis of the Classification of Counties Under the Official Rank System of the Liang Dynasty
    Yao Le
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 31-41.  
    Abstract516)   HTML39)    PDF (725KB)(399)      

    Analyzing the cases of selection and transfer of county officials in the Liang Dynasty (502-557 AD), the system can be characterized by the rules of “Counties divide into seven classes” and “Officials of large counties equal those at the sixth class” existed at that time. In the actual operation of the system, many county officials were employed below the proper class, i.e. it was common for the seniority of the county officials to exceed the rank of the county. The counties of high rank seen in the official history were all located within the territory of Yangzhou, Nanxuzhou, and mainly belonged to the prefectures of Danyang, Wu, Wuxing and Kuaiji, which were the heartland of the empire. This is not only a result of the bias of history books, but also a direct reflection of the political conditions in the above-mentioned areas. The most important factor influencing the official’s rank of each county is its population. Taking other factors into consideration, it is believed that the highest-ranking counties which were at the sixth class may have been classified by the criterion of having 5 000 households. The analysis of the rank of each county can also improve our knowledge of the population distribution at that time.

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    A Study on Dry and Wet Conditions in the Western Part of the Jianghuai Region During Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Liu Yuqing, Chen Yexin
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 18-30.  
    Abstract505)   HTML192)    PDF (2792KB)(358)      

    In this paper, the historical data about drought and flood in the western part of the Jianghuai (江淮) region in Ming and Qing dynasties are sorted out, and quantified hierarchically by year and county. Then, by calculating the average grade value of drought and flood and the 10-year moving average value, the time series of dry-wet change in this area from 1450 to 1911 are reconstructed. The results show that there were six dry-wet phases in this area. From 1450 to 1490, the drought was mainly mild. From 1491 to 1545, drought and flood disasters occurred frequently, and the fluctuation of dry and wet climate was obvious. From 1546 to 1625, there were few droughts and floods, and the dry and wet conditions were relatively stable. From 1626 to 1710, moderate drought events were dominant, and the frequency of extreme drought events increased significantly. From 1711 to 1860, wetness dominated. From 1861 to 1911, dry-wet trend fluctuated and tended to be wet. Lakes in this region were also affected in dry and wet stages.

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    On the Multiple Attributes of the Lords of Chu Counties During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period
    Zheng Yifan
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (4): 31-42.  
    Abstract500)   HTML155)    PDF (858KB)(554)      

    The lords of Chu counties of the pre-Qin period were usually equated to the county level administers of the time after the Qin and Han dynasties. However, judging from their activities and the roles they played in history, the lords of Chu counties of this time shared obvious features with the enfeoffed nobilities, and not exactly like an administrative bureaucrat. Most of the lords of counties originated from the royal house or the most powerful noble families, and they had the power and influence that far exceeded those of local officials. They also spent a lot of time on the capital and participated in the making of state policies and leading military acts. At the same time, the lords of counties also had a stronger connection with the place they were named by, compared to the local administers of later times. A better understanding of the “xian gong” (lords of counties) group requires a more comprehensive knowledge of the nature of counties at this time and depends on a deep reflection on the limit of the dichotomy between the so called “feudalism” and the “prefecture-county” institutional system.

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    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 1-4.  
    Abstract498)   HTML116)    PDF (427KB)(354)      
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    The Formation and Significance of the “Water Ridge” of the Grand Canal in Ming Dynasty
    Gao Yuanjie
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 16-27.  
    Abstract491)   HTML30)    PDF (1975KB)(575)      

    Historical records after the late Ming Dynasty generally claim that Nanwang has been the “water ridge” occupying a commanding height alongside the Huitong Canal, which is a section of the Grand Canal, since the Yuan Dynasty, and the key determining the success of the Huitong Canal in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties lies in choosing Nanwang “water ridge” as the water diversion hub. This paper proposes that this view is incorrect. Nanwang was originally the last remnant of Liangshanpo with a low-lying terrain. It began to silt up after Song Li diverted Wenshui River water to Nanwang for transportation in the early Ming Dynasty. In the Chenghua period of the Ming Dynasty, the pivotal position of Nanwang as the water diversion hub was determined. By then the mud and sand dug out and piled up on both sides of the river created a landform of heaped-up hill, hence the “water ridge” image in the eyes of people since the late Ming Dynasty. That is to say, the Nanwang “water ridge” was formed in the Mid Ming Dynasty as a result of natural sediment accumulation and artificial dredging. Based on this, this paper re-examines the reasons determining the success or failure of the Huitong Canal in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties and discusses the significance of the formation of the Nanwang “water ridge” on transforming the Huitong Canal from a river depending on the violent Yellow River for water supplies to the one that relies on the stable Wenshui River for water source in the middle of the Ming Dynasty as well as its far-reaching influence on the principle of Yellow River maintenance after the Mid Mind Dynasty.

