历史地理研究 ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 11-23.

• 专题研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

16世纪至20世纪60年代滇池沿岸的 低田与深水稻种植

耿金   

  1. 云南大学历史与档案学院,云南昆明 650091
  • 收稿日期:2021-06-15 出版日期:2022-05-20 发布日期:2022-08-31
  • 作者简介:耿金,男,1987年生,云南富源人,博士,云南大学历史与档案学院讲师,主要从事水利史、环境史、农业历史地理研究。
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金青年项目“17—20世纪云南水田演变与生态景观变迁研究”(18CZS066)

Low Field and Deepwater Rice Planting along Dianchi Lake from the 16th Century to the 1960s

Geng Jin   

  1. School of History and Archives, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
  • Received:2021-06-15 Online:2022-05-20 Published:2022-08-31

摘要:

明清以降,滇池在岁修制度下常年疏浚海口,水域范围基本稳定,但受季风气候影响,其水位存在明显季节性变化,夏秋上涨,冬春下降,主要表现为沿岸低田在雨季即周期性被湖水淹没的特点。随着滇池流域坝田开发趋于饱和,滇池沿岸低田的深水稻“水涨谷”,在明清之际逐步系统种植,实现滨湖低田稻作与滇池水位季节性变化的生态耦合。这种局面到20世纪60年代末彻底改变,入滇河道上游大小水库的修建,使滨湖低田逐渐干田化,水涨谷生长的水域环境发生变化。观察滇池水域环境与稻作生态互动的关系,发现当区域环境呈现出长时段的规律性变化,就可能变“害”为“利”,这是人与自然相处中适应并利用自然的智慧展现。

关键词: 滇池, 水域, 水位, 低田, 水涨谷

Abstract:

The water area of Dianchi Lake is basically stable from Ming and Qing dynasties thanks to the annual dredging of the Haikou area. Still, seasonal change in water level is not completely solved due to frequent flood disasters. The deep rice was gradually planted systematically in Ming and Qing dynasties along the coast of Dianchi Lake to adapt to the seasonal changes in the waters in the Dianchi Lake, realizing the ecological coupling of low-field deepwater rice cultivation with seasonal changes in the water level. The situation changed completely in the late 1960s. With the construction of reservoirs and other water conservancy projects in the upper reaches of the Dianchi Lake, the lakeside and low fields were gradually drained, and the water environment for the deepwater rice was lost. From the point of view of the interactive relationship between the water environment of the Dianchi Lake and rice-growing ecology, if only the regional environment changes regularly for a long time, human beings may gradually turn “harm” into “benefit”, which is the proof of human wisdom to adapt to and make use of nature.

Key words: Dianchi Lake, water area, water level, low field, deepwater rice

中图分类号: 

  • K928