历史地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 62-76.

• 专题研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

体同内地与地方调适:清代婼羌地区开发研究

王翩   

  1. 复旦大学历史地理研究中心,上海 200433
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-29 出版日期:2021-11-20 发布日期:2022-02-23
  • 作者简介:王翩,男,1990年生,江苏徐州人,复旦大学历史地理研究中心博士研究生。
  • 基金资助:
    科技部科技基础资源调查专项“中国沙漠变迁的地质记录和人类活动遗址调查”子课题“中国沙漠历史地理调查”(2017FY101002)

Governing Policies and Local Reactions: A Study on the Development of Ruoqiang During the Qing Dynasty

Wang Pian   

  1. Center for Chinese Historical Geography Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • Received:2021-04-29 Online:2021-11-20 Published:2022-02-23

摘要:

新疆建省以后,随着移民屯垦与矿务日进,旧名卡克里克的婼羌以其联络甘青、沟通南北的交通中转地位,进入区域开发的快车道。目前学术界对晚清婼羌开发的研究,主要从郡县制、官路开辟等自上而下的视角切入,而对移民群体、婼羌当地人群的政策响应研究较为少见。以近代西方游记为基础,结合奏折、文集等汉文资料,对晚清婼羌区域开发进程的研究发现,在水土条件集中于串珠状绿洲的地理背景下,外地移民以卡克里克为据点,农垦活动旋种旋弃,世居当地的罗布居民则迁往米兰绿洲等处,并调整生活习惯。对晚清婼羌区域开发的案例剖析,探析资源紧缺条件下婼羌土著与迁入人群两个群体自下而上的政策反馈与行为调适,可以更为立体地认知新疆建省以后清政府的地方治理与社会反响。

关键词: 晚清, 婼羌, 交通, 罗布人, 地方开发

Abstract:

This study casts light on the small-scale regional development and city-building in Ruoqiang during the Qing. The main material of the study includes Chinese historical records, English language reports of modern surveys and field investigations. The unparalleled advantageous location of Ruoqiang city in terms of transportation brought it prosperity. Ruoqiang is a nodal city on the passage from Xinjiang to Qinghai and Gansu, and the region is characterised by its dotted oases. However, the migrations and the local inhabitants held different reactions to the central government’s policies. The migrations to Ruoqiang clustered around Chaklik (Ruoqiang), and their cultivation activities held the pattern of discarding after poor harvest. Meanwhile, the native inhabitants, represented by the Lop people, moved to the Milan oasis and readapted to new lifestyles. This study shows that the opening-up of Ruoqiang, under the Qing’s policy of Systems the Same to That of Mainland, resulted in the behaviour readaptations of different social groups, while the dotted oases maintained a relative balance between them.

Key words: Late Qing Dynasty, Ruoqiang, transportation, Lop people, regional development

中图分类号: 

  • K928