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    The Technological, Environmental and Political Elements Behind Institution: The Case Study of the Special Annual Repair Funds of Chai'tang During the Qing Dynasty
    Wang Daxue
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (3): 22-33.  
    Abstract482)   HTML41)    PDF (2699KB)(296)      

    The large-scale reconstruct from Chai'tang (seawalls which built with firewoods) to Shi'tang (stone sewalls) in Zhejiang Province began with the fifth Southern Tour of the Qianlong Emperor. Qianlong hoped to achieve monumental feats through the Grand Canal engineering and seawall projects, so he ordered to wait for an opportunity to change the Chai'tang into Shi'tang, which need not rebuilt. He stressed that the Chai'tang should be used as the water tank and it need not paired annually as this practice violated the technical requirements of Shi'tang revetment project. Qianlong was well aware that if the indirect embankment protect works was still needed to be constructed and maintained for the new Shi'tang, it would undoubtedly show that his decision was wrong. When the courtiers talked about the need to build apron or repair the Chai'tang annually, which acted as an external protection for Shi'tang, his reaction was as follows: he repeatedly claimed that Chai'tang as an external protection for Shi'tang did not need to be repaired. He passed the blame for the decision-making mistakes on to the relevant courtiers, and vaguely or explicitly ordered the imperial commissioner to pass the responsibilities to local stakeholders. Even though the emperor tried his best to maintain that his decisions were correct, the objective technical requirements eventually convinced him to approve the special silver system of Chai'tang Annual Repairing, which also explained the initial decision was improper. The whole process shows that technology and environment often take a back seat to politics when it comes to the institutional issues of large public water projects in ancient times.The complexity of history is highlighted by the interweaving of institutional, technological, environmental and political factors.

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    Research on the Desertification of Ancient Oases at the Lower Reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basin
    Li Bingcheng
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (2): 1-10.  
    Abstract479)   HTML52)    PDF (725KB)(229)      

    On the lower reach of Damagou River in Tarim Basis, there was a desertified area once an oasis, it was about 80 square kilometers. On the ancient oasis area, many relics were scattered, such as Huyangdun Buddha temple ruins, Tuopulukedun Buddha Temple ruins, Big Graveyard, Huyang Graveyard, Kalaqin Ancient City, and Sipier Ancient City. The textual research shows the Kalaqin Ancient City was Kanchengzhen (Kanzhou) in Tang Dynasty, also the Phema City. In those years, the Kalaqin Ancient City was of a large population, commercially developed, and prosperous for Buddhism, but abandoned and desertified after 790 A.D. The Sipier Ancient City was the former capital of Qule State in Han Dynasty, but also abandoned and desertified in late Wei and Jin dynastys. The author analyzed two stages of desertification in the ancient oases and its causes.

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    “The State Advances as the Private Sector Retreats” in Modern Chinese Postal Space
    Wang Zhe
    Historical Geography Research    2021, 41 (2): 119-138.  
    Abstract478)   HTML33)    PDF (9127KB)(416)      

    Postal network was a modern element with the characteristic of “spatiality”. For modern China, it was mainly composed of various corporate entities such as Minxin (native postal services), owned by small private capital, and state-run postal services. After its establishment, the Chinese Imperial Post began to encroach on the operating space of Minxin. Based on the digitization work of the 1936 Postal Atlas, published by the Post of Republic of China, it was found that after nearly 40 years, the state-run post had basically completed the integration and construction of a nationwide postal space. In this process, the state-run postal service prudently imitated the operation modes of the Minxin and adopted a variety of innovative business strategies. In addition to building a convenient and fast postal network within and between large and medium-sized cities, the state-run postal service also adopted new business strategies such as “postal agency” in rural areas that could not be covered by railway and road at a very low cost, and completed the coupling with the traditional rural grassroots “periodical market” network. Basically, it has achieved the effect wherever there was commerce, there was postal service. The “postal agglomeration” formed by the state-run postal network and the concentration of postal points have also become a prominent external spatial representation of modernization and a good macro-external indicator for defining the so-called “core” and “peripheral” spaces.

