历史地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 22-33.

• 专题研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

制度背后的技术、环境与政治:以清代柴塘岁修专项银设立为中心

王大学   

  1. 复旦大学历史地理研究中心,上海 200433
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-22 出版日期:2021-08-20 发布日期:2021-10-14
  • 作者简介:王大学,男,1977年生,河南汝州人,复旦大学历史地理研究中心副教授,主要从事历史地理学、环境史,兼涉慈善社会史研究。
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目“9—20世纪长江中下游地区水文环境对运河及圩田体系的影响”(18ZDA178)

The Technological, Environmental and Political Elements Behind Institution: The Case Study of the Special Annual Repair Funds of Chai'tang During the Qing Dynasty

Wang Daxue   

  1. Center for Historical Geographical Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • Received:2021-04-22 Online:2021-08-20 Published:2021-10-14

摘要:

清代两浙大规模从柴塘改建为石塘开始于乾隆第五次南巡。乾隆希望通过河工、海塘来成就不朽功勋,谕令在并不需要改建的柴塘中伺机改建石塘,强调以柴塘作坦水且不必岁修,这违背了石塘需要间接护岸工程的技术要求。乾隆深知如果新建石塘仍建设与维护间接护岸工程,将无疑说明其决策失误。当臣工谈到新修石塘需修筑坦水或者岁修作为石塘外护的柴塘,他的反应是: 反复声称柴塘作为石塘外护不需岁修,把决策失误责任推卸给相关臣工,隐晦或者露骨暗示钦差大员把责任推卸给相关人员。即使皇帝极力维护自己决策正确,但客观技术要求终使他批准了柴塘岁修专项银制度,也从侧面说明了其决策不当。整个过程充分说明,在涉及古代大型公共水利工程的制度问题时,技术与环境因素往往要让位于政治,在制度、技术、环境和政治因素的复杂交织中,历史的复杂性得以凸显。

关键词: 岁修银制度, 技术, 环境, 政治, 乾隆朝

Abstract:

The large-scale reconstruct from Chai'tang (seawalls which built with firewoods) to Shi'tang (stone sewalls) in Zhejiang Province began with the fifth Southern Tour of the Qianlong Emperor. Qianlong hoped to achieve monumental feats through the Grand Canal engineering and seawall projects, so he ordered to wait for an opportunity to change the Chai'tang into Shi'tang, which need not rebuilt. He stressed that the Chai'tang should be used as the water tank and it need not paired annually as this practice violated the technical requirements of Shi'tang revetment project. Qianlong was well aware that if the indirect embankment protect works was still needed to be constructed and maintained for the new Shi'tang, it would undoubtedly show that his decision was wrong. When the courtiers talked about the need to build apron or repair the Chai'tang annually, which acted as an external protection for Shi'tang, his reaction was as follows: he repeatedly claimed that Chai'tang as an external protection for Shi'tang did not need to be repaired. He passed the blame for the decision-making mistakes on to the relevant courtiers, and vaguely or explicitly ordered the imperial commissioner to pass the responsibilities to local stakeholders. Even though the emperor tried his best to maintain that his decisions were correct, the objective technical requirements eventually convinced him to approve the special silver system of Chai'tang Annual Repairing, which also explained the initial decision was improper. The whole process shows that technology and environment often take a back seat to politics when it comes to the institutional issues of large public water projects in ancient times.The complexity of history is highlighted by the interweaving of institutional, technological, environmental and political factors.

Key words: the institution of Annual Repairing Funds, technology, environment, political, Qianlong Period

中图分类号: 

  • K928