历史地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 46-64.

• 专题研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

铜瓦厢决口后黄河下游河道沿岸区域地形与河湖环境(1855—1911)

古帅   

  1. 山东财经大学文学与新闻传播学院,山东济南 250014
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-17 出版日期:2021-08-20 发布日期:2021-10-14
  • 作者简介:古帅,男,1987年生,山东鱼台人,博士,山东财经大学文学与新闻传播学院讲师,主要从事区域历史地理与环境变迁、黄河史、环境史等方面的研究。

Topography and River-Lake Environment along the Lower Yellow River After Tongwaxiang Breach (1855-1911)

Gu Shuai   

  1. School of Literature and Journalism, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, Jinan 250014, China
  • Received:2021-01-17 Online:2021-08-20 Published:2021-10-14

摘要:

1855年黄河于铜瓦厢决口北徙,给下游沿岸区域地形与河湖环境造成很大影响。山东运河以西的平原地带距离决口处较近,泥沙淤积较多,地形抬高幅度明显,黄河在此区内漫流,扰乱了原有水系。汶、泗二河下游地带受黄河淤高河床的顶托,亦出现排水困难的局面,东平湖的形成与扩大即区内积水不断增多的结果。鲁中丘陵西侧平原地带,受黄河淤高河床的阻挡或黄水倒灌影响,长清至齐东各县境内的入黄河流均难以宣泄,直接促成新清河的开辟。徒马平原地带,受黄河决口改道影响,靠近黄河的徒骇河诸多支流被淤没,徒骇河则被黄水冲宽刷深,1907年黄河利津决口后,其尾闾河段亦被淤没。

关键词: 铜瓦厢, 黄河下游河道, 地形, 河湖环境

Abstract:

In 1855, the Yellow River moved northward in the aftermath of the Tongwaxiang breach, which had a great impact on the topography of the downstream area and the environment of rivers and lakes. In the Shandong plain to the west of the Great Canal, the sediment deposition resulted in the elevation of the terrain, while the flood flow of the Yellow River in this area even disturbed the original water system. In the lower reaches of Wenhe River and Sishui River, it was difficult to drain water because of the high riverbed of the Yellow River. The formation and expansion of Dongping Lake was the result of the increasing water accumulation in the area. In the plain area on the west side of the hills from Changqing to Qidong in the middle of Shandong Province, affected by the silting up of riverbed of the Yellow River or the back-flow of its water, it was difficult to discharge water into the Yellow River, which directly prompt the opening of the New Qinghe River. In the basin of Tuhai River, affected by the breach of the Yellow River, many tributaries of the Tuhai River were silted, while the Tuhai River was scoured wide and deep by the Yellow River. After the breach of the Yellow River in Lijin in 1907, the tail reach of Tuhai River was also silted up.

Key words: Tongwaxiang, lower Yellow River channel, topography, river-lake environment

中图分类号: 

  • K928