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    Changes of the Jurisdiction and Authorities of the Nan Gan Governor During the Middle and Late Ming Dynasty
    Ruan Ge
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 35-47.  
    Abstract474)   HTML32)    PDF (1053KB)(216)      

    During the Hongzhi reign of Ming Dynasty, the central government set up the Nan Gan Governor to strengthen its management of the Nanling Mountainous Area. The Nan Gan Governor was allocated a vast area encompassing four provinces under its jurisdiction. While it seemed that the jurisdiction of the Nan Gan Governor was vast, its actual authority of office was rather limited by the central government and, consequently, its administration often hindered. At the end of the Jiajing reign, in order to strengthen its governance and expand its jurisdiction area, Nan Gan Governor proposed to set up a new county in neighboring Guangdong province and transfer it to Ganzhou-fu, Jiangxi Province. This action immediately aroused the collective opposition of Guangdong officials. After that, the two sides competed for the establishment of Pingyuan County. Focusing on the dispute over the establishment of counties, this paper discusses the evolution of the governor’s jurisdiction and authorities by combing various efforts from the Nan Gan Governor in order to break the governance dilemma in the middle and late Ming Dynasty.

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    An Investigation of Chinese Customs Maps, from Late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China
    Wu Songdi
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (4): 130-137.  
    Abstract465)   HTML18)    PDF (602KB)(297)      

    In the era spanning from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, the Chinese Customs charted and published Chinese maps that amounted to close to one thousand. They constituted most of the maps charted and published contemporarily in China. Many of these maps were superior in quality and accuracy than most traditional maps and were supplemented with detailed texts. Given that Chinese Customs publications are mostly collected in libraries and archives that restrict access, the maps are also generally neglected by researchers. To familiarize researchers with them, this paper provides a detailed introduction to these maps, which covers the time of their charting, the variation in the areas charted, a classification of their types, and the origins and characteristics of these maps.

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    Research on the Ranking System of Administrative Divisions During the Ming Dynasty
    Hu Cunlu
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (2): 25-42.  
    Abstract461)   HTML21)    PDF (4361KB)(278)      

    In Ming Dynasty, the ranking system of the administrative division of prefectures and counties were initially accorded to the amount of taxes and levied grain, hence the different grades of officials. In the fourteenth year of Hongwu, taxation and location were also used in determining the social and natural quality of the divisions, namely Fan or Jian, as well as the assessment methods of officials. Yang Yunsheng proposed to divide the administrative hierarchy into three levels according to administrative workload, geographic location and transportation during the Jiajing years. Consequently, the Ministry of Personnel unified the administrative divisions into three levels in the first year of Longqing. According to the statistics recorded in the Da ming guan zhi, the places with important roads, heavy workload, dire taxation were mostly concentrated in the Southern Zhili, Northern Zhili, and Jiangxi provinces, among which the places along the canals were particularly typical. Officials were selected to fill in the positions of Fan or Jian in the late Ming dynasty, but the ranking system was not continued after the implementation of the method of drawing lots. The ranking system in the Ming Dynasty had a great influence on the Qing Dynasty, and the spatial distribution of the administrative divisions in the Ming and Qing Dynasties also had certain similarities.

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    The Operation of the Quota System in Qing Dynasty: Focus on Ting, Feixian, Sub-Counties and Sub-Prefectures
    Liang Zhiping
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (1): 73-89.  
    Abstract460)   HTML34)    PDF (1123KB)(246)      

    In the Qing Dynasty, the imperial examinations were carried out through schools. The allocation of the quota was also the allocation of the state’s political resources and power in county-level administrative regions. There were various local administrative divisions, including not only prefectures and counties, but also Ting, Feixian (abolished county), sub-counties and sub-prefectures. However, according to the regulation, non-prefecture or non-county area was not allowed to set up schools. Through statistics and case analysis, this paper points out that in order to ensure a certain number of grassroots gentlemen and to reduce the over quota in different regions, a modified policy of establishing schools at the level of Ting and townships in former Feixian, as well as sub-counties and sub-prefectures, was adopted. To conclude, the Quota System seemed to be rigid but flexible in operation at the local level. Through appropriate adaptations, the effective distribution of national political resources and power in local areas was ensured.

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